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2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 81(23): 2272-2291, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231242

ABSTRACT

Early telemonitoring of weights and symptoms did not decrease heart failure hospitalizations but helped identify steps toward effective monitoring programs. A signal that is accurate and actionable with response kinetics for early re-assessment is required for the treatment of patients at high risk, while signal specifications differ for surveillance of low-risk patients. Tracking of congestion with cardiac filling pressures or lung water content has shown most impact to decrease hospitalizations, while multiparameter scores from implanted rhythm devices have identified patients at increased risk. Algorithms require better personalization of signal thresholds and interventions. The COVID-19 epidemic accelerated transition to remote care away from clinics, preparing for new digital health care platforms to accommodate multiple technologies and empower patients. Addressing inequities will require bridging the digital divide and the deep gap in access to HF care teams, who will not be replaced by technology but by care teams who can embrace it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Humans , Hospitalization , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy
4.
Can J Cardiol ; 39(4): 544-557, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317620

ABSTRACT

Outcomes of congenital heart disease have improved markedly over the past 20 years, with survival to adulthood now close to 90%. The mean age of admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) is 40 years. The incidence of hospital and critical care admissions have increased significantly as a consequence of this improved survival. Intensivists are now confronted with the management not only of complex adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) lesions from a cardiac perspective, but also of extracardiac organ consequences of years of abnormal circulation after surgical or palliative correction. Kidney and liver dysfunction and respiratory and hematologic abnormalities are very common in this population. ACHD patients can present to the ICU for a vast number of reasons, classified in this review as medical noncardiac, medical cardiac, and surgical. Community/hospital-acquired infections, cerebrovascular accidents, and respiratory failure, alongside arrhythmias and heart failure, are responsible for medical admissions. Surgical admissions include postoperative management after correction or palliation, but also medical optimisation and work-up for advanced therapies. ICU management of this large heterogeneous group requires a thorough understanding of the pathophysiology in order to apply conventional adult critical care modalities; left ventricular or right ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, intracardiac, extracardiac, and palliative surgical shunts can be present and require additional consideration. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, long-term sequelae, and different treatment modalities to supply a framework for the ICU physician caring for these patients. Successful outcome, especially in complex lesions, depends on early involvement of specialised ACHD centres.


Subject(s)
Heart Defects, Congenital , Heart Failure , Humans , Adult , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Critical Care , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Arrhythmias, Cardiac
5.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 34(2): 121-128, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315565

ABSTRACT

The Nigerian Cardiovascular Symposium is an annual conference held in partnership with cardiologists in Nigeria and the diaspora to provide updates in cardiovascular medicine and cardiothoracic surgery with the aim of optimising cardiovascular care for the Nigerian population. This virtual conference (due to the COVID-19 pandemic) has created an opportunity for effective capacity building of the Nigerian cardiology workforce. The objective of the conference was for experts to provide updates on current trends, clinical trials and innovations in heart failure, selected cardiomyopathies such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac amyloidosis, pulmonary hypertension, cardiogenic shock, left ventricular assist devices and heart transplantation. Furthermore, the conference aimed to equip the Nigerian cardiovascular workforce with skills and knowledge to optimise the delivery of effective cardiovascular care, with the hope of curbing 'medical tourism' and the current 'brain drain' in Nigeria. Challenges to optimal cardiovascular care in Nigeria include workforce shortage, limited capacity of intensive care units, and availability of medications. This partnership represents a key first step in addressing these challenges. Future action items include enhanced collaboration between cardiologists in Nigeria and the diaspora, advancing participation and enrollment of African patients in global heart failure clinical trials, and the urgent need to develop heart failure clinical practice guidelines for Nigerian patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Heart Failure , Humans , Pandemics , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart , Cardiomyopathies/epidemiology
6.
Heart ; 109(11): 823-831, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313879

