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1.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
2.
ASAIO J ; 67(9): 973-981, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494076

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) radically modified the organization of healthcare systems with shutdown of routine activities and outpatient clinics. Herein, we report our institutional experience with a Telemonitoring and Care Program (TC-Program) to monitor and support left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients during COVID-19 outbreak. This single-arm cohort study analyzed 156 patients who entered the TC-Program at our institution between April and August 2020. The TC-Program was based on routine phone calls to patients and a 24/7 emergency line. In November 2020, patients were asked for feedback on the TC-Program and checked for survival, transplant, or explant. The primary endpoint was the rate of TC-Program-driven interventions. Patients (males: 82.8%) were 61 years old (interquartile range [IQR]: 53.0-67.5) and on LVAD support for 1,266 days (IQR: 475-2,211). Patients were included in the TC-Program for a median time of 99 days (min:15, max:120) and received a median number of six phone calls (min:1, max:14). Twenty-three patients (14.7%) were referred for clinical evaluation after phone contact. Two patients (1.27%) were diagnosed with COVID-19: one of them died after intensive care, and one remained paucisymptomatic and recovered. Three patients asked to exit the program considering it not useful while the others gave high rates in terms of usefulness (median: 9, IQR: 8-10), information (median: 9, IQR: 8-10), good medical care (median: 9, IQR: 8-10), and psychologic support (median: 8, IQR: 7-10). A TC-Program based on the four ICSA principles (Inform, Care, Support, and Adapt) is feasible in LVAD patients and can be rapidly implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart-Assist Devices/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/organization & administration , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart-Assist Devices/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Card Surg ; 36(12): 4783-4785, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute decompensated heart failure in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is becoming increasingly common. AIMS: In this case report, we describe the successful use of an Impella 5.5 (Abiomed) to treat cardiogenic shock refractory to inotropic therapy. MATERIALS & METHODS: Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography confirmed severely diminished left ventricular ejection fraction and a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test revealed that the patient was COVID-19 positive during his hospital admission. RESULTS: Following initiation of inotropic therapy, we placed an Impella 5.5 for further cardiac support. The patient's LVEF and cardiac index improved after 21 days on the Impella 5.5 and was maintained following explant. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: The findings reported here demonstrate successful use of an Impella 5.5 to improve native heart function in refractory cardiogenic shock and further indicate its use as an option for those in acute decompensated heart failure who have tested positive for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart-Assist Devices , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Stroke Volume , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left
4.
Circ J ; 85(10): 1906-1917, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440968

ABSTRACT

Destination therapy (DT) is the indication to implant a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in a patient with stage D heart failure who is not a candidate for heart transplantation. The implantable LVAD has been utilized in Japan since 2011 under the indication of bridge to transplant (BTT). After almost 10 year lag, DT has finally been approved and reimbursed in May 2021 in Japan. To initiate the DT program in Japan, revision of the LVAD indication from BTT is necessary. Also, in-depth discussion of caregiver issues as well as end-of-life care is indispensable. For that purpose, we assembled a DT committee of multidisciplinary members in August 2020, and started monthly discussions via web-based communication during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a summary of the consensus reached after 6 months' discussion, and we have included as many relevant topics as possible. Clinical application of DT has just started, and we are willing to revise this consensus to meet the forthcoming issues raised during real-world clinical experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Consensus , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Transplantation , Heart-Assist Devices , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology
5.
ASAIO J ; 67(11): 1189-1195, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393494

ABSTRACT

Patients on left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support may be susceptible to severe disease and complications from coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical course of COVID-19 in LVAD patients. A retrospective review was performed at our center; 28 LVAD patients who developed COVID-19 between March 2020 and March 2021, and six patients with a prior COVID-19 infection who underwent LVAD implantation, were identified and examined. Of the 28 patients, nine (32%) died during the study period, five (18%) during their index hospitalization for COVID-19. Two patients (7%) presented with suspected pump thrombosis. In a nonadjusted binary regression logistic analysis, admission to the intensive care unit (unadjusted odds ratio, 7.6 [CI, 1.2-48], P = 0.03), and the need for mechanical ventilation (unadjusted odds ratio 14 [CI, 1.3-159], P = 0.03) were associated with mortality. The six patients who previously had COVID-19 and subsequently received a LVAD were on intra-aortic balloon pump and inotropic support at time of surgery. All six experienced a complicated and prolonged postoperative course. Three patients (50%) suffered from ischemic stroke, and there was one (17%) 30 day mortality. We observed an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in LVAD patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Heart-Assist Devices , Heart Failure/surgery , Heart-Assist Devices/adverse effects , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13681, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295140

