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4.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(10): e008573, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An unprecedented shift to remote heart failure outpatient care occurred during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given challenges inherent to remote care, we studied whether remote visits (video or telephone) were associated with different patient usage, clinician practice patterns, and outcomes. METHODS: We included all ambulatory cardiology visits for heart failure at a multisite health system from April 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019 (pre-COVID) or April 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020 (COVID era), resulting in 10 591 pre-COVID in-person, 7775 COVID-era in-person, 1009 COVID-era video, and 2322 COVID-era telephone visits. We used multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards regressions with propensity weighting and patient clustering to study ordering practices and outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with in-person visits, video visits were used more often by younger (mean 64.7 years [SD 14.5] versus 74.2 [14.1]), male (68.3% versus 61.4%), and privately insured (45.9% versus 28.9%) individuals (P<0.05 for all). Remote visits were more frequently used by non-White patients (35.8% video, 37.0% telephone versus 33.2% in-person). During remote visits, clinicians were less likely to order diagnostic testing (odds ratio, 0.20 [0.18-0.22] video versus in-person, 0.18 [0.17-0.19] telephone versus in-person) or prescribe ß-blockers (0.82 [0.68-0.99], 0.35 [0.26-0.47]), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (0.69 [0.50-0.96], 0.48 [0.35-0.66]), or loop diuretics (0.67 [0.53-0.85], 0.45 [0.37-0.55]). During telephone visits, clinicians were less likely to prescribe ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor/ARB (angiotensin receptor blockers)/ARNIs (angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors; 0.54 [0.40-0.72]). Telephone visits but not video visits were associated with higher rates of 90-day mortality (1.82 [1.14-2.90]) and nonsignificant trends towards higher rates of 90-day heart failure emergency department visits (1.34 [0.97-1.86]) and hospitalizations (1.36 [0.98-1.89]). CONCLUSIONS: Remote visits for heart failure care were associated with reduced diagnostic testing and guideline-directed medical therapy prescription. Telephone but not video visits were associated with increased 90-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiologists/trends , Heart Failure/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Telemedicine/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/trends , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Utilization/trends , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Telephone/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Videoconferencing/trends
5.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(9): e008354, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the risk for in-hospital mortality of adults hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection with a history of heart failure (HF). METHODS: We examined patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to July 22, 2020, from 88 centers across the US participating in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease registry. The primary exposure was history of HF and the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. To examine the association between history of HF and in-hospital mortality, we conducted multivariable modified Poisson regression models that included sociodemographics and comorbid conditions. We also examined HF subtypes based on left ventricular ejection fraction in the prior year, when available. RESULTS: Among 8920 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, mean age was 61.4±17.5 years and 55.5% were men. History of HF was present in 979 (11%) patients. In-hospital mortality occurred in 31.6% of patients with history of HF, and 16.9% in patients without a history of HF. In a fully adjusted model, history of HF was associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality (relative risk: 1.16 [95% CI, 1.03-1.30]). Among 335 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in a fully adjusted model (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction relative risk: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.10-1.79]; heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction relative risk: 1.06 [95% CI, 0.65-1.73]; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction relative risk, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.84-1.33]). CONCLUSIONS: Risk for in-hospital mortality was substantial among adults with history of HF, in large part due to age and comorbid conditions. History of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction may confer especially elevated risk. This population thus merits prioritization for the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Stroke Volume/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(2): 271-276, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310347

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented challenge. Meeting this has resulted in changes to working practices and the impact on the management of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is largely unknown. We performed a retrospective, observational study contrasting patients diagnosed with HFrEF attending specialist heart failure clinics at a UK hospital, whose subsequent period of optimisation of medical therapy was during the COVID-19 pandemic, with patients diagnosed the previous year. The primary outcome was the change in equivalent dosing of ramipril and bisoprolol at 6-months. Secondary outcomes were the number and type of follow-up consultations, hospitalisation for heart failure and all-cause mortality. In total, 60 patients were diagnosed with HFrEF between 1 December 2019 and 30 April 2020, compared to 54 during the same period of the previous year. The absolute number of consultations was higher (390 vs 270; p = 0.69), driven by increases in telephone consultations, with a reduction in appointments with hospital nurse specialists. After 6-months, we observed lower equivalent dosing of ramipril (3.1 ± 3.0 mg vs 4.4 ± 0.5 mg; p = 0.035) and similar dosing of bisoprolol (4.1 ± 0.5 mg vs 4.9 ± 0.5 mg; p = 0.27), which persisted for ramipril (mean difference 1.0 mg, 95% CI 0.018-2.09; p = 0.046) and bisoprolol (mean difference 0.52 mg, 95% CI -0.23-1.28; p = 0.17) after adjustment for baseline dosing. We observed no differences in the proportion of patients who died (5.0% vs 7.4%; p = 0.59) or were hospitalised with heart failure (13.3% vs 9.3%; p = 0.49). Our study suggests the transition to telephone appointments and re-deployment of heart failure nurse specialists was associated with less successful optimisation of medical therapy, especially renin-angiotensin inhibitors, compared with usual care.