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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793615

ABSTRACT

Particulate generation occurs during exercise-induced exhalation, and research on this topic is scarce. Moreover, infection-control measures are inadequately implemented to avoid particulate generation. A laminar airflow ventilation system (LFVS) was developed to remove respiratory droplets released during treadmill exercise. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of aerosols during training on a treadmill and exercise intensity and to elucidate the effect of the LFVS on aerosol removal during anaerobic exercise. In this single-center observational study, the exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Running Science Lab in Japan on 20 healthy subjects (age: 29±12 years, men: 80%). The subjects had a broad spectrum of aerobic capacities and fitness levels, including athletes, and had no comorbidities. All of them received no medication. The exercise intensity was increased by 1-km/h increments until the heart rate reached 85% of the expected maximum rate and then maintained for 10 min. The first 10 subjects were analyzed to examine whether exercise increased the concentration of airborne particulates in the exhaled air. For the remaining 10 subjects, the LFVS was activated during constant-load exercise to compare the number of respiratory droplets before and after LFVS use. During exercise, a steady amount of particulates before the lactate threshold (LT) was followed by a significant and gradual increase in respiratory droplets after the LT, particularly during anaerobic exercise. Furthermore, respiratory droplets ≥0.3 µm significantly decreased after using LFVS (2120800±759700 vs. 560 ± 170, p<0.001). The amount of respiratory droplets significantly increased after LT. The LFVS enabled a significant decrease in respiratory droplets during anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects. This study's findings will aid in exercising safely during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Adult , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Filters , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Japan , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Running/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods
2.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 24(4): 212-214, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart rate disorders and in particular sinus arrhythmias are known to accompany viral infections. Sinus tachycardia is prevalent in the presence of increased body temperature and respiratory rate. However, bradycardia has also been described for centuries to complicate viral illnesses.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia , COVID-19 , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Heart Rate , Humans
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785895

ABSTRACT

Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (fR) can be estimated by processing videos framing the upper body and face regions without any physical contact with the subject. This paper proposed a technique for continuously monitoring HR and fR via a multi-ROI approach based on the spectral analysis of RGB video frames recorded with a mobile device (i.e., a smartphone's camera). The respiratory signal was estimated by the motion of the chest, whereas the cardiac signal was retrieved from the pulsatile activity at the level of right and left cheeks and forehead. Videos were recorded from 18 healthy volunteers in four sessions with different user-camera distances (i.e., 0.5 m and 1.0 m) and illumination conditions (i.e., natural and artificial light). For HR estimation, three approaches were investigated based on single or multi-ROI approaches. A commercially available multiparametric device was used to record reference respiratory signals and electrocardiogram (ECG). The results demonstrated that the multi-ROI approach outperforms the single-ROI approach providing temporal trends of both the vital parameters comparable to those provided by the reference, with a mean absolute error (MAE) consistently below 1 breaths·min-1 for fR in all the scenarios, and a MAE between 0.7 bpm and 6 bpm for HR estimation, whose values increase at higher distances.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography , Respiratory Rate , Computers, Handheld , Heart Rate , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
4.
J Pediatr ; 242: 137-144.e4, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751121

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that a cumulative heart rate characteristics (HRC) index in real-time throughout the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization, alone or combined with birth demographics and clinical characteristics, can predict a composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective analysis using data from extremely low birth weight infants who were monitored for HRC during neonatal intensive care. Surviving infants were assessed for NDI at 18-22 months of age. Multivariable predictive modeling of subsequent death or NDI using logistic regression, cross-validation with repeats, and step-wise feature elimination was performed each postnatal day through day 60. RESULTS: Among the 598 study participants, infants with the composite outcome of death or moderate-to-severe NDI had higher mean HRC scores during their stay in the NICU (3.1 ± 1.8 vs 1.3 ± 0.8; P < .001). Predictive models for subsequent death or NDI were consistently higher when the cumulative mean HRC score was included as a predictor variable. A parsimonious model including birth weight, sex, ventilatory status, and cumulative mean HRC score had a cross-validated receiver-operator characteristic curve as high as 0.84 on days 4, 5, 6, and 8 and as low as 0.78 on days 50-52 and 56-58 to predict subsequent death or NDI. CONCLUSIONS: In extremely low birth weight infants, higher mean HRC scores throughout their stay in the NICU were associated with a higher risk of the composite outcome of death or NDI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00307333.


