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1.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003766, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial similar to chloroquine that is used extensively for the treatment and prevention of malaria. Data on the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine are scarce, although transient effects on cardiac electrophysiology (electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation and sinus bradycardia) have been observed. We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis to characterise the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine and thereby support development of risk minimisation measures to improve the safety of this important antimalarial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies of amodiaquine for the treatment or prevention of malaria were identified from a systematic review. Heart rates and QT intervals with study-specific heart rate correction (QTcS) were compared within studies and individual patient data pooled for multivariable linear mixed effects regression. The meta-analysis included 2,681 patients from 4 randomised controlled trials evaluating artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) containing amodiaquine (n = 725), lumefantrine (n = 499), piperaquine (n = 716), and pyronaridine (n = 566), as well as monotherapy with chloroquine (n = 175) for uncomplicated malaria. Amodiaquine prolonged QTcS (mean = 16.9 ms, 95% CI: 15.0 to 18.8) less than chloroquine (21.9 ms, 18.3 to 25.6, p = 0.0069) and piperaquine (19.2 ms, 15.8 to 20.5, p = 0.0495), but more than lumefantrine (5.6 ms, 2.9 to 8.2, p < 0.001) and pyronaridine (-1.2 ms, -3.6 to +1.3, p < 0.001). In individuals aged ≥12 years, amodiaquine reduced heart rate (mean reduction = 15.2 beats per minute [bpm], 95% CI: 13.4 to 17.0) more than piperaquine (10.5 bpm, 7.7 to 13.3, p = 0.0013), lumefantrine (9.3 bpm, 6.4 to 12.2, p < 0.001), pyronaridine (6.6 bpm, 4.0 to 9.3, p < 0.001), and chloroquine (5.9 bpm, 3.2 to 8.5, p < 0.001) and was associated with a higher risk of potentially symptomatic sinus bradycardia (≤50 bpm) than lumefantrine (risk difference: 14.8%, 95% CI: 5.4 to 24.3, p = 0.0021) and chloroquine (risk difference: 8.0%, 95% CI: 4.0 to 12.0, p < 0.001). The effect of amodiaquine on the heart rate of children aged <12 years compared with other antimalarials was not clinically significant. Study limitations include the unavailability of individual patient-level adverse event data for most included participants, but no serious complications were documented. CONCLUSIONS: While caution is advised in the use of amodiaquine in patients aged ≥12 years with concomitant use of heart rate-reducing medications, serious cardiac conduction disorders, or risk factors for torsade de pointes, there have been no serious cardiovascular events reported after amodiaquine in widespread use over 7 decades. Amodiaquine and structurally related antimalarials in the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended dose regimens alone or in ACTs are safe for the treatment and prevention of malaria.


Subject(s)
Amodiaquine/adverse effects , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Adolescent , Adult , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/physiopathology , Cardiotoxicity , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Young Adult
3.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 21(9): 687-694, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237553

ABSTRACT

Several medicines, including cancer therapies, are known to alter the electrophysiological function of ventricular myocytes resulting in abnormal prolongation and dispersion of ventricular repolarization (quantified by multi-lead QTc measurement). This effect could be amplified by other concomitant factors (e.g., combination with other drugs affecting the QT, and/or electrolyte abnormalities, such as especially hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, and hypocalcemia). Usually, this condition results in higher risk of torsade de point and other life-threatening arrhythmias, related to unrecognized unpaired cardiac ventricular repolarization reserve (VRR). Being VRR a dynamic phenomenon, QT prolongation might often not be identified during the 10-s standard 12-lead ECG recording at rest, leaving the patient at increased risk for life-threatening event. We report the case of a 49-year woman, undergoing tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer, which alteration of ventricular repolarization reserve, persisting also after correction of concomitant recurrent hypokalemia, was evidenced only after manual measurements of the corrected QT (QTc) interval from selected intervals of the 12-lead ECG Holter monitoring. This otherwise missed finding was fundamental to drive the discontinuation of tamoxifen, shifting to another "safer" therapeutic option, and to avoid the use of potentially arrhythmogenic antibiotics when treating a bilateral pneumonia in recent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating/drug therapy , Electrocardiography , Estrogen Antagonists/adverse effects , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Action Potentials , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Substitution , Female , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 831-842, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206798