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of implantable haemodynamic monitoring (IHM)-guided care. METHODS: PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE were searched for RCTs of IHM in patients with heart failure (HF). Outcomes were examined in total (first and recurrent) event analyses. RESULTS: Five trials comparing IHM-guided care with standard care alone were identified and included 2710 patients across ejection fraction (EF) ranges. Data were available for 628 patients (23.2%) with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) (EF ≥50%) and 2023 patients (74.6%) with heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (EF <50%). Chronicle, CardioMEMS and HeartPOD IHMs were used. In all patients, regardless of EF, IHM-guided care reduced total HF hospitalisations (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.82) and total worsening HF events (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.84). In patients with HFrEF, IHM-guided care reduced total worsening HF events (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.86). The effect of IHM-guided care on total worsening HF events in patients with HFpEF was uncertain (fixed-effect model: HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.88; random-effects model: HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.14). IHM-guided care did not reduce mortality (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.20). IHM-guided care reduced all-cause mortality and total worsening HF events (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HF across all EFs, IHM-guided care reduced total HF hospitalisations and worsening HF events. This benefit was consistent in patients with HFrEF but not consistent in HFpEF. Further trials with pre-specified analyses of patients with an EF of ≥50% are required. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021253905.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Prostheses and Implants , Hospitalization , Stroke Volume , Prognosis
8.
Heart Fail Clin ; 19(2S): e1-e8, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291988

ABSTRACT

The interplay of COVID-19 and heart failure is complex and involves direct and indirect effects. Patients with existing heart failure develop more severe COVID-19 symptoms and have worse clinical outcomes. Pandemic-related policies and protocols have negatively affected care for cardiovascular conditions and established hospital protocols, which is particularly important for patients with heart failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy
9.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 36(6): 609-617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Difficulties in coping with and self-managing heart failure (HF) are well known. The COVID-19 pandemic may further complicate self-care practices associated with HF. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand COVID-19's impact on HF self-care, as well as related coping adaptations that may blunt the impact of COVID-19 on HF health outcomes. METHODS: A qualitative study using phone interviews, guided by the framework of vulnerability analysis for sustainability, was used to explore HF self-care among older adults in central Texas during the late spring of 2020. Qualitative data were analyzed using directed content analysis. RESULTS: Seventeen older adults with HF participated (mean [SD] age, 68 [9.1] years; 62% female, 68% White, 40% below poverty line, 35% from rural areas). Overall, the COVID-19 pandemic had an adverse impact on the HF self-care behavior of physical activity. Themes of social isolation, financial concerns, and disruptions in access to medications and food indicated exposure, and rural residence and source of income increased sensitivity, whereas adaptations by healthcare system, health-promoting activities, socializing via technology, and spiritual connections increased resilience to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The study's findings have implications for identifying vulnerabilities in sustaining HF self-care by older adults and empowering older adults with coping strategies to improve overall satisfaction with care and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Aged , Female , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(7)2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266270

ABSTRACT

A man in his eighties with acute heart failure and cardiorenal syndrome developed severe hypernatraemia with diuresis. In this situation, palliation is often considered when renal replacement therapy is inappropriate. The literature to guide treatment of dysnatraemia in this setting is limited. Diuretics often worsen hypernatraemia and fluid replacement exacerbates heart failure. We describe a successful approach to this clinical Catch-22: sequential nephron blockade with intravenous 5% dextrose. Seemingly counterintuitive, the natriuretic effect of this combination had not previously been compared with diuretic monotherapy for heart failure. Yet this immediately effective strategy generated a high natriuresis-to-diuresis ratio and functioned as a bridge to cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT). In conjunction with a low salt diet, CRT facilitated the maintenance of sodium homeostasis and fluid balance. Thus, by improving the underlying pathophysiology (ie, inadequate cardiac output), CRT may enhance the outcomes of patients with cardiorenal syndrome and hypernatraemia.