Subject(s)
Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Birth Weight , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Retrospective Studies
5.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 172(3-4): 59-62, 2022 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734006

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of surgical "everday" face masks on the physical performance and perceived exertion in trained eleven-year-old boys.No decrease in objective performance parameters was found in the aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic transition zones. However, at the maximum performance level with surgical face mask, there was a significant reduction in running time as well as a significant increase in the subjective perception of exertion with otherwise unchanged performance parameters. In summary, the use of surgical face masks in trained children does not affect athletic activities as long as the loads are performed primarily in the aerobic intensity range.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Exertion , Child , Exercise , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Masks
6.
Cardiol J ; 29(2): 181-187, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scarce and non-homogeneous data are available on the prognostic value of clinic heart rate (HR) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The present study evaluated in 389 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 the in-hospital prognostic value of resting HR, assessed over different time periods, i.e., at hospital admission, during initial 3 days and 7 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: Results show that assessment of this hemodynamic variable during hospitalization provides information on the clinical outcome of the patients, greater HR values being associated with a worse inhospital prognosis. The prognostic value of elevated HR during COVID-19: 1) was independent on other confounders such as age, gender, comorbidities and fever, 2) appeared to be strengthened by repeated measurements of HR during the initial 3/7 days of hospitalization, and 3) was detectable in patients in which the therapeutic intervention did not include drugs, such as beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, digoxin, ivabradine and antiarrhythmic compounds known to interfere with HR. CONCLUSIONS: Heart rate may represent an important marker of a patient's outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Rate , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732178

ABSTRACT

Remote monitoring platforms based on advanced health sensors have the potential to become important tools during the COVID-19 pandemic, supporting the reduction in risks for affected populations such as the elderly. Current commercially available wearable devices still have limitations to deal with heart rate variability (HRV), an important health indicator of human aging. This study analyzes the role of a remote monitoring system designed to support health services to older people during the complete course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, since its beginning in Brazil in March 2020 until November 2021, based on HRV. Using different levels of analysis and data, we validated HRV parameters by comparing them with reference sensors and tools in HRV measurements. We compared the results obtained for the cardiac modulation data in time domain using samples of 10 elderly people's HRV data from Fitbit Inspire HR with the results provided by Kubios for the same population using a cardiac belt, with the data divided into train and test, where 75% of the data were used for training the models, with the remaining 25% as a test set for evaluating the final performance of the models. The results show that there is very little difference between the results obtained by the remote monitoring system compared with Kubios, indicating that the data obtained from these devices might provide accurate results in evaluating HRV in comparison with gold standard devices. We conclude that the application of the methods and techniques used and reported in this study are useful for the creation and validation of HRV indicators in time series obtained by means of wearable devices based on photoplethysmography sensors; therefore, they can be incorporated into remote monitoring processes as seen during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Korean J Anesthesiol ; 75(1): 86-96, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To detect an early increase in the inflammatory response might prove to be vital for mitigating the deleterious effects of the disease over time. CASES: A 52-year-old obese man with moderate asthma and hypertension, who developed COVID-19 and had moderate symptoms, used a wearable device to record heart rate variability (HRV) during his illness. He had low parasympathetic tone, which decreased daily until it reached almost 2 standard deviations (SD) below normal values at the end of the second week. His sympathetic tone increased from > 3 SD to > 5 SD. CONCLUSIONS: Conclusions: These findings suggest an altered modulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in COVID-19, such that the sympathetic tone is augmented and the parasympathetic tone is reduced. Population norms of COVID-19 infections should be further studied over the short-term and using 24 h HRV measurements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706609

ABSTRACT

The harmful effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can reach the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and endothelial function. Therefore, the detrimental multiorgan effects of COVID-19 could be induced by deregulations in ANS that may persist after the acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, investigating the differences in ANS response in overweight/obese, and physically inactive participants who had COVID-19 compared to those who did not have the disease is necessary. The aim of the study was to analyze the autonomic function of young adults after mild-to-moderate infection with SARS-CoV-2 and to assess whether body mass index (BMI) and levels of physical activity modulates autonomic function in participants with and without COVID-19. Patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and healthy controls were recruited for this cross-sectional observational study. A general anamnesis was taken, and BMI and physical activity levels were assessed. The ANS was evaluated through heart rate variability. A total of 57 subjects were evaluated. Sympathetic nervous system activity in the post-COVID-19 group was increased (stress index; p = 0.0273). They also presented lower values of parasympathetic activity (p < 0.05). Overweight/obese subjects in the post-COVID-19 group presented significantly lower parasympathetic activity and reduced global variability compared to non-obese in control group (p < 0.05). Physically inactive subjects in the post-COVID-19 group presented significantly higher sympathetic activity than active subjects in the control group. Parasympathetic activity was significantly increased in physically active subjects in the control group compared to the physically inactive post-COVID-19 group (p < 0.05). COVID-19 promotes changes in the ANS of young adults, and these changes are modulated by overweight/obesity and physical activity levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667170

