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1.
Heart ; 108(12): 899-901, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874629

Subject(s)
Calcium , Heart , Heart Rate , Humans
3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(17): e425, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859821
4.
Heart ; 108(11): 813-815, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854378
5.
Cardiol Rev ; 30(3): 109-110, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806656
7.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785536

ABSTRACT

The use of cannabis preparations has steadily increased. Although cannabis was traditionally assumed to only have mild vegetative side effects, it has become evident in recent years that severe cardiovascular complications can occur. Cannabis use has recently even been added to the risk factors for myocardial infarction. This review is dedicated to pathogenetic factors contributing to cannabis-related myocardial infarction. Tachycardia is highly important in this respect, and we provide evidence that activation of CB1 receptors in brain regions important for cardiovascular regulation and of presynaptic CB1 receptors on sympathetic and/or parasympathetic nerve fibers are involved. The prototypical factors for myocardial infarction, i.e., thrombus formation and coronary constriction, have also been considered, but there is little evidence that they play a decisive role. On the other hand, an increase in the formation of carboxyhemoglobin, impaired mitochondrial respiration, cardiotoxic reactions and tachyarrhythmias associated with the increased sympathetic tone are factors possibly intensifying myocardial infarction. A particularly important factor is that cannabis use is frequently accompanied by tobacco smoking. In conclusion, additional research is warranted to decipher the mechanisms involved, since cannabis use is being legalized increasingly and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its synthetic analogue nabilone are indicated for the treatment of various disease states.


Subject(s)
Cannabinoids , Cannabis , Myocardial Infarction , Adolescent , Analgesics , Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists , Cannabinoids/adverse effects , Cannabis/adverse effects , Heart , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
9.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 381(3): 197-203, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765068

ABSTRACT

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) improves physical capacities and decreases hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality. L-arginine is the substrate used by nitric oxide (NO) synthase to generate NO and it has been shown to exert its beneficial effects on endothelium driving vasodilatation, reducing inflammation, and ameliorating physical function. We hypothesized that L-arginine could enhance physical capacities in patients who underwent CR after AMI. We designed a study aimed to assess the effects of L-arginine administration on the physical capacity of patients who underwent coronary revascularization after AMI. The trial was carried out amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients were assigned, with a 2:1 ratio, to add to their standard therapy one bottle containing 1.66 g of L-arginine or one bottle of identical aspect apart from not containing L-arginine, twice a day orally for 3 weeks. Patients performed a 6-minute walking test (6MWT), and their Borg modified 0-10 rating of perceived exertion (BRPE) was assessed before starting and at the end of the treatment. Seventy-five patients receiving L-arginine, and 35 receiving placebo successfully completed the study. The 6MWT distance increased significantly in the L-arginine group compared with both baseline and placebo (P < 0.0001). Additionally, we observed a significant improvement in the BRPE in patients treated with L-arginine but not in the placebo group. Taken together, our data indicate that L-arginine potentiates the response to CR independently of age, sex, baseline functional capacity, and comorbid conditions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study shows for the first time that oral supplementation of L-arginine potentiates the response to cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction and cardiac revascularization. Indeed, we observed a significant improvement in two fundamental parameters, namely, the 6-minute walking test and the Borg modified 0-10 rating of perceived exertion. Strikingly, the beneficial effects of L-arginine were independent of age, sex, comorbid conditions, and baseline functional capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Myocardial Infarction , Arginine , Heart , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Pandemics
10.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e11932, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760019

ABSTRACT

Recent findings have confirmed relationships between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and multiple organ dysfunction. The prevalence of cardiac and renal involvement in COVID-19 has been increasingly reported and is a marker of severe disease that not only directly or indirectly affects the organs, but may also exacerbate the underlying comorbid illness. In addition, patients affected by the new coronavirus present a systemic inflammatory condition that results in damage to several tissues, especially the heart, kidneys, and vessels. It is well known that the heart and kidneys are closely related, so that any change in one of the organs can lead to damage to the other, establishing the so-called cardiorenal syndrome. Herein, we explore some case reports of patients with COVID-19 who had heart and kidney abnormalities, consequently resulting in worse prognosis of the disease. These results highlight the importance of understanding the cause and effect between the cardiac and renal systems and the course of early SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardio-Renal Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Heart , Humans , Kidney , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 130(3): 178-189, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747156

