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2.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 27(1): 36-44, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821995

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure incidence continues to rise despite a relatively static number of available donor hearts. Selecting an appropriate heart transplant candidate requires evaluation of numerous factors to balance patient benefit while maximizing the utility of scarce donor hearts. Recent research has provided new insights into refining recipient risk assessment, providing additional tools to further define and balance risk when considering heart transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent publications have developed models to assist in risk stratifying potential heart transplant recipients based on cardiac and noncardiac factors. These studies provide additional tools to assist clinicians in balancing individual risk and benefit of heart transplantation in the context of a limited donor organ supply. SUMMARY: The primary goal of heart transplantation is to improve survival and maximize quality of life. To meet this goal, a careful assessment of patient-specific risks is essential. The optimal approach to patient selection relies on integrating recent prognostication models with a multifactorial assessment of established clinical characteristics, comorbidities and psychosocial factors.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Heart Transplantation , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Patient Selection , Quality of Life , Tissue Donors
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(13): e104, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775638

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have become the mainstay of management against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19) in the absence of effective antiviral therapy. Various adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccination have been reported, including cardiovascular complications such as myocarditis or pericarditis. Herein, we describe clinical records of a 63-year woman with fulminant myocarditis following ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination that was salvaged by heart transplantation. She complained chest pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever after the second vaccination. After the heart transplantation, the patient died due to necrotizing pneumonia on the 54th day of onset. Fulminant myocarditis is very rare after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination but can be fatal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Myocarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(13): 1066-1069, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730640

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe a case of disseminated Verruconis gallopava infection in a cardiac transplant recipient that was successfully treated with oral posaconazole and intravenous anidulafungin. SUMMARY: A 51-year-old male initially presented with pulmonary manifestations, but subsequently developed cutaneous lesions, fungemia, osteomyelitis of the hip requiring excision, and eventually brain abscesses over the course of 3 months. The patient was successfully treated with various antifungal agents throughout his treatment course and was eventually discharged on oral posaconazole and intravenous anidulafungin. He remained on oral posaconazole suppressive therapy and had had no recurrence of fungal infection after 31 months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: On the basis of this case report, intravenous anidulafungin and chronic suppressive therapy with oral posaconazole can successfully treat disseminated V. gallopava infections.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Heart Transplantation , Mycoses , Anidulafungin , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/etiology , Mycoses/microbiology
6.
Transplantation ; 106(3): 641-647, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart transplant (HT) recipients may be at higher risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and developing critical illness. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics and outcomes of HT recipients infected by SARS-COV-2, from a high-volume transplant center. METHODS: We have described data of all adult HT recipients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 by RT-PCR in nasopharyngeal samples from April 5, 2020, to January 5, 2021. Outcomes and follow-up were recorded until February 5, 2021. RESULTS: Forty patients were included. Twenty-four patients (60%) were men; the median age was 53 (40-60) y old; median HT time was 34 mo; and median follow-up time 162 d. The majority needed hospitalization (83%). Immunosuppressive therapy was reduced/withdrawn in the majority of patients, except from steroids, which were maintained. Seventeen patients (42.5%) were classified as having severe disease according to the ordinal scale developed by the World Health Organization Committee. They tended to have lower absolute lymphocyte count (P < 0.001) during follow-up when compared with patients with mild disease. Thirty-day mortality was 12.5%. However, a longer follow-up revealed increased later mortality (27.5%), with median time to death around 35 d. Bacterial nosocomial infections were a leading cause of death. Cardiac allograft rejection (10%) and ventricular dysfunction (12.5%) were also not negligible. CONCLUSIONS: Major findings of this study corroborate other cohorts' results, but it also reports significant rate of later events, suggesting that a strict midterm surveillance is advisable to HT recipients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Adult , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
8.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 29(7): e261-e262, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604221
11.
Transplant Proc ; 53(9): 2743-2746, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus that is affecting the entire world population. The objective of this study was to analyze the repercussion of the disease in a group of patients at risk such as heart transplant recipients. METHODS: From February 2020 to February 2021, heart transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 were consecutively included. The total number of transplant recipients in outpatient follow-up at that time was 381. Three levels of infection were determined: group A: asymptomatic patients or with trivial symptoms without the need for hospital admission (6 patients); group B: patients admitted to the hospital for respiratory symptoms (12 patients); and group C: patients with severe symptoms and need for admission to the critical care unit (2 patients). At each risk level, medical performance was different: group A: close control, no therapeutic modification; group B: reduction of calcineurin inhibitor and substitution of mycophenolate mofetil for everolimus; group C: reduction of calcineurin inhibitor and withdrawal of mycophenolate mofetil. RESULTS: The prevalence of infection in the series was 5.2%. Most patients admitted had a pathologic chest x-ray with fever, cough, dyspnea, or vomiting. The change in immunosuppression performed in patients in group 2 was well tolerated and there was no graft rejection. Antiviral treatment was little used. However, boluses of steroids and some antibiotics were used frequently. The need for supplemental oxygen was 50% in group 2 and 100% in group 3. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of transplant recipients will be affected by COVID-19 (5.3%). Management of the infection will depend on the severity of the infection and must be based on a balance between reduction and adjustment of immunosuppression, strict control of the cardiologic situation, and treatment of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Kidney Transplantation , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Transplant Recipients
12.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 453, 2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the rapidly expanding pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, a chronic immunosuppressed state in solid organ transplant recipients is a concern. We reported coronavirus disease 2019 in heart transplant recipients and described the patients' course from diagnosis to either hospital admission or improvement in symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: This study retrospectively identified 13 white (Iranian) heart transplant patients with coronavirus disease 2019 between December 2019 and October 2020. The mean age of patients was 43.7 years (19-65 years); seven (70%) were men. Laboratory and treatment data were collected for those admitted or managed as outpatients. Outcomes were also recorded for all patients. This report demonstrates a range of symptoms, clinical severity, and disease course in heart transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019, including ten hospitalized patients and three patients, managed entirely in the outpatient setting. One patient passed away, and none of them experienced an episode of clinically overt rejection. CONCLUSIONS: We would like to emphasize the importance of being alert in these patients to consider testing in a broad range of clinical presentations and gathering more data for better management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Adult , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Iran , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Transplant ; 36(1): e14443, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328997

