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1.
Int Heart J ; 62(5): 1083-1090, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523485

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases can affect the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, evaluation of COVID-19 contribution to prognosis for each individual disease, such as heart failure, is lacking in South Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate COVID-19 patients with heart failure by matching them with patients with heart failure only and those with COVID-19 only. We performed a nationwide population-based retrospective study using data from the National Health Insurance System. Based on patients with heart failure and COVID-19, up to 1:3 propensity score matching procedures were performed for patients with heart failure only and those with COVID-19 only. The outcome was the composite of complications. After matching, a multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. The number of patients was 317 for heart failure and COVID-19, 951 for heart failure only, and 884 for COVID-19 only. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the composite of complications of patients with heart failure and COVID-19 compared with those with heart failure only was 3.511 (2.501-4.928), and compared with those with COVID-19 only, they were 1.626 (1.112-2.376). In patients with heart failure and COVID-19, age per 10 years increase and diabetes were significant variables with the adjusted OR (95% CI) [2.206 (1.704-2.856) for age and 2.345 (1.244-4.420) for diabetes] for complications. This study demonstrated that patients with both heart failure and COVID-19 in South Korea are associated with a poor prognosis. Patients with heart failure require more surveillance and precautions for COVID-19, as recommended by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502439

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is causing a global pandemic. The virus primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts and raises the risk of a variety of non-pulmonary consequences, the most severe and possibly fatal of which are cardiovascular problems. Data show that almost one-third of the patients with a moderate or severe form of COVID-19 had preexisting cardiovascular comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, heart failure, or coronary artery disease. SARS-CoV2 causes hyper inflammation, hypoxia, apoptosis, and a renin-angiotensin system imbalance in a variety of cell types, primarily endothelial cells. Profound endothelial dysfunction associated with COVID-19 can be the cause of impaired organ perfusion that may generate acute myocardial injury, renal failure, and a procoagulant state resulting in thromboembolic events. We discuss the most recent results on the involvement of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in patients with cardiometabolic diseases in this review. We also provide insights on treatments that may reduce the severity of this viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/etiology
3.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 226, 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inferior vena cava thrombosis is cited to be a complication of inferior vena cava filter placement and post coronary artery bypass surgery. Often only mild symptoms arise from these thrombi; however, due to the chronic nature of some thrombi and the recanalization process, more serious complications can arise. Although anticoagulation remains the gold standard of treatment, some patients are unable to be anticoagulated. In this case, we present a 65-year-old male who underwent IVC filter placement and open-heart surgery who later developed extensive femoral and iliocaval thrombosis leading to right heart failure, which required thrombus extraction with an AngioVac suction device. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 65-year-old male who presented with bilateral pulmonary emboli with extensive right lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Upon investigation he had ischemic heart disease and underwent a five-vessel coronary artery bypass for which he had an IVC filter placed preoperatively. On post operative day 3 to 4, he was decompensated and was diagnosed with an IVC thrombus. He progressed to right heart failure and worsening cardiogenic shock despite therapeutic anticoagulation and was taken for a suction thrombectomy using the AngioVac (AngioDynamics, Latham, NY) aspiration thrombectomy device. The thrombectomy was successful and he was able to recover and was discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Despite being a rare complication, IVC thrombosis can have detrimental effects. This case is an example of how IVC thrombus in the post-operative setting can lead to mortality. The gold standard is therapeutic anticoagulation but despite that, this patient continued to have worsening cardiogenic shock. Other therapies have been described but because of its rarity, they are only described in case reports. This case shows that the AngioVac device is a successful treatment option for IVC thrombus and can have the possibility of future use.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Shock, Cardiogenic/surgery , Thrombectomy , Vena Cava Filters/adverse effects , Vena Cava, Inferior , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/surgery , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Thrombectomy/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
4.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021204, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404258

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)  have been the most common cause of death worldwide for decades. Until recently the most affected patients were middle-aged and elderly, predominantly men, with more frequent ST elevation myocardial infarction  (STEMI) caused by obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, in the last two decades we have noticed an increased incidence of ischemia with non-obstructive coronary arteries (INOCA), which includes myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) and non-myocardial infarction syndromes, such as microvascular and vasospastic angina, conditions that have been particularly pronounced in women and young adults - the population we considered low-risky till than. Therefore, it has become apparent that for this group of patients conventional methods of assessing the risk of future cardiovascular (CV) events are no longer specific and sensitive enough. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is another disease, the incidence of which has been rising rapidly during last two decades, and predominantly affects elderly population. Although the etiology and pathophysiology of INOCA and HFpEF are complex and not fully understood, there is no doubt that the underlying cause of both conditions is endothelial dysfunction (ED) which further promotes the development of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Plasma biomarkers of ED, as well as natriuretic peptides (NPs), have been intensively investigated recently, and some of them have great potential for early detection and better assessment of CV risk in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
5.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(10): 2013-2021, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391844