Subject(s)
Cardio-Renal Syndrome , Heart Failure , Hypernatremia , Cardio-Renal Syndrome/complications , Cardio-Renal Syndrome/therapy , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Hypernatremia/complications , Hypernatremia/therapy , Male , Natriuresis
11.
JACC Heart Fail ; 10(12): 945-947, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247932
12.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273752

ABSTRACT

Heart failure exacerbations impart significant morbidity and mortality, however, large- scale studies assessing outcomes in the setting of concurrent coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) are limited. We utilized National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database to compare clinical outcomes in patients admitted with acute congestive heart failure exacerbation (CHF) with and without COVID-19 infection. A total of 2,101,980 patients (Acute CHF without COVID-19 (n = 2,026,765 (96.4%) and acute CHF with COVID-19 (n = 75,215, 3.6%)) were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was utilized to compared outcomes and were adjusted for age, sex, race, income level, insurance status, discharge quarter, Elixhauser co-morbidities, hospital location, teaching status and bed size. Patients with acute CHF and COVID-19 had higher in-hospital mortality compared to patients with acute CHF alone (25.78% vs. 5.47%, adjust OR (aOR) 6.3 (95% CI 6.05-6.62, p < 0.001)) and higher rates of vasopressor use (4.87% vs. 2.54%, aOR 2.06 (95% CI 1.86-2.27, p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (31.26% vs. 17.14%, aOR 2.3 (95% CI 2.25-2.44, p < 0.001)), sudden cardiac arrest (5.73% vs. 2.88%, aOR 1.95 (95% CI 1.79-2.12, p < 0.001)), and acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis (5.56% vs. 2.94%, aOR 1.92 (95% CI 1.77-2.09, p < 0.001)). Moreover, patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (26.87% vs. 24.5%, adjusted OR 1.26 (95% CI 1.16-1.36, p < 0.001)) with increased incidence of vasopressor use, sudden cardiac arrest, and cardiogenic shock as compared to patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Furthermore, elderly patients and patients with African-American and Hispanic descents had higher in-hospital mortality. Acute CHF with COVID-19 is associated with higher in-hospital mortality, vasopressor use, mechanical ventilation, and end organ dysfunction such as kidney failure and cardiac arrest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Aged , Stroke Volume , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Death, Sudden, Cardiac
14.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 115(3): 283-289, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279358

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a worldwide reorganization of healthcare systems focusing on limiting the spread of the virus. The impact of these measures on heart failure (HF) admissions is scarcely reported in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) including Suriname. We therefore assessed HF hospitalizations before and during the pandemic and call for action to improve healthcare access in Suriname through the development and implementation of telehealth strategies. METHODS: Retrospectively collected clinical (# hospitalizations per patient, in hospital mortality, comorbidities) and demographic (sex, age, ethnicity) data of people hospitalized with a primary or secondary HF discharge ICD10 code in the Academic Hospital Paramaribo (AZP) from February to December 2019 (pre-pandemic) and February to December 2020 (during the pandemic) were used for analysis. Data are presented as frequencies with corresponding percentages. T-tests were used to analyze continuous variables and the two-sample test for proportions for categorical variables. RESULTS: There was an overall slight decrease of 9.1% HF admissions (N pre-pandemic:417 vs N during the pandemic: 383). Significantly less patients (18.3%, p-value<0.00) were hospitalized during the pandemic (N: 249 (65.0%)) compared to pre-pandemic (N: 348 (83.3%)), while readmissions increased statistically significantly for both readmissions within 90 days (75 (19.6%) vs 55 (13.2%), p-value = 0.01) and readmissions within 365 days (122 (31.9%) vs 70 (16.7%), p-value = 0.00) in 2020 compared to 2019. Patients admitted during the pandemic also had significantly more of the following comorbidities: hypertension (46.2% vs 30.6%, p-value = 0.00), diabetes (31.9% vs 24.9%, p-value = 0.03) anemia (12.8% vs 3.1%, p-value = 0.00), and atrial fibrillation (22.7% vs 15.1%, p-value = 0.00). CONCLUSION: HF admissions were reduced during the pandemic while HF readmissions increased compared to the pre-pandemic period. Due to in-person consultation restrictions, the HF clinic was inactive during the pandemic period. Distance monitoring of HF patients via telehealth tools could help in reducing these adverse effects. This call for action identifies key elements (digital and health literacy, telehealth legislation, integration of telehealth tools within the current healthcare sector) needed for the successful development and implementation of these tools in LMICs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Suriname/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy
15.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279394, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282068