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a new coronavirus - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - has resulted in a global pandemic. The associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a high number of death worldwide. Observational studies and case reports have provided insights that older age and the presence of chronic diseases is frequently associated with a higher COVID-19 severity. These individuals also seem to have a higher risk of mortality due to COVID-19. In this review we provide insights into the impact chronic diseases associated with the cardiovascular system, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease might have on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Additionally we review recommendations and guidance's of international scientific associations and discuss which key learnings might be of importance for the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Heart , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur Heart J ; 43(13): 1288-1295, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730673

ABSTRACT

This article reviews the most relevant literature published in 2021 on the role of cardiovascular imaging in cardiovascular medicine. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continued to impact the healthcare landscape, resulting in reduced access to hospital-based cardiovascular care including reduced routine diagnostic cardiovascular testing. However, imaging has also facilitated the understanding of the presence and extent of myocardial damage caused by the coronavirus infection. What has dominated the imaging literature beyond the pandemic are novel data on valvular heart disease, the increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) applied to imaging, and the use of advanced imaging modalities in both ischaemic heart disease and cardiac amyloidosis.


Subject(s)
Amyloidosis , COVID-19 , Myocardial Ischemia , Artificial Intelligence , Heart , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis
13.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(2): 73, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716429

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications (especially myocarditis) related to COVID-19 viral infection are not well understood, nor do they possess a well recognized diagnostic protocol as most of our information regarding this issue was derived from case reports. In this article we extract data from all published case reports in the second half of 2020 to summarize the theories of pathogenesis and explore the value of each diagnostic test including clinical, lab, ECG, ECHO, cardiac MRI and endomyocardial biopsy. These tests provide information that explain the mechanism of development of myocarditis that further paves the way for better management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Heart , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715393

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of human mortality worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation are pathophysiological processes involved in the development of CVD. That is why bioactive food ingredients, including lycopene, are so important in their prevention, which seems to be a compound increasingly promoted in the diet of people with cardiovascular problems. Lycopene present in tomatoes and tomato products is responsible not only for their red color but also for health-promoting properties. It is characterized by a high antioxidant potential, the highest among carotenoid pigments. Mainly for this reason, epidemiological studies show a number of favorable properties between the consumption of lycopene in the diet and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. While there is also some controversy in research into its protective effects on the cardiovascular system, growing evidence supports its beneficial role for the heart, endothelium, blood vessels, and health. The mechanisms of action of lycopene are now being discovered and may explain some of the contradictions observed in the literature. This review aims to present the current knowledge in recent years on the preventive role of lycopene cardiovascular disorders.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Lycopene/pharmacology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Humans , Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
17.
Diagn Pathol ; 17(1): 31, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite a reported cardiac injury in patients with new coronavirus infection, the possibility and specifics of genuine viral myocarditis in COVID-19 remains not fully clear. PURPOSE: To study the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the myocardium and the morphological properties of myocarditis in patients with severe coronavirus infection (COVID-19). METHODS: Autopsy data of eight elderly patients (75.6 ± 7.4 years), four male and four female, with severe new coronavirus infection were studied. The lifetime diagnosis of COVID-19 is based on a positive result of the PCR study. The inclusion criterion was the presence of morphological signs of myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria. A standard histological examination included staining by hematoxylin and eosin, toluidin blue and Van Gieson. An immunohistochemical study was performed using antibodies to CD3, CD 68, CD20, perforin, toll-like receptor (TLR) types 4 and 9. PCR in real-time was performed to determine the viral RNA in the myocardium. RESULTS: All patients had severe bilateral viral pneumonia. In all cases, myocarditis was not clinically diagnosed. Morphological examination of the heart found signs of active lymphocytic myocarditis. PCR identified the SARS-Cov2 RNA in all cases. There were also signs of destructive coronaritis in all cases, thrombovasculitis, lymphocytic pericarditis (in 3 cases) and endocarditis (in 2 cases). The absence of neutrophils confirms the aseptic nature of inflammation. An immunohistochemical study showed the CD3-positive T lymphocytes in the infiltrates. Increased expression of TLR type 4 and less 9 was also detected. CONCLUSION: Morphological and immunohistochemical evidence of myocarditis in COVID-19 was presented. Lymphocytic infiltrations and positive PCR confirm the viral nature of inflammation. Myocarditis in COVID-19 is also characterized by coronaritis with microvascular thrombosis and associated with lymphocytic endo- and pericarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Myocarditis/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Heart/virology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Cells ; 11(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690345