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to a massive cytokine release. The use of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) has been proposed in this hyperinflammatory phase, although supporting evidence is limited. We retrospectively analyzed 88 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia that received at least one dose of intravenous TCZ in our institution between 16 and 27 March 2020. Clinical status from day 0 (first TCZ dose) through day 14 was assessed by a 6-point ordinal scale. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (hospital discharge and/or a decrease of ≥2 points on the 6-point scale) by day 7. Secondary outcomes included clinical improvement by day 14 and dynamics of vital signs and laboratory values. Rates of clinical improvement by days 7 and 14 were 44.3% (39/88) and 73.9% (65/88). Previous or concomitant receipt of subcutaneous interferon-ß (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.94; P = .041) and serum lactate dehydrogenase more than 450 U/L at day 0 (aOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.06-0.99; P = .048) were negatively associated with clinical improvement by day 7. All-cause mortality was 6.8% (6/88). Body temperature and respiratory and cardiac rates significantly decreased by day 1 compared to day 0. Lymphocyte count and pulse oximetry oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio increased by days 3 and 5, whereas C-reactive protein levels dropped by day 2. There were no TCZ-attributable adverse events. In this observational single-center study, TCZ appeared to be useful and safe as immunomodulatory therapy for severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Body Temperature/drug effects , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Interferon-beta/adverse effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , Respiratory Rate/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
5.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 5, 2021 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060476

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by Sars-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has been a great concern for public and mental health systems worldwide. The identification of risk groups is essential for the establishment of preventive and therapeutic strategies, as for substance users. During COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in the use of psychoactive substances during the lockdown, including cannabis. This commentary reviews relevant findings and discusses scientific evidence on the risks of worse clinical and psychiatric complications due to coronavirus disease COVID-19 in subjects who use cannabis. Although they are not included as a risk group in the health recommendations for that disease, they may have a more vulnerable respiratory system to viral diseases. There are certain similarities between the harmful cardiovascular and respiratory effects of cannabis use and those of smoking. Due to the different modes of smoking, cannabis chemicals are retained in the body for longe and may also contain other toxic substances such as tar, a substance found in tobacco and which has been associated with the development of lung cancer, bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. Therefore, we discuss if individuals who use cannabis regularly might be more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. This population deserves more clinical attention worldwide and this manuscript can help clinicians become more aware of cannabis risks during pandemics and develop specific intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannabis/adverse effects , Marijuana Smoking/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans
7.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 5, 2021 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038499

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by Sars-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has been a great concern for public and mental health systems worldwide. The identification of risk groups is essential for the establishment of preventive and therapeutic strategies, as for substance users. During COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in the use of psychoactive substances during the lockdown, including cannabis. This commentary reviews relevant findings and discusses scientific evidence on the risks of worse clinical and psychiatric complications due to coronavirus disease COVID-19 in subjects who use cannabis. Although they are not included as a risk group in the health recommendations for that disease, they may have a more vulnerable respiratory system to viral diseases. There are certain similarities between the harmful cardiovascular and respiratory effects of cannabis use and those of smoking. Due to the different modes of smoking, cannabis chemicals are retained in the body for longe and may also contain other toxic substances such as tar, a substance found in tobacco and which has been associated with the development of lung cancer, bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. Therefore, we discuss if individuals who use cannabis regularly might be more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. This population deserves more clinical attention worldwide and this manuscript can help clinicians become more aware of cannabis risks during pandemics and develop specific intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannabis/adverse effects , Marijuana Smoking/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans
8.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 21(4): 314-321, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002172