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppressed heart transplant (HT) recipients are thought to be at higher risk of infection and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, evidence guiding management of HT patients are limited. Retrospective search of electronic health records from February 2020 to February 2021, identified 28 HT recipients out of 400 followed by UC San Diego who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patient demographics, COVID-19 directed therapies, hospital course and outcomes were compared to control HT recipients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 during the same period (n = 80). Among 28 HT recipients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 15 were admitted to the hospital and 13 were monitored closely as outpatients. Among inpatients, five developed severe illness and two died (7% mortality). Nine patients were treated with remdesivir, and four received dexamethasone and remdesivir. Two outpatients received neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapy and one outpatient received dexamethasone for persistent dyspnea. Immunosuppressed HT recipients, especially Hispanic patients and patients with higher body mass index, were at greater risk of infection and mortality from COVID-19 than the general population. Use of remdesivir and dexamethasone may have improved outcomes in our HT recipients compared to HT recipients at other centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
14.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(8): 1142-1149, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303315

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Immunocompromised patients have been excluded from studies of SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccines. The immune response to vaccines against other infectious agents has been shown to be blunted in such patients. We aimed to analyse the humoral and cellular response to prime-boost vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) in cardiothoracic transplant recipients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 50 transplant patients [1-3 years post heart (42), lung (7), or heart-lung (1) transplant, mean age 55 ± 10 years] and a control group of 50 healthy staff members were included. Blood samples were analysed 21 days after the prime and the boosting dose, respectively, to quantify anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) immunoglobulin titres (tested by Abbott, Euroimmun and RocheElecsys Immunoassays, each) and the functional inhibitory capacity of neutralizing antibodies (Genscript). To test for a specific T-cell response, heparinized whole blood was stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 specific peptides, covering domains of the viral spike, nucleocapsid and membrane protein, and the interferon-γ release was measured (QuantiFERON Monitor ELISA, Qiagen). The vast majority of transplant patients (90%) showed neither a detectable humoral nor a T-cell response three weeks after the completed two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination; these results are in sharp contrast to the robust immunogenicity seen in the control group: 98% exhibited seroconversion after the prime dose already, with a further significant increase of IgG titres after the booster dose (average > tenfold increase), a more than 90% inhibition capability of neutralizing antibodies as well as evidence of a T-cell responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of poor immune responses to a two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination in cardiothoracic transplant patients have a significant impact for organ transplant recipients specifically and possibly for immunocompromised patients in general. It urges for a review of future vaccine strategies in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart-Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Young Adult
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 34-36, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300796