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Patients awaiting heart transplantation (HTx) are at increased risk developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients supported by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) face additional risks due to coagulopathies during COVID-19. Following HTx, elevated risk factors for severe COVID-19 persist due to chronic immunosuppression and frequent comorbidities. Taken together, COVID-19 vaccination is of critical importance in all three patient cohorts. Here, we report our experience to deliver COVID-19 vaccination in a German transplant center. METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened 211 patients for contraindications and offered the remaining 186 eligible patients COVID-19 vaccination. Of those, 133 patients (71%) accepted the offer and were vaccinated. Acceptance of vaccination differed between HTx recipients (84 of 113, 74%), patients on the waiting list (34 of 47, 72%), and patients with LVAD support (28 of 50, 56%). The LVAD cohort demonstrated lower acceptance levels for vaccination compared to HTx recipients and patients awaiting HTx (74% vs. 56%; p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: We demonstrate for the first time only moderate acceptance levels of COVID-19 vaccination in HTx recipients and candidates on the waiting list compared to general population, despite perceived high-risk for severe disease. Additionally, those supported by LVAD have even lower adherence. Efforts may need to be made to increase acceptance in this vulnerable as well as cost-intensive patient cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Heart Transplantation , Heart-Assist Devices , COVID-19 Vaccines , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Heart-Assist Devices/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
8.
J Card Surg ; 36(9): 3405-3409, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258956

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) affected 125 million people worldwide and caused 2.7 million deaths. Some comorbidities are associated with worse prognosis and left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients are probably part of this high-risk population. We report a 31-year-old male patient who developed COVID-19 during LVAD implantation. His postoperative period was complicated by severe pneumonia and mechanical ventilation (MV) leading to right ventricular failure (RVF) and inotrope necessity. He experienced multiple complications, but eventually recovered. We present a systematic review of LVAD recipients and COVID-19. Among 14 patients, the mean age was 62.7 years, 78.5% were male. A total of 5 patients (35.7%) required MV and 3 patients (21.4%) died. A total of 2 patients (14.2%) had thromboembolic events. This case and systematic review suggest LVAD recipients are at particular risk of unfavorable outcomes and they may be more susceptible to RVF in the setting of COVID-19, particularly during perioperative period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Heart-Assist Devices , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Adult , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart-Assist Devices/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(4): e007957, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to afflict millions of people worldwide. Patients with end-stage heart failure and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may be at risk for severe COVID-19 given a high prevalence of complex comorbidities and functional impaired immunity. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with end-stage heart failure and durable LVADs. METHODS: The Trans-CoV-VAD registry is a multi-center registry of LVAD and cardiac transplant patients in the United States with confirmed COVID-19. Patient characteristics, exposure history, presentation, laboratory data, course, and clinical outcomes were collected by participating institutions and reviewed by a central data repository. This report represents the participation of the first 9 centers to report LVAD data into the registry. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were included in this cohort. The median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 46-68), 14 (35%) were women, and 21 (52%) were Black. Among the most common presenting symptoms were cough (41%), fever, and fatigue (both 38%). A total of 18% were asymptomatic at diagnosis. Only 43% of the patients reported either subjective or measured fever during the entire course of illness. Over half (60%) required hospitalization, and 8 patients (20%) died, often after lengthy hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: We present the largest case series of LVAD patients with COVID-19 to date. Understanding these characteristics is essential in an effort to improve the outcome of this complex patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/surgery , Heart-Assist Devices , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Ventricles , Heart-Assist Devices/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Surg Res ; 264: 81-89, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular failure is an underrecognized consequence of COVID-19 pneumonia. Those with severe disease are treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) but with poor outcomes. Concomitant right ventricular assist device (RVAD) may be beneficial. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of intensive care unit patients admitted with COVID-19 ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) was performed. Nonintubated patients, those with acute kidney injury, and age > 75 were excluded. Patients who underwent RVAD/ECMO support were compared with those managed via invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) alone. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included 30-d mortality, acute kidney injury, length of ICU stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: A total of 145 patients were admitted to the ICU with COVID-19. Thirty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 21 received IMV, and 18 received RVAD/ECMO. In-hospital (52.4 versus 11.1%, P = 0.008) and 30-d mortality (42.9 versus 5.6%, P= 0.011) were significantly lower in patients treated with RVAD/ECMO. Acute kidney injury occurred in 15 (71.4%) patients in the IMV group and zero RVAD/ECMO patients (P< 0.001). ICU (11.5 versus 21 d, P= 0.067) and hospital (14 versus 25.5 d, P = 0.054) length of stay were not significantly different. There were no RVAD/ECMO device complications. The duration of mechanical ventilation was not significantly different (10 versus 5 d, P = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: RVAD support at the time of ECMO initiation resulted in the no secondary end-organ damage and higher in-hospital and 30-d survival versus IMV in specially selected patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS. Management of severe COVID-19 ARDS should prioritize right ventricular support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart-Assist Devices , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality
12.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(13): 1195-1199, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153110