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine is used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection, although there is no substantial evidence for a beneficial effect. Chloroquine is known to prolong the QRS and QTc interval on the ECG. To assess the effect of chloroquine on QRS and QTc intervals in COVID-19 patients, we included all inpatients treated with chloroquine for COVID-19 in the Spaarne Gasthuis (Haarlem/Hoofddorp, the Netherlands) and had an ECG performed both in the 72 h before and during or at least 48 h after treatment. We analyzed the (change in) QRS and QTc interval using the one-sample t-test. Of the 106 patients treated with chloroquine, 70 met the inclusion criteria. The average change in QRS interval was 6.0 ms (95% CI 3.3-8.7) and the average change in QTc interval was 32.6 ms (95% CI 24.9-40.2) corrected with the Bazett's formula and 38.1 ms (95% CI 30.4-45.9) corrected with the Fridericia's formula. In 19 of the 70 patients (27%), the QTc interval was above 500 ms after start of chloroquine treatment or the change in QTc interval was more than 60 ms. A heart rate above 90 bpm, renal dysfunction, and a QTc interval below 450 ms were risk factors for QTc interval prolongation. Chloroquine prolongs the QTc interval in a substantial number of patients, potentially causing rhythm disturbances. Since there is no substantial evidence for a beneficial effect of chloroquine, these results discourage its use in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Electrocardiography/trends , Female , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Risk Factors
9.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(10): e008686, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on inhibition of viral replication and limited reports on clinical efficacy, hydroxychloroquine is being considered as prophylaxis and treatment of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Although hydroxychloroquine is generally considered safe during pregnancy based on studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic conditions, there may still be reluctance to institute this antimalarial during pregnancy for the sole purpose of antiviral therapy. METHODS: To provide data regarding any potential fetal/neonatal cardiotoxicity, we leveraged a unique opportunity in which neonatal ECGs and hydroxychloroquine blood levels were available in a recently completed study evaluating the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine 400 mg daily to prevent the recurrence of congenital heart block associated with anti-SSA/Ro (anti-Sjögren's Syndrome A/Ro) antibodies. RESULTS: Forty-five ECGs were available for corrected QT interval (QTc) measurement, and levels of hydroxychloroquine were assessed during each trimester of pregnancy and in the cord blood, providing unambiguous assurance of drug exposure. Overall, there was no correlation between cord blood levels of hydroxychloroquine and the neonatal QTc (R=0.02, P=0.86) or the mean of hydroxychloroquine values obtained throughout each individual pregnancy and the QTc (R=0.04, P=0.80). In total 5 (11% [95% CI, 4%-24%]) neonates had prolongation of the QTc >2 SD above historical healthy controls (2 markedly and 3 marginally) but ECGs were otherwise normal. CONCLUSIONS: In aggregate, these data provide reassurances that the maternal use of hydroxychloroquine is associated with a low incidence of infant QTc prolongation. However, if included in clinical COVID-19 studies, early postnatal ECGs should be considered. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01379573.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography , Fetal Heart/drug effects , Heart Block/congenital , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/blood , Cardiotoxicity , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Monitoring , Female , Fetal Blood/metabolism , Fetal Heart/physiopathology , Gestational Age , Heart Block/diagnosis , Heart Block/physiopathology , Heart Block/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(11): e008937, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARs-CoV-2) has resulted in a global pandemic. Hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin have been widely used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) despite a paucity of evidence regarding efficacy. The incidence of torsade de pointes remains unknown. Widespread use of these medications forced overwhelmed health care systems to search for ways to effectively monitor these patients while simultaneously trying to minimize health care provider exposure and use of personal protective equipment. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 positive who received hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin across 13 hospitals between March 1 and April 15 were included in this study. A comprehensive search of the electronic medical records was performed using a proprietary python script to identify any mention of QT prolongation, ventricular tachy-arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. RESULTS: The primary outcome of torsade de pointes was observed in 1 (0.015%) out of 6476 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin. Sixty-seven (1.03%) had hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin held or discontinued due to an average QT prolongation of 60.5±40.5 ms from a baseline QTc of 473.7±35.9 ms to a peak QTc of 532.6±31.6 ms. Of these patients, hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin were discontinued in 58 patients (86.6%), while one or more doses of therapy were held in the remaining nine (13.4%). A simplified approach to monitoring for QT prolongation and arrythmia was implemented on April 5. There were no deaths related to the medications with the simplified monitoring approach and health care provider exposure was reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of torsade de pointes is low in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin therapy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Action Potentials/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiotoxicity , Female , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Patient Safety , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Torsades de Pointes/diagnosis , Torsades de Pointes/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 30(8): 451-460, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713789