ABSTRACT

Health disparities in heart failure (HF) show that Black patients face greater ED utilization and worse clinical outcomes. Transitional care post-HF hospitalization, such as 7-day early follow-up visits, may prevent ED returns. We examine whether early follow-up is associated with lower ED returns visits within 30 days and whether Black race is associated with receiving early follow-up after HF hospitalization. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of all Black and White adult patients at 13 hospitals in Michigan hospitalized for HF from October 1, 2017, to September 30, 2020. Adjusted risk ratios (aRR) were estimated from multivariable logistic regressions. The analytic sample comprised 6,493 patients (mean age = 71 years (SD 15), 50% female, 37% Black, 9% Medicaid). Ten percent had an ED return within 30 days and almost half (43%) of patients had 7-day early follow-up. Patients with early follow-up had lower risk of ED returns (aRR 0.85 [95%CI, 0.71-0.98]). Regarding rates of early follow-up, there was no overall adjusted association with Black race, but the following variables were related to lower follow-up: Medicaid insurance (aRR 0.90 [95%CI, 0.80-1.00]), dialysis (aRR 0.86 [95%CI, 0.77-0.96]), depression (aRR 0.92 [95%CI, 0.86-0.98]), and discharged with opioids (aRR 0.94 [95%CI, 0.88-1.00]). When considering a hospital-level interaction, three of the 13 sites with the lowest percentage of Black patients had lower rates of early follow-up in Black patients (ranging from 15% to 55% reduced likelihood). Early follow-up visits were associated with a lower likelihood of ED returns for HF patients. Despite this potentially protective association, certain patient factors were associated with being less likely to receive scheduled follow-up visits. Hospitals with lower percentages of Black patients had lower rates of early follow-up for Black patients. Together, these may represent missed opportunities to intervene in high-risk groups to prevent ED returns in patients with HF.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Renal Dialysis , Adult , United States , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Emergency Service, Hospital , Heart Failure/therapy
16.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(14 Suppl): S255-S267, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255278

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Approaches to treating heart failure (HF), understanding of the most timely and effective interventions, and identification of appropriate patient subpopulations must evolve. HF has emerged as a chronic condition that needs to be managed on multiple fronts. Hospital resources are more limited than ever due to various factors that directly impact staff and hospital space available to manage and treat patients with HF. As a result, there is increasing attention to the current state of this progressive disease and ways to improve patient outcomes. PURPOSE: This paper examines HF and the current and future treatment landscape, the need to reevaluate terms and definitions, and the opportunity to treat HF with the right treatment at the right time. Treatments in development and potential new investigational therapies are also discussed. CONCLUSION: To meet the current challenge, HF treatment must adapt. For other disease states, we have more personalized, nimble, and timely treatment strategies that harness windows of opportunity to help maximize outcomes and reduce overwhelming costs to the health care system. HF treatment is evolving with new guidelines and treatments that hold the promise of greater personalization through additions to existing treatments that are directed by medical guidelines, since each patient is unique and requires more than a one-size-fits-all approach. In addition, advances in remote monitoring, in-home care, and telemedicine are creating a more individualized treatment approach. Therefore, it becomes critical for all health care decision makers to be aware of the tools and resources available in treatment guidelines, individualized treatment options, telemedicine, and other ways of expanding the existing toolbox to enhance patient centricity in HF treatment.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Home Care Services , Telemedicine , Humans , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Self Care , Chronic Disease
17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 25(2): 139-151, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279971

ABSTRACT

Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome that affects mortality/morbidity and acts at different levels in the patient's life, resulting in a drastic impairment in multiple aspects of daily activities (e.g. physical, mental/emotional, and social) and leading to a reduction in quality of life. The definition of disease status and symptom severity has been traditionally based on the physician assessment, while the patient's experience of disease has been long overlooked. The active participation of patients in their own care is necessary to better understand the perception of disease and the multiple aspects of life affected, and to improve adherence to treatments. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) aim to switch traditional care to a more patient-centred approach. Although PROs demonstrated precision in the evaluation of disease status and have a good association with prognosis in several randomized controlled trials, their implementation into clinical practice is limited. This review discusses the modalities of use of PROs in HF, summarizes the most largely adopted PROs in HF care, and provides an overview on the application of PROs in trials and the potential for their transition to clinical practice. By discussing the advantages and the disadvantages of their use, the reasons limiting their application in daily clinical routine, and the strategies that may promote their implementation, this review aims to foster the systematic integration of the patient's standpoint in HF care.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Humans , Heart Failure/therapy , Quality of Life/psychology , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prognosis , Hospitalization
18.
Res Nurs Health ; 46(2): 190-202, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285395

