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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 740260, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506482

ABSTRACT

Increased left ventricular fibrosis has been reported in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is unclear whether this fibrosis is a consequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or a risk factor for severe disease progression. We observed increased fibrosis in the left ventricular myocardium of deceased COVID-19 patients, compared with matched controls. We also detected increased mRNA levels of soluble interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (sIL1-RL1) and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) in the left ventricular myocardium of deceased COVID-19 patients. Biochemical analysis of blood sampled from patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) with COVID-19 revealed highly elevated levels of TGF-ß1 mRNA in these patients compared to controls. Left ventricular strain measured by echocardiography as a marker of pre-existing cardiac fibrosis correlated strongly with blood TGF-ß1 mRNA levels and predicted disease severity in COVID-19 patients. In the left ventricular myocardium and lungs of COVID-19 patients, we found increased neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) RNA levels, which correlated strongly with the prevalence of pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid. Cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis may therefore predispose these patients to increased cellular viral entry in the lung, which may explain the worse clinical outcome observed in our cohort. Our study demonstrates that patients at risk of clinical deterioration can be identified early by echocardiographic strain analysis and quantification of blood TGF-ß1 mRNA performed at the time of first medical contact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Fibrosis , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/genetics , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Viral Load
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409701

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), recognized as stress's cardiomyopathy, or as left ventricular apical balloon syndrome in recent years, is a rare pathology, described for the first time by Japanese researchers in 1990. TTS is characterized by an interindividual heterogeneity in onset and progression, and by strong predominance in postmenopausal women. The clear causes of these TTS features are uncertain, given the limited understanding of this intriguing syndrome until now. However, the increasing frequency of TTS cases in recent years, and particularly correlated to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, leads us to the imperative necessity both of a complete knowledge of TTS pathophysiology for identifying biomarkers facilitating its management, and of targets for specific and effective treatments. The suspect of a genetic basis in TTS pathogenesis has been evidenced. Accordingly, familial forms of TTS have been described. However, a systematic and comprehensive characterization of the genetic or epigenetic factors significantly associated with TTS is lacking. Thus, we here conducted a systematic review of the literature before June 2021, to contribute to the identification of potential genetic and epigenetic factors associated with TTS. Interesting data were evidenced, but few in number and with diverse limitations. Consequently, we concluded that further work is needed to address the gaps discussed, and clear evidence may arrive by using multi-omics investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Epigenesis, Genetic/immunology , Genetic Heterogeneity , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/genetics , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , DNA Copy Number Variations/immunology , Genetic Loci/immunology , Heart Ventricles/immunology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Medical History Taking , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/immunology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/pathology
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 192, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206456

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is responsible for many complications, which can lead to a high risk of mortality in some patients. Among them are cardiovascular complications which are classified as the most severe. We report a case of a young woman, with no relevant pathological history, admitted for COVID-19 infection, complicated by myocarditis with severe ventricular dysfunction, cardiogenic shock and a large thrombosis into the left ventricle (LV) that was responsible for a left lower limb ischemia associated with a deep venous thrombosis of right lower limb.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/virology , Shock, Cardiogenic/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Female , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Heart Ventricles/virology , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Middle Aged , Venous Thrombosis/virology
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194192

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that novel COVID-19 is associated with increased prothrombotic state and risk of thromboembolic complications, particularly in severe disease. COVID-19 is known to predispose to both venous and arterial thrombotic disease. We describe a case of a 61-year-old woman with history of type II diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia who presented with dry cough and acute abdominal pain. She was found to have a significantly elevated D-dimer, prompting imaging that showed thrombi in her right ventricle and aorta. She had rapid clinical deterioration and eventually required tissue plasminogen activator with subsequent durable clinical improvement. This case highlights a rare co-occurrence of venous and arterial thrombi in a patient with severe COVID-19. Further studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanism of COVID-19 coagulopathy, the utility of D-dimer to predict and stratify risk of thrombosis in COVID-19, and the use of fibrinolytic therapy in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Thrombosis , Aorta/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
5.
Infection ; 49(3): 491-500, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053123