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bisoprolol/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Ramipril/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Bisoprolol/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Ramipril/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5458-5473, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272201

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki-like disease (KLD) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) are considered as challenges for pediatric patients under the age of 18 infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A systematic search was performed on July 2, 2020, and updated on December 1, 2020, to identify studies on KLD/MIS-C associated with COVID-19. The databases of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scholar were searched. The hospitalized children with a presentation of Kawasaki disease (KD), KLD, MIS-C, or inflammatory shock syndromes were included. A total number of 133 children in 45 studies were reviewed. A total of 74 (55.6%) cases had been admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Also, 49 (36.8%) patients had required respiratory support, of whom 31 (23.3%) cases had required mechanical ventilation/intubation, 18 (13.5%) cases had required other oxygen therapies. In total, 79 (59.4%) cases had been discharged from hospitals, 3 (2.2%) had been readmitted, 9 (6.7%) had been hospitalized at the time of the study, and 9 (6.7%) patients had expired due to the severe heart failure, shock, brain infarction. Similar outcomes had not been reported in other patients. Approximately two-thirds of the children with KLD associated with COVID-19 had been admitted to PICUs, around one-fourth of them had required mechanical ventilation/intubation, and even some of them had been required readmissions. Therefore, physicians are strongly recommended to monitor children that present with the characteristics of KD during the pandemic as they can be the dominant manifestations in children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Infarction/complications , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Shock/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Brain Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Infarction/mortality , Brain Infarction/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/mortality , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Shock/diagnostic imaging , Shock/mortality , Shock/virology , Survival Analysis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
8.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior diagnosis of heart failure (HF) is associated with increased length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality from COVID-19. Associations between substance use, venous thromboembolism (VTE) or peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its effects on LOS or mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study identified risk factors associated with poor in-hospital outcomes among patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: Case-control study was conducted of patients with prior diagnosis of HF hospitalised with COVID-19 at an academic tertiary care centre from 1 January 2020 to 28 February 2021. Patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 with risk factors were compared with those without risk factors for clinical characteristics, LOS and mortality. Multivariate regression was conducted to identify multiple predictors of increased LOS and in-hospital mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19. RESULTS: Total of 211 patients with HF were hospitalised with COVID-19. Women had longer LOS than men (9 days vs 7 days; p<0.001). Compared with patients without PAD or ischaemic stroke, patients with PAD or ischaemic stroke had longer LOS (7 days vs 9 days; p=0.012 and 7 days vs 11 days, p<0.001, respectively). Older patients (aged 65 and above) had increased in-hospital mortality compared with younger patients (adjusted OR: 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.07; p=0.036). Prior diagnosis of VTE increased mortality more than threefold in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 (adjusted OR: 3.33; 95% CI 1.29 to 8.43; p=0.011). CONCLUSION: Vascular diseases increase LOS and mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity/trends , Heart Failure/mortality , Vascular Diseases/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
9.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(4): 378-387, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246705

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We hypothesized that a decline in admissions with heart failure during COVID-19 pandemic would lead to a reciprocal rise in mortality for patients with heart failure in the community. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used National Heart Failure Audit data to identify 36 974 adults who had a hospital admission with a primary diagnosis of heart failure between February and May in either 2018, 2019, or 2020. Hospital admissions for heart failure in 2018/19 averaged 160/day but were much lower in 2020, reaching a nadir of 64/day on 27 March 2020 [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.42]. The proportion discharged on guideline-recommended pharmacotherapies was similar in 2018/19 compared to the same period in 2020. Between 1 February-2020 and 31 May 2020, there was a 29% decrease in hospital deaths related to heart failure (IRR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.67-0.75; estimated decline of 448 deaths), a 31% increase in heart failure deaths at home (IRR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.24-1.39; estimated excess 539), and a 28% increase in heart failure deaths in care homes and hospices (IRR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40; estimated excess 189). All-cause, inpatient death was similar in the COVID-19 and pre-COVID-19 periods [odds ratio (OR): 1.02, 95% CI: 0.94-1.10]. After hospital discharge, 30-day mortality was higher in 2020 compared to 2018/19 (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.38-1.78). CONCLUSION: Compared with the rolling daily average in 2018/19, there was a substantial decline in admissions for heart failure but an increase in deaths from heart failure in the community. Despite similar rates of prescription of guideline-recommended therapy, mortality 30 days from discharge was higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Heart Failure , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cause of Death , Clinical Audit/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Male , Mortality , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , State Medicine/standards , State Medicine/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(9): 926-935, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 continues to inflict significant morbidity and mortality, particularly on patients with preexisting health conditions. The clinical course, outcomes, and significance of immunosuppression regimen in heart transplant recipients with COVID-19 remains unclear. METHODS: We included the first 99 heart transplant recipients at participating centers with COVID-19 and followed patients until resolution. We collected baseline information, symptoms, laboratory studies, vital signs, and outcomes for included patients. The association of immunosuppression regimens at baseline with severe disease were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for age and time since transplant. RESULTS: The median age was 60 years, 25% were female, and 44% were white. The median time post-transplant to infection was 5.6 years. Overall, 15% died, 64% required hospital admission, and 7% remained asymptomatic. During the course of illness, only 57% of patients had a fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms were common. Tachypnea, oxygen requirement, elevated creatinine and inflammatory markers were predictive of severe course. Age ≥ 60 was associated with higher risk of death and the use of the combination of calcineurin inhibitor, antimetabolite, and prednisone was associated with more severe disease compared to the combination of calcineurin inhibitor and antimetabolite alone (adjusted OR = 7.3, 95% CI 1.8-36.2). Among hospitalized patients, 30% were treated for secondary infection, acute kidney injury was common and 17% required new renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSIONS: We present the largest study to date of heart transplant patients with COVID-19 showing common atypical presentations and a high case fatality rate of 24% among hospitalized patients and 16% among symptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/surgery , Heart Transplantation , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
12.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(4): e007957, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to afflict millions of people worldwide. Patients with end-stage heart failure and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may be at risk for severe COVID-19 given a high prevalence of complex comorbidities and functional impaired immunity. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with end-stage heart failure and durable LVADs. METHODS: The Trans-CoV-VAD registry is a multi-center registry of LVAD and cardiac transplant patients in the United States with confirmed COVID-19. Patient characteristics, exposure history, presentation, laboratory data, course, and clinical outcomes were collected by participating institutions and reviewed by a central data repository. This report represents the participation of the first 9 centers to report LVAD data into the registry. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were included in this cohort. The median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 46-68), 14 (35%) were women, and 21 (52%) were Black. Among the most common presenting symptoms were cough (41%), fever, and fatigue (both 38%). A total of 18% were asymptomatic at diagnosis. Only 43% of the patients reported either subjective or measured fever during the entire course of illness. Over half (60%) required hospitalization, and 8 patients (20%) died, often after lengthy hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: We present the largest case series of LVAD patients with COVID-19 to date. Understanding these characteristics is essential in an effort to improve the outcome of this complex patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/surgery , Heart-Assist Devices , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Ventricles , Heart-Assist Devices/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Surg Res ; 264: 81-89, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular failure is an underrecognized consequence of COVID-19 pneumonia. Those with severe disease are treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) but with poor outcomes. Concomitant right ventricular assist device (RVAD) may be beneficial. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of intensive care unit patients admitted with COVID-19 ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) was performed. Nonintubated patients, those with acute kidney injury, and age > 75 were excluded. Patients who underwent RVAD/ECMO support were compared with those managed via invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) alone. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included 30-d mortality, acute kidney injury, length of ICU stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: A total of 145 patients were admitted to the ICU with COVID-19. Thirty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 21 received IMV, and 18 received RVAD/ECMO. In-hospital (52.4 versus 11.1%, P = 0.008) and 30-d mortality (42.9 versus 5.6%, P= 0.011) were significantly lower in patients treated with RVAD/ECMO. Acute kidney injury occurred in 15 (71.4%) patients in the IMV group and zero RVAD/ECMO patients (P< 0.001). ICU (11.5 versus 21 d, P= 0.067) and hospital (14 versus 25.5 d, P = 0.054) length of stay were not significantly different. There were no RVAD/ECMO device complications. The duration of mechanical ventilation was not significantly different (10 versus 5 d, P = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: RVAD support at the time of ECMO initiation resulted in the no secondary end-organ damage and higher in-hospital and 30-d survival versus IMV in specially selected patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS. Management of severe COVID-19 ARDS should prioritize right ventricular support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart-Assist Devices , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249043, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Tele-HF Clinic (Tele-HFC) program on cardiovascular death, heart failure (HF) rehospitalization, and heart transplantation rates in a cohort of ambulatory HF patients during and after the peak of the pandemic. METHODS: Using the HF clinic database, we compared data of patients with HF before, during, and after the peak of the pandemic (January 1 to March 17 [pre-COVID], March 17 to May 31 [peak-COVID], and June 1 to October 1 [post-COVID]). During peak-COVID, all patients were managed by Tele-HFC or hospitalization. After June 1, patients chose either a face-to-face clinic visit or a continuous tele-clinic visit. RESULTS: Cardiovascular death and medical titration rates were similar in peak-COVID compared with all other periods. HF readmission rates were significantly lower in peak-COVID (8.7% vs. 2.5%, p<0.001) and slightly increased (3.5%) post-COVID. Heart transplant rates were substantially increased in post-COVID (4.5% vs. peak-COVID [0%], p = 0.002). After June 1, 38% of patients continued with the Tele-HFC program. Patients managed by the Tele-HFC program for <6 months were less likely to have HF with reduced ejection fraction (73% vs. 54%, p = 0.005) and stage-D HF (33% vs. 14%, p = 0.001), and more likely to achieve the target neurohormonal blockade dose (p<0.01), compared with the ≥6-month Tele-HFC group. CONCLUSIONS: HF rehospitalization and transplant rates significantly declined during the pandemic in ambulatory care of HF. However, reduction in these rates did not affect subsequent 5-month hospitalization and cardiovascular mortality in the setting of Tele-HFC program and continuum of advanced HF therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Databases, Factual , Female , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
15.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(6): 761-769, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138068

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critically ill Covid-19 pneumonia patients are likely to develop the sequence of acute pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular (RV) strain, and eventually RV failure due to known pathophysiology (endothelial inflammation plus thrombo-embolism) that promotes increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of acute pulmonary hypertension (aPH) as per established trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) criteria in Covid-19 patients receiving intensive care and to explore whether short-term outcomes are affected by the presence of aPH. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for patients treated in the intensive care units at a tertiary university hospital over a month. The presence of aPH on the TTE was noted, and plasma NTproBNP and troponin were measured as markers of cardiac failure and myocardial injury, respectively. Follow-up data were collected 21 d after the performance of TTE. RESULTS: In total, 26 of 67 patients (39%) had an assessed systolic pulmonary artery pressure of > 35 mmHg (group aPH), meeting the TTE definition of aPH. NTproBNP levels (median [range]: 1430 [102-30 300] vs. 470 [45-29 600] ng L-1 ; P = .0007), troponin T levels (63 [22-352] vs. 15 [5-407] ng L-1 ; P = .0002), and the 21-d mortality rate (46% vs. 7%; P < .001) were substantially higher in patients with aPH compared to patients not meeting aPH criteria. CONCLUSION: TTE-defined acute pulmonary hypertension was frequently observed in severely ill Covid-19 patients. Furthermore, aPH was linked to biomarker-defined myocardial injury and cardiac failure, as well as an almost sevenfold increase in 21-d mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Sweden , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Troponin T/blood
16.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 17(1): 74-77, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136353

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak in China at the end of 2019, the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was characterized by both easy spreading and high mortality. The latter proved to be way more elevated in the North of Italy -with a peak of 18.4% in region Lombardia and even 31% in the city of Bergamo and surrounding county- than in the rest of the world. In an attempt to conceptualize the reasons for such a dramatic situation, four key elements have been identified: COVID-19 itself, old age, lung disease, and heart failure. Their harmful combination has been named "The deadly quartet". The underlying risk factors, among which a lot of them are distinctive features of the population in northern Italy, have been summarized as "unmodifiable", "partially modifiable", and "modifiable", for the sake of clarity. Up-to-date scientific evidence in this field has been described in the form of a narrative and easy-to-read review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Lung Diseases/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1150-1155, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070732