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a novel worldwide pandemic caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). During Covid-19 pandemic, socioeconomic deprivation, social isolation, and reduced physical activities may induce heart failure (HF), destabilization, and cause more complications. HF appears as a potential hazard due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, chiefly in elderly patients with underlying comorbidities. In reality, the expression of cardiac ACE2 is implicated as a target point for SARS-CoV-2-induced acute cardiac injury. In SARS-CoV-2 infection, like other febrile illnesses, high blood viscosity, exaggerated pro-inflammatory response, multisystem inflammatory syndrome, and endothelial dysfunction-induced coagulation disorders may increase risk of HF development. Hypoxic respiratory failure, as in pulmonary edema, severe acute lung injury (ALI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may affect heart hemodynamic stability due to the development of pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, Covid-19-induced HF could be through the development of cytokine storm, characterized by high proliferation pro-inflammatory cytokines. In cytokine storm-mediated cardiac dysfunction, there is a positive correlation between levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine and myocarditis-induced acute cardiac injury biomarkers. Therefore, Covid-19-induced HF is more complex and related from a molecular background in releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines to the neuro-metabolic derangements that together affect cardiomyocyte functions and development of HF. Anti-heart failure medications, mainly digoxin and carvedilol, have potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-inflammatory properties that may mitigate Covid-19 severity and development of HF. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to the development of HF due to direct acute cardiac injury or through the development of cytokine storms, which depress cardiomyocyte function and cardiac contractility. Anti-heart failure drugs, mainly digoxin and carvedilol, may attenuate severity of HF by reducing the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and prevent the development of cytokine storms in severely affected Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Carvedilol/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Digoxin/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans
6.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211024027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369483

ABSTRACT

Ventricular noncompaction is a rare, heterogeneous cardiomyopathy characterized by marked trabeculations and deep intertrabecular spaces with clinical sequelae of heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardioembolic events. In this article, we describe a patient with isolated right ventricular noncompaction who presented with submassive pulmonary embolism, which was managed with long-term direct oral anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Heart Failure , Pulmonary Embolism , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging
7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256035, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chloroquine was promoted as a COVID-19 therapeutic early in the pandemic. Most countries have since discontinued the use of chloroquine due to lack of evidence of any benefit and the risk of severe adverse events. The primary aim of this study was to examine if administering chloroquine during COVID-19 imposed an increased risk of ischemic heart injury or heart failure. METHODS: Medical records, laboratory findings, and electrocardiograms of patients with COVID-19 who were treated with 500 mg chloroquine phosphate daily and controls not treated with chloroquine were reviewed retrospectively. Controls were matched in age and severity of disease. RESULTS: We included 20 patients receiving chloroquine (500 mg twice daily) for an average of five days, and 40 controls. The groups were comparable regarding demographics and biochemical analyses including C-reactive protein, thrombocytes, and creatinine. There were no statistically significant differences in cardiac biomarkers or in electrocardiograms. Median troponin T was 10,8 ng/L in the study group and 17.9 ng/L in the control group, whereas median NT-proBNP was 399 ng/L in patients receiving chloroquine and 349 ng/L in the controls. CONCLUSIONS: We found no increased risk of ischemic heart injury or heart failure as a result of administering chloroquine. However, the use of chloroquine to treat COVID-19 outside of clinical trials is not recommended, considering the lack of evidence of its effectiveness, as well as the elevated risk of fatal arrythmias.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers/analysis , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Injuries/etiology , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Creatinine/analysis , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Injuries/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/analysis , Peptide Fragments/analysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Troponin T/analysis
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with the coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) may have a high risk of cardiovascular adverse events, including death from cardiovascular causes. The long-term cardiovascular outcomes of these patients are entirely unknown. We aim to perform a registry of patients who have undergone a diagnostic nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 and to determine their long-term cardiovascular outcomes. STUDY AND DESIGN: This is a multicenter, observational, retrospective registry to be conducted at 17 centers in Spain and Italy (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04359927). Consecutive patients older than 18 years, who underwent a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV2 in the participating institutions, will be included since March 2020, to August 2020. Patients will be classified into two groups, according to the results of the RT-PCR: COVID-19 positive or negative. The primary outcome will be cardiovascular mortality at 1 year. The secondary outcomes will be acute myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, pulmonary embolism, and serious cardiac arrhythmias, at 1 year. Outcomes will be compared between the two groups. Events will be adjudicated by an independent clinical event committee. CONCLUSION: The results of this registry will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term cardiovascular implications of the COVID19.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular System/virology , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Female , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Italy , Male , Myocardial Infarction/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Stroke/virology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933163, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND We report 4 family members, a 29-year-old son, 54-year-old father, 79-year-old grandmother, and 84-year-old grandfather, with COVID-19 pneumonia. Only the son had heart failure, with reduced ejection fraction and atrial fibrillation. This report aims to show that age and baseline comorbidities are not always predictors of severe COVID-19 disease. CASE REPORT Case 1: The son, a 29-year-old man, presented with dyspnea and palpitation. His nasopharyngeal swab was positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). He required high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy and had new-onset atrial fibrillation and reduced ejection fraction. Case 2: The father, a 54-year-old man, presented with dyspnea. Nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2. He required regular nasal cannula oxygen therapy. Electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm. Echocardiogram showed normal ejection fraction. Case 3: The grandfather, an 84-year-old man with a history of atrial flutter, chronic kidney disease, and hypertension, presented with dyspnea and fever. Nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2. He required regular nasal cannula oxygen therapy. Electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm. Echocardiogram showed normal ejection fraction. Case 4: The grandmother, a 79-year-old woman with a history of hypertension, presented with dyspnea. Nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2. She required regular nasal cannula oxygen therapy. Electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is recognized to affect family members and can involve the heart, causing heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia like atrial fibrillation. This report highlights the importance of cardiac monitoring and consideration of cardiac damage, even without previous risk factors, in all hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Grandparents , Heart Failure , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fathers , Female , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307885