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic peaks, healthcare professionals are a frontline workforce that deals with death on an almost daily basis and experiences a marked increase in workload. Returning home is also associated with fear of contaminating or be contaminated. An obvious consequence is stress accumulation and associated risks, especially in caregivers in mobility and possibly in human resource teams managing mobility. Here, during the second pandemic peak, we designed a 15-min testing procedure at the workplace, combining HADS and Brief COPE questionnaires with heart rate variability (HRV) recordings to evaluate psychophysiological status in four groups: caregivers in mobility (MOB); human resources teams managing mobility (ADM); caregivers without mobility (N-MOB); and university researchers teaching online (RES). Anxiety, depression, coping strategies, vagally-mediated heart rate regulation, and nonlinear dynamics (entropy) in cardiac autonomic control were quantified. Anxiety reached remarkably high levels in both MOB and ADM, which was reflected in vagal and nonlinear HRV markers. ADM maintained a better problem-solving capacity. MOB and N-MOB exhibited degraded problem-solving capacity. Multivariate approaches show how combining psychological and physiological markers helps draw highly group-specific psychophysiological profiles. Entropy in HRV and problem-solving capacity were highly relevant for that. Combining HADS and Brief COPE questionnaires with HRV testing at the workplace may provide highly relevant cues to manage mobility during crises as well as prevent health risks, absenteeism, and more generally malfunction incidents at hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Heart Rate , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce , Workplace
13.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3768-3773, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In its initial stages, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is difficult to identify, because diagnostic criteria may not always be fulfilled. With this retrospective study, we wanted to identify the most common electrophysiological abnormalities seen on neurophysiological examination of GBS patients and its variants in the early phases. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical records of patients admitted to our Neurology Unit with a confirmed diagnosis of GBS. The study sample was divided in two subgroups according to whether the neurophysiological examination was performed: within 7 days (very early group) or within 7-15 days (early group). H reflex, F waves, and motor and sensory conduction parameters were judged abnormal if they were outside the normal range for at least two nerves. We evaluated neurophysiological findings in Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) separately. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 36 patients. In GBS, the most frequent abnormal neurophysiological parameter was the bilateral absence of the H reflex, followed by F wave abnormalities. Motor conduction parameters were altered in less than 50% of patients, and even less common were sensory nerve action potential reduction and the "sural-sparing" pattern. In MFS, H reflex was absent bilaterally in 100% of patients, followed by a predominant peripheral sensory involvement, whereas motor conduction parameters were frequently normal. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral absence of the H reflex is the most sensitive parameter in early diagnosis of GBS and its variants.