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Chronic heart failure (HF) is a major comorbidity accounting for an increased severity and mortality related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To reduce the risk of COVID-19 in HF patients, telemedicine has been encouraged. METHODS AND RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedical management with mainly over-the-phone appointments became a major strategy of follow-up of our HF clinic patients. Previously, the large majority of patients have been seen in the hospital with direct patient-provider contact. We compared both strategies of follow-up, in pre-pandemic (PPP) and pandemic (PP) periods, regarding total mortality and hospitalizations/emergency department (ED) visits due to HF exacerbation. We prospectively studied a cohort of 196 patients. The mean follow-up time in PPP was 1.4 years. In this period, 20 patients died. In PP (follow-up of 71 days), there was one additional death. Total mortality in the first year of follow-up was 12.0%, matching the mortality predicted by the Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure score. Considering hospitalizations/ED visits due to decompensated HF, there was no statistically significant difference between PPP and PP. Only one patient was diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In the light of an increase in telemedical management of this cohort of HF patients, we were able to maintain a low rate of admissions due to HF decompensation, without an increment in mortality. Regarding these results, we encourage the incremental use of telemedicine in HF patients in the context of this or future pandemics and also in situations in which physical consultation might not be possible due to logistic issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Heart Failure/therapy , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal , Stroke Volume , Survival Rate
18.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 943-952, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047171

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Patients with advanced heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) and concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might have a higher risk of severe events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively studied 16 patients with advanced HFrEF who developed COVID-19 between 1 March and 29 May 2020. Follow-up lasted until 30 September. Ten patients previously hospitalized with decompensated HFrEF were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during hospitalization. Six patients undergoing ambulatory care at initiation of COVID-19 symptoms were hospitalized because of advanced HFrEF. All patients who experienced worsening of HFrEF due to COVID-19 required higher doses or introduction of additional inotropic drugs or intra-aortic balloon pump in the intensive care unit. The mean intravenous dobutamine dose before SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously hospitalized patients (n = 10) and the median (inter-quartile range) peak intravenous dobutamine dose during SARS-CoV-2 infection in all patients (n = 16) were 2 (0-7) µg/kg/min and 20 (14-20) (P < 0.001), respectively. During follow-up, 56% underwent heart transplantation (n = 2) or died (n = 7). Four patients died during hospitalization from mixed shock consequent to severe acute respiratory syndrome with inflammatory storm syndrome associated with septic and cardiogenic shock during COVID-19. After COVID-19 recovery, two patients died from mixed septic and cardiogenic shock and one from sustained ventricular tachycardia and cardiogenic shock. Five patients were discharged from hospital to ambulatory care. Four were awaiting heart transplantation. CONCLUSION: Worsening of advanced HF by COVID-19 is associated with high mortality. This report highlights the importance of preventing COVID-19 in patients with advanced HF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Critical Care , Female , Heart Failure/virology , Heart Transplantation , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1691-1695, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012183

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Healthcare services worldwide have been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent reports have shown a decline in hospitalization for emergency cardiac conditions. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospitalization and particularly mortality due to acute heart failure has not been thoroughly described. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this single-centre observational study, we examined referrals to the acute heart failure team over a period of 16 weeks (7 January to 27 April 2020) spanning the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; 283 patients referred to our acute heart failure services over the study period were included on the basis of typical symptoms, raised BNP, and echocardiogram. There was a substantial but statistically non-significant drop in referrals with 164 referred in the 8 weeks before the first UK death due to COVID-19 on 2 March 2020 (BC), compared with 119 referred after (AC) in the subsequent 8 weeks, representing a 27% reduction overall (P = 0.06). The 30 day case fatality rate was increased from 11% in the BC group compared with 21% in the AC group (risk ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.09-3.3). Age, gender, length of stay, left ventricular ejection fraction, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide were similar between the groups. Admission creatinine, age, and AC cohort status were found to be univariable predictors of mortality. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, only age (hazard ratio 1.04, P = 0.03) and AC cohort status (hazard ratio 2.1, P = 0.017) remained significant predictors of mortality. On sensitivity analysis, this increased mortality was driven by COVID-19 positive status. CONCLUSIONS: There was a reduction in referral of patients with acute heart failure with significant increase in mortality in the 8 weeks following the first reported UK death due to COVID-19. The observation of increased mortality does not appear related to a change in population in terms of demographics, left ventricular ejection fraction, or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. The observed increased mortality appears to be related to the coexistence of COVID19 infection with acute heart failure. The study highlights the need for widespread preventative and shielding measures particularly in this group of patients especially in the light of the second wave. Longer follow-up with inclusion of data from other centres and community heart failure services will be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospitalization , Referral and Consultation , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Survival Rate , United Kingdom
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