ABSTRACT

A 58-year-old man presented to the emergency department with recent-onset palpitations and progressive exertional dyspnoea. ECG demonstrated new-onset atrial fibrillation. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed global impairment in left ventricular systolic function with left ventricular ejection fraction of 20%. Cardiac MRI (CMRI) demonstrated generalised severe myocarditis. A SARS-CoV-2 PCR was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. As such, we diagnosed our patient with COVID-19-associated myocarditis based on CMRI appearances and positive SARS-CoV-2 swab. This case highlights that COVID-19-associated myocarditis can present as new atrial fibrillation and heart failure without the classic COVID-19-associated symptoms.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Myocarditis , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/drug therapy , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 34-36, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300796

ABSTRACT

This report describes the first heart transplantation recipient with acute biventricular heart failure symptoms caused by a post-myocarditis state, late after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. No other viral pathogens could be detected. Computed tomography angiography did not show cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and myocardial biopsy demonstrated no clinically relevant rejection. Subsequent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive epicardial delayed enhancement without myocardial edema. Heart failure medication was initiated and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted (due to non-sustained ventricular tachycardias), leading to a partial recovery of the ejection fraction. Further studies are needed to investigate the number of heart transplant recipients with myocardial damage after a SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged
15.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(2): E372-E374, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199988

ABSTRACT

The world has suffered over the past year under COVID-19. Unfortunately, people still are getting sick from other, also severe, diseases. Although the COVID-19 infection is present, patients need treatment for other life-threatening conditions. We present the case of a 36-year-old patient with severe infective endocarditis with a large abscess of the aortic root, who also is COVID-19 positive. Definitive diagnostics and treatment were avoided due to COVID-19 infection. In the end, emergent surgery was indicated due to acute cardiac decompensation and the development of heart failure symptoms, and the patient recovered uneventfully after surgery.