Subject(s)
Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Miller Fisher Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Heart Rate , Humans , Neural Conduction , Neurophysiology , Retrospective Studies
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 254-257, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Limited data are available regarding the occurrence and the extent of cardiac rhythm disturbances in patients with COVID-19 treated with Remdesivir. METHODS: We present a case series of 52 patients who underwent daily electrocardiogram (ECG) examination after Remdesivir administration. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, a significant heart rate reduction was observed after initiation of Remdesivir; however, no case of severe bradycardia or arrhythmias leading to significant clinical complications or Remdesivir discontinuation occurred. Heart rate reduction was proportional to baseline heart rate values (r=0.75, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, a less severe clinical presentation of Covid-19 (beta=0.47, p<0.01) was related to lower heart rate levels observed after Remdesivir administration. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a significant reduction in heart rate observed after Remdesivir administration, no severe cardiovascular toxicity was observed in Covid-19 patients, even in the case of cardiovascular comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Rate , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Complement Ther Med ; 64: 102798, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Passive heat therapies have been reported to have similar effects on the cardiovascular system as exercise. Studies supporting these findings in healthy populations have predominantly been done with men using warm water immersions or traditional saunas, rather than newer infrared-based saunas. OBJECTIVE: To explore short-term thermal and cardiovascular responses in women using an infrared sauna as compared to moderate-intensity exercise. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled crossover trial with balanced allocations. SETTING: Brisbane, Australia (August 2019 - March 2020) PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy women (36 ±â€¯9 years) INTERVENTIONS: 45 min of resting, infrared sauna or indoor bicycling PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: tympanic/skin temperatures; respiratory rate; blood pressure; arterial stiffness; heart rate variability RESULTS: Tympanic temperatures were elevated during infrared sauna as compared to both control (mean diff = +1.05 oC ±â€¯SEM 0.12 oC, 95% C.I.: 0.73 - 1.36, p < 0.0005) and exercise (mean diff = +0.79 oC ±â€¯SEM 0.12 oC, 95% C.I.: 0.49 - 1.08, p < 0.0005). Respiratory rates were higher during exercise as compared to both control (mean diff = +7.66 ±â€¯SEM 1.37, 95% C.I.: 4.09 - 11.23, p < 0.0005) and infrared sauna (mean diff = +6.66 ±â€¯SEM 1.33, 95% C.I.: 3.20 - 10.11, p < 0.0005). No significant differences in non-invasive measures of blood pressure, arterial stiffness or heart rate variability were detected between any of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the physiological effects of infrared sauna bathing are underpinned by thermoregulatory-induced responses, more so than exercise-mimetic cardiorespiratory or cardiovascular activations.


Subject(s)
Steam Bath , Blood Pressure , Cross-Over Studies , Exercise , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Male
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649087

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate whether wearing face masks (filtering facepieces, FFP class 2) with personal protective equipment (FPP2/PPE), while working a 12-h shift in a COVID-19 referral center, affects the blood saturation, heart rate (HR), and well-being of health care providers (HCPs). The study included a group of 37 HCPs. To perform continuous recordings of the SpO2 and heart rate (HR) in real time, we used a Nellcor PM10N (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) portable monitoring system. SpO2, HR, and HCP well-being scales were measured during two 3-h shifts, while HCPs worked during a 12-h period. Additionally, each subject completed a questionnaire concerning their well-being. The difference in the SpO2 level between the 1st and 2nd working shifts while wearing an FFP2/PPE was small, with a median decrease in SpO2 of -1%. The scales of the well-being indicators increased within the shift. They were mainly fatigue and thirst with median scores of 2 out of 6 (range 0-4). We assume that during a 12-h period, a work scheme that consists of a 3-h shift in FFP2/PPE and a 3-h rest period (working without FPP2/PPE) is a reliable and safe solution for HCPs working in specialized COVID-19 referral hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Health Personnel , Heart Rate , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Ann Neurol ; 91(3): 367-379, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe cerebrovascular, neuropathic, and autonomic features of post-acute sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 ((COVID-19) PASC). METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated consecutive patients with chronic fatigue, brain fog, and orthostatic intolerance consistent with PASC. Controls included patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and healthy participants. Analyzed data included surveys and autonomic (Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing, sudomotor, and tilt tests), cerebrovascular (cerebral blood flow velocity [CBFv] monitoring in middle cerebral artery), respiratory (capnography monitoring), and neuropathic (skin biopsies for assessment of small fiber neuropathy) testing and inflammatory/autoimmune markers. RESULTS: Nine patients with PASC were evaluated 0.8 ± 0.3 years after a mild COVID-19 infection, and were treated as home observations. Autonomic, pain, brain fog, fatigue, and dyspnea surveys were abnormal in PASC and POTS (n = 10), compared with controls (n = 15). Tilt table test reproduced the majority of PASC symptoms. Orthostatic CBFv declined in PASC (-20.0 ± 13.4%) and POTS (-20.3 ± 15.1%), compared with controls (-3.0 ± 7.5%, p = 0.001) and was independent of end-tidal carbon dioxide in PASC, but caused by hyperventilation in POTS. Reduced orthostatic CBFv in PASC included both subjects without (n = 6) and with (n = 3) orthostatic tachycardia. Dysautonomia was frequent (100% in both PASC and POTS) but was milder in PASC (p = 0.002). PASC and POTS cohorts diverged in frequency of small fiber neuropathy (89% vs 60%) but not in inflammatory markers (67% vs 70%). Supine and orthostatic hypocapnia was observed in PASC. INTERPRETATION: PASC following mild COVID-19 infection is associated with multisystem involvement including: (1) cerebrovascular dysregulation with persistent cerebral arteriolar vasoconstriction; (2) small fiber neuropathy and related dysautonomia; (3) respiratory dysregulation; and (4) chronic inflammation. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:367-379.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Fatigue/blood , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Orthostatic Intolerance/blood , Orthostatic Intolerance/diagnosis , Orthostatic Intolerance/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(2)2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634795