ABSTRACT

In patients with heart failure (HF), self-care, and caregiver contribution to self-care (i.e., the daily management of the disease by patients and caregivers) are essential for improving patient outcomes. However, patients and caregivers are often inadequate in their self-care and contribution to self-care, respectively, and struggle to perform related tasks. Face-to-face motivational interviewing (MI) effectively improves self-care and caregiver contribution to self-care, but the evidence on remote MI is scarce and inconclusive. The aims of this randomized controlled trial will be to evaluate whether remote MI performed via video call in patients with HF: (1) is effective at improving self-care maintenance in patients (primary outcome); (2) is effective for the following secondary outcomes: (a) for patients: self-care management, self-care monitoring, and self-efficacy; HF symptoms; generic and disease-specific quality of life; anxiety and depression; use of healthcare services; and mortality; and (b) for caregivers: contribution to self-care, self-efficacy, and preparedness. We will conduct a two-arm randomized controlled trial. We will enroll and randomize 432 dyads (patients and their informal caregivers) in Arm 1, in which patients and caregivers will receive MI or, in Arm 2, standard care. MI will be delivered seven times over 12 months. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and 3 (primary outcome), 6, 9, and 12 months from enrollment. This trial will demonstrate whether an inexpensive and easily deliverable intervention can improve important HF outcomes. With the restrictions on in-person healthcare professional interventions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, it is essential to evaluate whether MI is also effective remotely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Motivational Interviewing , Humans , Caregivers , Motivational Interviewing/methods , Quality of Life , Self Care/methods , Pandemics , Heart Failure/therapy
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(3): e027922, 2023 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233137

ABSTRACT

Background Because the impact of changes in how outpatient care was delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic is uncertain, we designed this study to examine the frequency and type of outpatient visits between March 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020 (prepandemic) and from March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021 (pandemic) and specifically compared outcomes after virtual versus in-person outpatient visits during the pandemic. Methods and Results Population-based retrospective cohort study of all 3.8 million adults in Alberta, Canada. We examined all physician visits and 30- and 90-day outcomes, with a focus on those adults with the cardiovascular ambulatory-care sensitive conditions heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes. Our primary outcome was emergency department visit or hospitalization, evaluated using survival analysis accounting for competing risk of death. Although in-person outpatient visits decreased by 38.9% in the year after March 1, 2020 (10 142 184 versus 16 592 599 in the prior year), the introduction of virtual visits (7 152 147; 41.4% of total) meant that total outpatient visits increased by 4.1% in the first year of the pandemic for Albertan adults. Outpatient visit frequency (albeit 41.4% virtual, 58.6% in-person) and prescribing patterns were stable in the first year after pandemic onset for patients with the cardiovascular ambulatory-care sensitive conditions we examined, but laboratory test frequency declined by 20% (serum creatinine) to 47% (glycosylated hemoglobin). In the first year of the pandemic, virtual outpatient visits were associated with fewer subsequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations (compared with in-person visits) for patients with heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.90 [95% CI, 0.85-0.96] at 30 days and 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-1.00] at 90 days), hypertension (aHR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85-0.91] and 0.93 [95% CI, 0.91-0.95] at 30 and 90 days), or diabetes (aHR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.87-0.93] and 0.93 [95% CI, 0.91-0.95] at 30 and 90 days). Conclusions The adoption and rapid uptake of virtual outpatient care during the COVID-19 pandemic did not negatively impact frequency of follow-up, prescribing, or short-term outcomes, and could have potentially positively impacted some of these for adults with heart failure, diabetes, or hypertension in a setting where there was an active reimbursement policy for virtual visits. Given declines in laboratory monitoring and screening activities, further research is needed to evaluate whether long-term outcomes will differ.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Outpatients , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Alberta/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods
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