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic marches unrelentingly, more patients with cardiac arrhythmias are emerging due to the effects of the virus on the respiratory and cardiovascular (CV) systems and the systemic inflammation that it incurs, and also as a result of the proarrhythmic effects of COVID-19 pharmacotherapies and other drug interactions and the associated autonomic imbalance that enhance arrhythmogenicity. The most worrisome of all arrhythmogenic mechanisms is the QT prolonging effect of various anti-COVID pharmacotherapies that can lead to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in the form of torsade des pointes and sudden cardiac death. It is therefore imperative to monitor the QT interval during treatment; however, conventional approaches to such monitoring increase the transmission risk for the staff and strain the health system. Hence, there is dire need for contactless monitoring and telemetry for inpatients, especially those admitted to the intensive care unit, as well as for outpatients needing continued management. In this context, recent technological advances have ushered in a new era in implementing digital health monitoring tools that circumvent these obstacles. All these issues are herein discussed and a large body of recent relevant data are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Heart Conduction System/virology , Heart Rate/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cardiotoxicity , Drug Interactions , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
14.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(8): e008627, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During acute infections, the risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias is increased, partly because of a higher propensity to develop QTc prolongation. Although it is generally believed that QTc changes almost exclusively result from concomitant treatment with QT-prolonging antimicrobials, direct effects of inflammatory cytokines on ventricular repolarization are increasingly recognized. We hypothesized that systemic inflammation per se can significantly prolong QTc during acute infections, via cytokine-mediated changes in K+ channel expression. METHODS: We evaluated (1) the frequency of QTc prolongation and its association with inflammatory markers, in patients with different types of acute infections, during active disease and remission; (2) the prevalence of acute infections in a cohort of consecutive patients with Torsades de Pointes; (3) the relationship between K+ channel mRNA levels in ventricles and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and their changes in patients with acute infection over time. RESULTS: In patients with acute infections, regardless of concomitant QT-prolonging antimicrobial treatments, QTc was significantly prolonged but rapidly normalized in parallel to CRP (C-reactive protein) and cytokine level reduction. Consistently in the Torsades de Pointes cohort, concomitant acute infections were highly prevalent (30%), despite only a minority (25%) of these cases were treated with QT-prolonging antimicrobials. KCNJ2 K+ channel expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell, which strongly correlated to that in ventricles, inversely associated to CRP and IL (interleukin)-1 changes in acute infection patients. CONCLUSIONS: During acute infections, systemic inflammation rapidly induces cytokine-mediated ventricular electrical remodeling and significant QTc prolongation, regardless concomitant antimicrobial therapy. Although transient, these changes may significantly increase the risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia in these patients. It is timely and warranted to transpose these findings to the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, in which both increased amounts of circulating cytokines and cardiac arrhythmias are demonstrated along with a frequent concomitant treatment with several QT-prolonging drugs. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Heart Arrest/metabolism , Heart Rate , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/metabolism , Torsades de Pointes/metabolism , Action Potentials , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/physiopathology , Female , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/physiopathology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/genetics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Signal Transduction , Time Factors , Torsades de Pointes/epidemiology , Torsades de Pointes/physiopathology , Young Adult
16.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(9): 1445-1451, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early during the current coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) received a significant amount of attention as a potential antiviral treatment, such that it became one of the most commonly prescribed medications for COVID-19 patients. However, not only has the effectiveness of HCQ remained questionable, but mainly based on preclinical and a few small clinical studies, HCQ is known to be potentially arrhythmogenic, especially as a result of QT prolongation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the arrhythmic effects of HCQ, as the heightened risk is especially relevant to COVID-19 patients, who are at higher risk for cardiac complications and arrhythmias at baseline. METHODS: An optical mapping technique utilizing voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes was used to determine the arrhythmic effects of HCQ in ex vivo guinea pig and rabbit hearts perfused with the upper therapeutic serum dose of HCQ (1000 ng/mL). RESULTS: HCQ markedly increased action potential dispersion, resulted in development of repolarization alternans, and initiated polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. CONCLUSION: The study results further highlight the proarrhythmic effects of HCQ.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart/drug effects , Heart/physiopathology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Guinea Pigs , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Rabbits , Tissue Culture Techniques , Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging
17.
Aging Male ; 23(5): 1362-1365, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to detect the malignant arrhythmic potential of COVID-19 with surface electrocardiographic (ECG) markers. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Of the ECG parameters PR, QT, QTc, QTd, TPe, and Tpe/QTc were measured in 51 COVID-19 patients and 40 in control subjects. RESULTS: Compared to control group mean QTc (410.8 ± 24.3 msec vs. 394.6 ± 20.3 msec, p < .001) and Tpe/QTc (0.19 ± 0.02 vs. 0.18 ± 0.04, p = .036) and median QTd (47.52 vs. 46.5) values were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients. Troponin levels were significantly correlated with heart rate (r = 0.387, p = .006) but not with ECG parameters. CONCLUSION: Several ventricular arrhythmia surface ECG predictors including QTc, QTd, and Tpe/QTc are increased in COVID-19 patients. Since medications used in COVID-19 patients have the potential to affect these parameters, giving importance to these ECG markers may have a significant contribution in decreasing disease-related arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Correlation of Data , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/prevention & control , Troponin/analysis , Turkey/epidemiology
18.
QJM ; 113(8): 539-545, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lungs from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown typical signs of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), formation of hyaline membrane mainly composed of fibrin and 'ground-glass' opacity. Previously, we showed plasminogen itself is a key regulator in fibrin degradation, wound healing and infection. AIM: We aimed to investigate whether plasminogen can improve lung lesions and hypoxemia of COVID-19. DESIGN: Thirteen clinically moderate, severe or critical COVID-19 patients were treated with atomization inhalation of freeze-dried plasminogen. METHODS: Levels of their lung lesions, oxygen saturation and heart rates were compared before and after treatment by computed tomography scanning images and patient monitor. RESULTS: After plasminogen inhalation, conditions of lung lesions in five clinically moderate patients have quickly improved, shown as the decreased range and density of 'ground glass' opacity. Improvements of oxygen saturation were observed in six clinically severe patients. In the two patients with critical conditions, the oxygen levels have significantly increased from 79-82% to 91% just about 1 h after the first inhalation. In 8 of 13 patients, the heart rates had slowed down. For the five clinically moderate patients, the difference is even statistically significant. Furthermore, a general relief of chest tightness was observed. CONCLUSION: Whereas it is reported that plasminogen is dramatically increased in adults with ARDS, this study suggests that additional plasminogen may be effective and efficient in treating lung lesions and hypoxemia during COVID-19 infections. Although further studies are needed, this study highlights a possible hope of efficiently combating this rapid epidemic emergency.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Plasminogen/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Plasminogen/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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