ABSTRACT

Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) is a video-based non-contact heart rate measurement technology. It is a fact that most existing rPPG methods fail to deal with the spatiotemporal features of the video, which is significant for the extraction of the rPPG signal. In this paper, we propose a 3D central difference convolutional network (CDCA-rPPGNet) to measure heart rate, with an attention mechanism to combine spatial and temporal features. First, we crop and stitch the region of interest together through facial landmarks. Next, the high-quality regions of interest are fed to CDCA-rPPGNet based on a central difference convolution, which can enhance the spatiotemporal representation and capture rich relevant time contexts by collecting time difference information. In addition, we integrate the attention module into the neural network, aiming to strengthen the ability of the neural network to extract video channels and spatial features, so as to obtain more accurate rPPG signals. In summary, the three main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) the proposed network base on central difference convolution could better capture the subtle color changes to recover the rPPG signals; (2) the proposed ROI extraction method provides high-quality input to the network; (3) the attention module is used to strengthen the ability of the network to extract features. Extensive experiments are conducted on two public datasets-the PURE dataset and the UBFC-rPPG dataset. In terms of the experiment results, our proposed method achieves 0.46 MAE (bpm), 0.90 RMSE (bpm) and 0.99 R value of Pearson's correlation coefficient on the PURE dataset, and 0.60 MAE (bpm), 1.38 RMSE (bpm) and 0.99 R value of Pearson's correlation coefficient on the UBFC dataset, which proves the effectiveness of our proposed approach.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Face , Heart Rate , Photoplethysmography
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(2)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625927

ABSTRACT

In this study, a contactless vital signs monitoring system was proposed, which can measure body temperature (BT), heart rate (HR) and respiration rate (RR) for people with and without face masks using a thermal and an RGB camera. The convolution neural network (CNN) based face detector was applied and three regions of interest (ROIs) were located based on facial landmarks for vital sign estimation. Ten healthy subjects from a variety of ethnic backgrounds with skin colors from pale white to darker brown participated in several different experiments. The absolute error (AE) between the estimated HR using the proposed method and the reference HR from all experiments is 2.70±2.28 beats/min (mean ± std), and the AE between the estimated RR and the reference RR from all experiments is 1.47±1.33 breaths/min (mean ± std) at a distance of 0.6-1.2 m.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , Body Temperature , Heart Rate , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Respiratory Rate , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Signs
20.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 298: 103844, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Use of high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and prone positioning is common in patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory failure. Few data clarify the hemodynamic effects of these interventions in this specific condition. We performed a physiologic study to assess the hemodynamic effects of PEEP and prone position during COVID-19 respiratory failure. METHODS: Nine adult patients mechanically ventilated due to COVID-19 infection and fulfilling moderate-to-severe ARDS criteria were studied. Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, cardiac output, oxygen consumption, systemic and pulmonary pressures were recorded through pulmonary arterial catheterization at PEEP of 15 and 5 cmH2O, and after prone positioning. Recruitability was assessed through the recruitment-to-inflation ratio. RESULTS: High PEEP improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio in all patients (p = 0.004), and significantly decreased pulmonary shunt fraction (p = 0.012), regardless of lung recruitability. PEEP-induced increases in PaO2/FiO2 changes were strictly correlated with shunt fraction reduction (rho=-0.82, p = 0.01). From low to high PEEP, cardiac output decreased by 18 % (p = 0.05) and central venous pressure increased by 17 % (p = 0.015). As compared to supine position with low PEEP, prone positioning significantly decreased pulmonary shunt fraction (p = 0.03), increased PaO2/FiO2 (p = 0.03) and mixed venous oxygen saturation (p = 0.016), without affecting cardiac output. PaO2/FiO2 was improved by prone position also when compared to high PEEP (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS due to COVID-19, PEEP and prone position improve arterial oxygenation. Changes in cardiac output contribute to the effects of PEEP but not of prone position, which appears the most effective intervention to improve oxygenation with no hemodynamic side effects.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Rate/physiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prone Position , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prone Position/physiology
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