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A case of uncontrolled hypertension nonresponsive to traditional pharmacologic management in a pediatric patient with a ventricular assist device awaiting a heart transplant is reported. SUMMARY: A 4-month-old male in heart failure was experiencing uncontrolled hypertension. Because of a lack of hemodynamic stability, he was unable to be listed as a heart transplant candidate. He received multiple antihypertensive agents (calcium channel blockers, ß-blockers, and direct-acting vasodilators) as both intermittent and continuous infusions over the course of several days without achieving normotension. The decision was then made to administer intravenous phentolamine as a continuous infusion to pursue a different mechanism than with traditional antihypertensive agents to achieve hemodynamic stability. Within 8 hours of initiation of the continuous phentolamine infusion, the patient became normotensive and was listed for a heart transplant. The continuous phentolamine infusion was administered over the next 4 days to maintain normotension, and on day 4 the patient underwent successful orthotopic heart transplantation. CONCLUSION: A 4-month-old male in heart failure with a ventricular assist device, experiencing uncontrolled hypertension nonresponsive to traditional pharmacologic management, was successfully treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of phentolamine.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Heart Transplantation , Heart-Assist Devices , Hypertension , Child , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Infant , Male , Phentolamine , Treatment Outcome
16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(12): 2248-2257, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070736

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a widespread pandemic with an increased morbidity and mortality, especially for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as necessary cell entry point for SARS-CoV-2. Previous animal studies have demonstrated an increased ACE2 expression following treatment with either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) that have led to a massive precariousness regarding the optimal cardiovascular therapy during this pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have measured ACE2 mRNA expression using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in atrial biopsies of 81 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and we compared 62 patients that received ACEi/ARB vs. 19 patients that were not ACEi/ARB-treated. We found atrial ACE2 mRNA expression to be significantly increased in patients treated with an ACEi or an ARB, independent of potential confounding comorbidities. Interestingly, the cardiac ACE2 mRNA expression correlated significantly with the expression in white blood cells of 22 patients encouraging further evaluation if the latter may be used as a surrogate for the former. Similarly, analysis of 18 ventricular biopsies revealed a significant and independent increase in ACE2 mRNA expression in patients with end-stage heart failure that were treated with ACEi/ARB. On the other hand, cardiac unloading with a left ventricular assist device significantly reduced ventricular ACE2 mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: Treatment with ACEi/ARB is independently associated with an increased myocardial ACE2 mRNA expression in patients with coronary artery disease and in patients with end-stage heart failure. Further trials are needed to test whether this association is deleterious for patients with COVID-19, or possibly protective. Nevertheless, haemodynamic factors seem to be equally important for regulation of cardiac ACE2 mRNA expression.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Leukocytes/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Female , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart-Assist Devices , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
ASAIO J ; 67(4): 395-396, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038314

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is nowadays an international emergency and the North-Italian regions have faced a high rate of infection and case fatality. A logistic and structural rearrangement has been required to ensure COVID-19-free areas, to save human and economic resources, and to solve all incoming urgencies. Herein, we report the Padova experience in heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support implantation for severe INTERMACS class patients with satisfactory results during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Transplantation , Heart-Assist Devices/adverse effects , Prosthesis Implantation , Aged , Cardiology , Female , Heart Diseases/surgery , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Registries
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(10): 3035-3038, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030076

ABSTRACT

Increased survival with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) has led to a large number of patients with LVADs presenting for noncardiac surgeries (NCS). With studies showing that a trained noncardiac anesthesiologist can safely manage these patients when they present for NCS, it is vital that all anesthesiologists understand the LVAD physiology and its implications in various surgeries. This is even more relevant during the current pandemic in which these complex cardiopulmonary interactions may be even more challenging in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The authors describe a case of a patient with COVID-19 with an LVAD who needed thoracoscopic decortication for recurrent complex pleural effusion and briefly discuss unique challenges presented and their management.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , COVID-19 , Heart-Assist Devices , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
20.
J Card Surg ; 36(5): 1723-1728, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is usually mild, but patients can present with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and circulatory shock. Although the symptoms of the disease are predominantly respiratory, the involvement of the cardiovascular system is common. Patients with heart failure (HF) are particularly vulnerable when suffering from COVID-19. AIM OF THE REVIEW: To examine the challenges faced by healthcare organizations, and mechanical circulatory support management strategies available to patients with heart failure, during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be lifesaving in patients with severe forms of ARDS, or refractory cardio-circulatory compromise. The Impella RP can provide right ventricular circulatory support for patients who develop right side ventricular failure or decompensation caused by COVID-19 complications, including pulmonary embolus. HT are reserved for only those patients with a high short-term mortality. LVAD as a bridge to transplant may be a viable strategy to get at-risk patients home quickly. Elective LVAD implantations have been reduced and only patients classified as INTERMACS profile 1 and 2 are being considered for LVAD implantation. Delayed recognition of LVAD-related complications, misdiagnosis of COVID-19, and impaired social and psychological well-being for patients and families may ensue. Remote patient care with virtual or telephone contacts is becoming the norm. CONCLUSIONS: HF incidence, prevalence, and undertreatment will grow as a result of new COVID-19-related heart disease. ECMO should be reserved for highly selected cases of COVID-19 with a reasonable probability of recovery. Special considerations are needed for patients with advanced HF, including those supported by durable LVADs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart-Assist Devices , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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