Subject(s)
Abscess/microbiology , Abscess/surgery , Aortic Diseases/microbiology , Aortic Diseases/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/microbiology , Pleural Effusion/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): 1558-1566, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 binds and inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. The frequency of acute cardiac injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is unknown. The objective was to compare the rates of cardiac injury by angiotensin-converting enzyme-2-binding viruses from viruses that do not bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic review of coronavirus disease 2019 literature on PubMed and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: We included studies with ten or more hospitalized adults with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 or other viral pathogens that described the occurrence of acute cardiac injury. This was defined by the original publication authors or by: 1) myocardial ischemia, 2) new cardiac arrhythmia on echocardiogram, or 3) new or worsening heart failure on echocardiogram. DATA EXTRACTION: We compared the rates of cardiac injury among patients with respiratory infections with viruses that down-regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, including H1N1, H5N1, H7N9, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-1, to those with respiratory infections from other influenza viruses that do not bind angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, including Influenza H3N2 and influenza B. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 57 studies including 34,072 patients, acute cardiac injury occurred in 50% (95% CI, 44-57%) of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019. The overall risk of acute cardiac injury was 21% (95% CI, 18-26%) among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019. In comparison, 37% (95% CI, 26-49%) of critically ill patients with other respiratory viruses that bind angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (p = 0.061) and 12% (95% CI, 7-22%) of critically ill patients with other respiratory viruses that do not bind angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (p < 0.001) experienced a cardiac injury. CONCLUSIONS: Acute cardiac injury may be associated with whether the virus binds angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. Acute cardiac injury occurs in half of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients, but only 12% of patients infected by viruses that do not bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Influenza, Human/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Acute Disease , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Down-Regulation , Humans , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Influenza B virus/metabolism
17.
Am Heart J ; 237: 104-115, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of Renin-Angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been questioned because both share a target receptor site. METHODS: HOPE-COVID-19 (NCT04334291) is an international investigator-initiated registry. Patients are eligible when discharged after an in-hospital stay with COVID-19, dead or alive. Here, we analyze the impact of previous and continued in-hospital treatment with RASi in all-cause mortality and the development of in-stay complications. RESULTS: We included 6503 patients, over 18 years, from Spain and Italy with data on their RASi status. Of those, 36.8% were receiving any RASi before admission. RASi patients were older, more frequently male, with more comorbidities and frailer. Their probability of death and ICU admission was higher. However, after adjustment, these differences disappeared. Regarding RASi in-hospital use, those who continued the treatment were younger, with balanced comorbidities but with less severe COVID19. Raw mortality and secondary events were less frequent in RASi. After adjustment, patients receiving RASi still presented significantly better outcomes, with less mortality, ICU admissions, respiratory insufficiency, need for mechanical ventilation or prone, sepsis, SIRS and renal failure (p<0.05 for all). However, we did not find differences regarding the hospital use of RASi and the development of heart failure. CONCLUSION: RASi historic use, at admission, is not related to an adjusted worse prognosis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, although it points out a high-risk population. In this setting, the in-hospital prescription of RASi is associated with improved survival and fewer short-term complications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prognosis , Registries , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
18.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 18, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175699

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of SARS-COV 2 infection (Covid-19) is challenging health systems and communities worldwide. At the individual level, the main biological system involved in Covid-19 is the respiratory system. Respiratory complications range from mild flu-like illness symptoms to a fatal respiratory distress syndrome or a severe and fulminant pneumonia. Critically, the presence of a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or its risk factors, such as hypertension or type II diabetes mellitus, increases the chance of having severe complications (including death) if infected by the virus. In addition, the infection can worsen an existing cardiovascular disease or precipitate new ones. This paper presents a contemporary review of cardiovascular complications of Covid-19. It also specifically examines the impact of the disease on those already vulnerable and on the poorly resourced health systems of Africa as well as the potential broader consequences on the socio-economic health of this region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/economics , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Africa , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/economics , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Economic Factors , Economic Recession , Gross Domestic Product , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Heart Failure/economics , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Inflammation , Myocardial Ischemia/economics , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocarditis/economics , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/economics , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology
19.
J Surg Res ; 264: 81-89, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular failure is an underrecognized consequence of COVID-19 pneumonia. Those with severe disease are treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) but with poor outcomes. Concomitant right ventricular assist device (RVAD) may be beneficial. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of intensive care unit patients admitted with COVID-19 ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) was performed. Nonintubated patients, those with acute kidney injury, and age > 75 were excluded. Patients who underwent RVAD/ECMO support were compared with those managed via invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) alone. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included 30-d mortality, acute kidney injury, length of ICU stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: A total of 145 patients were admitted to the ICU with COVID-19. Thirty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 21 received IMV, and 18 received RVAD/ECMO. In-hospital (52.4 versus 11.1%, P = 0.008) and 30-d mortality (42.9 versus 5.6%, P= 0.011) were significantly lower in patients treated with RVAD/ECMO. Acute kidney injury occurred in 15 (71.4%) patients in the IMV group and zero RVAD/ECMO patients (P< 0.001). ICU (11.5 versus 21 d, P= 0.067) and hospital (14 versus 25.5 d, P = 0.054) length of stay were not significantly different. There were no RVAD/ECMO device complications. The duration of mechanical ventilation was not significantly different (10 versus 5 d, P = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: RVAD support at the time of ECMO initiation resulted in the no secondary end-organ damage and higher in-hospital and 30-d survival versus IMV in specially selected patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS. Management of severe COVID-19 ARDS should prioritize right ventricular support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart-Assist Devices , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality
20.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 21(6): 589-593, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144418

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this current opinion article is to illustrate a novel approach to the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The approach described herein relies on a reformulation of intravenous nitroglycerin in 5% glutathione, itself novel, and is felt to have the potential to not only improve the rate of resolution of ADHF, but also reduce the risk of complications of heart failure seen in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Nitroglycerin/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Drug Compounding , Glutathione/chemistry , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Nitroglycerin/chemistry , Vasodilator Agents/chemistry
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