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: SARS-COV-2 infection can develop into a multi-organ disease. Although pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19-associated myocardial injury have been studied throughout the pandemic course in 2019, its morphological characterisation is still unclear. With this study, we aimed to characterise echocardiographic patterns of ventricular function in patients with COVID-19-associated myocardial injury. METHODS: We prospectively assessed 32 patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and presence or absence of elevated high sensitive troponin T (hsTNT+ vs. hsTNT-) by comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) and strain echocardiography. RESULTS: A minority (34.3%) of patients had normal ventricular function, whereas 65.7% had left and/or right ventricular dysfunction defined by impaired left and/or right ventricular ejection fraction and strain measurements. Concomitant biventricular dysfunction was common in hsTNT+ patients. We observed impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) in patients with myocardial injury (-13.9% vs. -17.7% for hsTNT+ vs. hsTNT-, p = 0.005) but preserved LV ejection fraction (52% vs. 59%, p = 0.074). Further, in these patients, right ventricular (RV) systolic function was impaired with lower RV ejection fraction (40% vs. 49%, p = 0.001) and reduced RV free wall strain (-18.5% vs. -28.3%, p = 0.003). Myocardial dysfunction partially recovered in hsTNT + patients after 52 days of follow-up. In particular, LV-GLS and RV-FWS significantly improved from baseline to follow-up (LV-GLS: -13.9% to -16.5%, p = 0.013; RV-FWS: -18.5% to -22.3%, p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19-associated myocardial injury, comprehensive 3D and strain echocardiography revealed LV dysfunction by GLS and RV dysfunction, which partially resolved at 2-month follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID-19 Registry of the LMU University Hospital Munich (CORKUM), WHO trial ID DRKS00021225.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction/pathology
6.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(4): 978-984, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002140

ABSTRACT

Disordered coagulation, endothelial dysfunction, dehydration and immobility contribute to a substantially elevated risk of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism (PE) and systemic thrombosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary thrombosis and reported RV (right ventricular) dilatation/dysfunction associated with Covid-19 in a tertiary referral Covid-19 centre. Of 370 patients, positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 39 patients (mean age 62.3 ± 15 years, 56% male) underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), due to increasing oxygen requirements or refractory hypoxia, not improving on oxygen, very elevated D-dimer or tachycardia disproportionate to clinical condition. Thrombosis in the pulmonary vasculature was found in 18 (46.2%) patients. However, pulmonary thrombosis did not predict survival (46.2% survivors vs 41.7% non-survivors, p = 0.796), but RV dilatation was less frequent among survivors (11.5% survivors vs 58.3% non-survivors, p = 0.002). Over the following month, we observed four Covid-19 patients, who were admitted with high and intermediate-high risk PE, and we treated them with UACTD (ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis), and four further patients, who were admitted with PE up to 4 weeks after recovery from Covid-19. Finally, we observed a case of RV dysfunction and pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension, associated with Covid-19 extensive lung disease. We demonstrated that pulmonary thrombosis is common in association with Covid-19. Also, the thrombotic risk in the pulmonary vasculature is present before and during hospital admission, and continues at least up to four weeks after discharge, and we present UACTD for high and intermediate-high risk PE management in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Ventricles , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , United Kingdom , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
7.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(8): 1326.e9-1326.e11, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620915

ABSTRACT

A wide spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations has been documented in patients suffering from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Usually associated with a poor prognoses, these manifestations include thromboembolic events, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and cardiogenic shock. We describe a patient with COVID-19 who presented with subacute myocardial infarction, biventricular thrombi, and bilateral pulmonary emboli. Biventricular thrombi are rare, and their presence raises concern for an underlying prothrombotic condition.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Heart Aneurysm , Heart Ventricles , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Embolism , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Clinical Deterioration , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Heart Aneurysm/diagnosis , Heart Aneurysm/etiology , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
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