ABSTRACT

This report describes the first heart transplantation recipient with acute biventricular heart failure symptoms caused by a post-myocarditis state, late after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. No other viral pathogens could be detected. Computed tomography angiography did not show cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and myocardial biopsy demonstrated no clinically relevant rejection. Subsequent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive epicardial delayed enhancement without myocardial edema. Heart failure medication was initiated and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted (due to non-sustained ventricular tachycardias), leading to a partial recovery of the ejection fraction. Further studies are needed to investigate the number of heart transplant recipients with myocardial damage after a SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged
16.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13681, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295140

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Patients awaiting heart transplantation (HTx) are at increased risk developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients supported by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) face additional risks due to coagulopathies during COVID-19. Following HTx, elevated risk factors for severe COVID-19 persist due to chronic immunosuppression and frequent comorbidities. Taken together, COVID-19 vaccination is of critical importance in all three patient cohorts. Here, we report our experience to deliver COVID-19 vaccination in a German transplant center. METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened 211 patients for contraindications and offered the remaining 186 eligible patients COVID-19 vaccination. Of those, 133 patients (71%) accepted the offer and were vaccinated. Acceptance of vaccination differed between HTx recipients (84 of 113, 74%), patients on the waiting list (34 of 47, 72%), and patients with LVAD support (28 of 50, 56%). The LVAD cohort demonstrated lower acceptance levels for vaccination compared to HTx recipients and patients awaiting HTx (74% vs. 56%; p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: We demonstrate for the first time only moderate acceptance levels of COVID-19 vaccination in HTx recipients and candidates on the waiting list compared to general population, despite perceived high-risk for severe disease. Additionally, those supported by LVAD have even lower adherence. Efforts may need to be made to increase acceptance in this vulnerable as well as cost-intensive patient cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Heart Transplantation , Heart-Assist Devices , COVID-19 Vaccines , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Heart-Assist Devices/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
17.
Clin Transplant ; 35(8): e14330, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241002

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic continues, with a late hyperinflammatory phase. The immunosuppressive therapy used in heart transplant patients, in theory, could reduce inflammation, thus benefitting patients with COVID-19. So far, however, there is still very little literature on this subject. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective study. We described laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes from 11 heart transplant patients with COVID-19 assisted at Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology between March and July 2020. RESULTS: Patients with ages of between 35 and 79 years were enrolled, and heart transplantation ranged from 3 to 264 months. The main comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (9/11; 81.8%), hypertension (10/11; 90.9%), and chronic renal disease (6/11; 54.5%). Cyclosporine A was used in 10 (90.9%) patients, mycophenolate mofetil in 9 (81.8%) patients, and mTOR inhibitor in 5 (45.5%) patients. Fever and cough were observed in 8 (72.7%) patients, and dyspnea and gastrointestinal symptoms in 5 (45.5%) patients. Lymphopenia was observed in 10 (90.9%) patients and thrombocytopenia in 5 (45.5%) patients. The higher level of troponin associated with chest tomography above 50% of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates with ground-glass opacity (GGO) was observed in those with the worst outcomes. Nine patients needed intensive care, and hospital stay ranged from 4 to 21 days, with 2 (18.2%) patients requiring vasopressor drugs and mechanical ventilation, and three (27.3%) patients dying due to COVID-19 complications. CONCLUSION: Heart transplant patients had similar symptoms and outcomes as the general population; immunosuppressive therapy seems not to have protected them. Patients who presented higher levels of troponin and D-dimer, associated with greater GGO pulmonary infiltrates, had worse outcomes. More studies with larger cohorts may clarify immunosuppressive effects on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Brazil , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Transplant ; 35(7): e14329, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203845