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is an extremely contagious disease whereby the virus damages the host's respiratory tract via entering through the ACE2 receptor. Cardiovascular disorder is being recognized in the majority of COVID-19 patients; yet, the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and heart failure has not been established. In the present study, SARS-CoV-2 infection was induced in the monkey model. Thereafter, heart tissue samples were collected, and pathological changes were analyzed in the left ventricular tissue by hematoxylin and eosin, trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining specific to T lymphocytes and macrophages. The findings revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces several pathological changes in the heart, which cause cardiomyocyte disarray, mononuclear infiltrates of inflammatory cells, and hypertrophy. Furthermore, collagen-specific staining showed the development of cardiac fibrosis in the interstitial and perivascular regions in the hearts of infected primates. Moreover, the myocardial tissue samples displayed multiple foci of inflammatory cells positive for T lymphocytes and macrophages within the myocardium. These findings suggest the progression of the disease, which can lead to the development of severe complications, including heart failure. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 antigen staining detected the presence of virus particles in the myocardium. Thus, we found that SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory immune response in the heart, which possibly contributes to myocardial remodeling and subsequent fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Heart/virology , Heart Failure/virology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/virology , Immune System/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 63(3): 715-721, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive, objective and validated method for the assessment of autonomic nervous system. Although acute manifestations of COVID-19 were widely researched, long-term sequela of COVID-19 are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze autonomic function using HRV indices in the post-COVID period that may have a potential to enlighten symptoms of COVID long-haulers. METHODS: The 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) recordings obtained >12 weeks after the diagnosis of COVID-19 were compared with age-gender-matched healthy controls. Patients who used drugs or had comorbidities that affect HRV and who were hospitalized with severe COVID-19 were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Time domain indices of HRV analysis (standard deviation of normal RR intervals in 24 h (SDNN 24 h) and root mean square of successive RR interval differences (RMSSD)) were significantly higher in post-COVID patients (p < 0.05 for all). Among frequency domain indices, high frequency and low frequency/high frequency ratio was significantly higher in post-COVID patients (p = 0.037 and p = 0.010, respectively). SDNN >60 ms [36 (60.0%) vs. 12 (36.4%), p = 0.028)] and RMSSD >40 ms [31 (51.7%) vs. 7 (21.2%), p = 0.003)] were more prevalent in post-COVID patients. Logistic regression models were created to evaluate parasympathetic overtone in terms of SDNN >60 ms and RMSSD >40 ms. After covariate adjustment, post-COVID patients were more likely to have SDNN >60 msn (OR: 2.4, 95% CI:1.2-12.8) and RMSSD >40 ms (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-9.2). CONCLUSION: This study revealed parasympathetic overtone and increased HRV in patients with history of COVID-19. This may explain the unresolved orthostatic symptoms occurring in post-COVID period which may be associated with autonomic imbalance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autonomic Nervous System , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Heart , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans
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