ABSTRACT

The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 in heart transplant recipients has not been fully defined, because asymptomatic and sub-clinical cases are difficult to capture. Seroprevalence surveys are an important tool to identify not just cases that have come to clinical attention, but all previously infected recipients. We performed a seroprevalence survey of the adult heart transplant program at a large New York City Hospital System. A total of 232 (87% of recipients being followed) subjects were tested, of whom 37 (15.9%) were found to be previously infected. This is comparable to the overall rate of prior infection in the NYC metro area. Disease course tended to be more severe than in the general population; however, this was at least partially driven by traditional risk factors of age and comorbidities. Lastly, 9 of 10 recipients who were initially found to be PCR positive subsequently tested positive for antibodies, confirming the ability of this population to mount a humoral response. In conclusion, prevalence of COVID-19 in heart transplant recipients on immunosuppression was comparable to that in the general population of NYC, and 90% of those with an initially positive viral swab developed antibodies. In those who are infected, disease course tends to be more severe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Adult , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Transplant Recipients
19.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 74(4): 596-605, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190768

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The study is a prospective clinical observation of patients after orthotopic heart transplantation in a large academic medical center in relation to COVID-19 morbidity. The study population was comprised of 552 patients. All patients were consulted and advised by telephone as regards the prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hospital and outpatient follow-ups were limited to the minimum. Preventive modification of immunosuppression was not recommended in relation to the pandemic. Three patients with multiple comorbidities (a woman aged 60, a man aged 59, and another man aged 83; 2.25 years, 5.5 years, and 7.5 years after heart transplantation, respectively) and one patient with concomitant arterial hypertension (a woman aged 48, 5.5 years after heart transplantation) presented with a symptomatic COVID-19 infection. Three of the patients were on tacrolimus immunosuppression, and both female patients were additionally on therapy with mycophenolate mofetil, which was discontinued following the diagnosis of infection. One male patient received combined therapy of cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil. The 60-year-old woman presented with gastrointestinal manifestations of the COVID-19 infection which were of moderate severity. The recovery was achieved. The 59-year-old man presented with myocardial infarction, exacerbated renal insufficiency that required hemodialysis and cardiorespiratory failure complicated by bacterial sepsis. As a result, the patient died. The 83-year-old male patient reporting fever, myalgia, fatigue, cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital and deceased due to septic shock two days after admission. The 48-year old woman who presented with mild symptoms of the upper respiratory tract infection recovered after two weeks. Symptomatic treatment was used in all the patients. Another male patient (aged 45 years, 8 years after orthotopic heart transplant with no significant comorbidities) was an asymptomatic carrier of SARS-CoV-2 and remained under hospital care. CONCLUSIONS: Of 552 patients after orthotopic heart transplantation, two SARS-CoV-2-related deaths were reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cause of Death/trends , Comorbidity , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Morbidity/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
20.
Transplantation ; 106(3): 641-647, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart transplant (HT) recipients may be at higher risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and developing critical illness. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics and outcomes of HT recipients infected by SARS-COV-2, from a high-volume transplant center. METHODS: We have described data of all adult HT recipients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 by RT-PCR in nasopharyngeal samples from April 5, 2020, to January 5, 2021. Outcomes and follow-up were recorded until February 5, 2021. RESULTS: Forty patients were included. Twenty-four patients (60%) were men; the median age was 53 (40-60) y old; median HT time was 34 mo; and median follow-up time 162 d. The majority needed hospitalization (83%). Immunosuppressive therapy was reduced/withdrawn in the majority of patients, except from steroids, which were maintained. Seventeen patients (42.5%) were classified as having severe disease according to the ordinal scale developed by the World Health Organization Committee. They tended to have lower absolute lymphocyte count (P < 0.001) during follow-up when compared with patients with mild disease. Thirty-day mortality was 12.5%. However, a longer follow-up revealed increased later mortality (27.5%), with median time to death around 35 d. Bacterial nosocomial infections were a leading cause of death. Cardiac allograft rejection (10%) and ventricular dysfunction (12.5%) were also not negligible. CONCLUSIONS: Major findings of this study corroborate other cohorts' results, but it also reports significant rate of later events, suggesting that a strict midterm surveillance is advisable to HT recipients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Adult , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
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