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1.
Nat Med ; 28(10): 2117-2123, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016773

ABSTRACT

Cardiac symptoms are increasingly recognized as late complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in previously well individuals with mild initial illness, but the underlying pathophysiology leading to long-term cardiac symptoms remains unclear. In this study, we conducted serial cardiac assessments in a selected population of individuals with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with no previous cardiac disease or notable comorbidities by measuring blood biomarkers of heart injury or dysfunction and by performing magnetic resonance imaging. Baseline measurements from 346 individuals with COVID-19 (52% females) were obtained at a median of 109 days (interquartile range (IQR), 77-177 days) after infection, when 73% of participants reported cardiac symptoms, such as exertional dyspnea (62%), palpitations (28%), atypical chest pain (27%) and syncope (3%). Symptomatic individuals had higher heart rates and higher imaging values or contrast agent accumulation, denoting inflammatory cardiac involvement, compared to asymptomatic individuals. Structural heart disease or high levels of biomarkers of cardiac injury or dysfunction were rare in symptomatic individuals. At follow-up (329 days (IQR, 274-383 days) after infection), 57% of participants had persistent cardiac symptoms. Diffuse myocardial edema was more pronounced in participants who remained symptomatic at follow-up as compared to those who improved. Female gender and diffuse myocardial involvement on baseline imaging independently predicted the presence of cardiac symptoms at follow-up. Ongoing inflammatory cardiac involvement may, at least in part, explain the lingering cardiac symptoms in previously well individuals with mild initial COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Clin Imaging ; 90: 78-89, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966437

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular involvement is a common complication of COVID-19 infection and is associated to increased risk of unfavorable outcome. Advanced imaging modalities (coronary CT angiography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance) play a crucial role in the diagnosis, follow-up and risk stratification of patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia with suspected cardiovascular involvement. In the present manuscript we firstly review current knowledge on the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 can trigger endothelial and myocardial damage. Secondly, the implications of the cardiovascular damage on patient's prognosis are presented. Finally, we provide an overview of the main findings at advanced cardiac imaging characterizing COVID-19 in the acute setting, in the post-acute syndrome, and after vaccination, emphasizing the potentiality of CT and CMR, the indication and their clinical implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocardium , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(3): e023251, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642967

ABSTRACT

Background In multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, there is paucity of longitudinal data on cardiac outcomes. We analyzed cardiac outcomes 3 to 4 months after initial presentation using echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Results We included 60 controls and 60 cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Conventional echocardiograms and deformation parameters were analyzed at 4 time points: (1) acute phase (n=60), (2) subacute phase (n=50; median, 3 days after initial echocardiography), (3) 1-month follow-up (n=39; median, 22 days), and (4) 3- to 4-month follow-up (n=25; median, 91 days). Fourteen consecutive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies were reviewed for myocardial edema or fibrosis during subacute (n=5) and follow-up (n=9) stages. In acute phase, myocardial injury was defined as troponin-I level ≥0.09 ng/mL (>3 times normal) or brain-type natriuretic peptide >800 pg/mL. All deformation parameters, including left ventricular global longitudinal strain, peak left atrial strain, longitudinal early diastolic strain rate, and right ventricular free wall strain, recovered quickly within the first week, followed by continued improvement and complete normalization by 3 months. Median time to normalization of both global longitudinal strain and left atrial strain was 6 days (95% CI, 3-9 days). Myocardial injury at presentation (70% of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children cases) did not affect short-term outcomes. Four patients (7%) had small coronary aneurysms at presentation, all of which resolved. Only 1 of 9 patients had residual edema but no fibrosis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusions Our short-term study suggests that functional recovery and coronary outcomes are good in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Use of sensitive deformation parameters provides further reassurance that there is no persistent subclinical dysfunction after 3 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
6.
Elife ; 102021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597375

ABSTRACT

For the first time, we have used phase-contrast X-ray tomography to characterize the three-dimensional (3d) structure of cardiac tissue from patients who succumbed to Covid-19. By extending conventional histopathological examination by a third dimension, the delicate pathological changes of the vascular system of severe Covid-19 progressions can be analyzed, fully quantified and compared to other types of viral myocarditis and controls. To this end, cardiac samples with a cross-section of 3.5mm were scanned at a laboratory setup as well as at a parallel beam setup at a synchrotron radiation facility the synchrotron in a parallel beam configuration. The vascular network was segmented by a deep learning architecture suitable for 3d datasets (V-net), trained by sparse manual annotations. Pathological alterations of vessels, concerning the variation of diameters and the amount of small holes, were observed, indicative of elevated occurrence of intussusceptive angiogenesis, also confirmed by high-resolution cone beam X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, we implemented a fully automated analysis of the tissue structure in the form of shape measures based on the structure tensor. The corresponding distributions show that the histopathology of Covid-19 differs from both influenza and typical coxsackie virus myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/pathology , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/virology , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Synchrotrons , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 27(1): e12916, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction may occur during the acute phase of COVID-19. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a useful tool for the assessment of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic balance. We aimed to evaluate cardiac autonomic function by using HRV in subjects after recovery from COVID-19 who had previously symptomatic and were followed outpatiently. METHODS: The study group composed of 50 subjects with a confirmed history of COVID-19 and the control group composed of 50 healthy subjects without a history of COVID-19 and vaccination. All the study participants underwent 2-dimensional, pulsed- and tissue-Doppler echocardiographic examinations and 24-hour Holter monitoring for HRV analysis. RESULTS: Time domain parameters of SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, RMSSD, pNN50, and HRV triangular index were all decreased in the study group when compared with the control group. Frequency domain parameters of TP, VLF, LF, HF, and HFnu were also decreased in the study group in comparison with the control group. LFnu was similar between groups. Nonlinear parameters of HRV including α1 and α2 decreased in the study group. By contrast, Lmax, Lmean, DET, REC, and Shannon entropy increased in the study population. Approximate and sample entropies also enhanced in the study group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that all three domain HRV significantly altered in patients after recovery from COVID-19 indicating some degree of dysfunction in cardiac autonomic nervous system. HRV may be a useful tool for the detection of preclinical autonomic dysfunction in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autonomic Nervous System , Electrocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Rate , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Radiology ; 301(3): E419-E425, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528586

ABSTRACT

Background Myocardial injury and inflammation at cardiac MRI in patients with COVID-19 have been described in recent publications. Concurrently, a chronic COVID-19 syndrome (CCS) after SARS-CoV-2 infection has been observed and manifests with symptoms such as fatigue and exertional dyspnea. Purpose To explore the relationship between CCS and myocardial injury and inflammation as an underlying cause of the persistent complaints in previously healthy individuals. Materials and Methods In this prospective study from January 2021 to April 2021, study participants without known cardiac or pulmonary diseases prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection who had persistent CCS symptoms such as fatigue or exertional dyspnea after convalescence and healthy control participants underwent cardiac MRI. The cardiac MRI protocol included evaluating the T1 and T2 relaxation times, extracellular volume, T2 signal intensity ratio, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Student t tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, and χ2 tests were used for statistical analysis. Results Forty-one participants with CCS (mean age, 39 years ± 13 [standard deviation]; 18 men) and 42 control participants (mean age, 39 years ± 16; 26 men) were evaluated. The median time between the initial incidence of mild to moderate COVID-19 not requiring hospitalization and undergoing cardiac MRI was 103 days (interquartile range, 88-158 days). Troponin T levels were normal. Parameters indicating myocardial inflammation and edema were comparable between participants with CCS and control participants (T1 relaxation times: 978 msec ± 23 vs 971 msec ± 25 [P = .17]; T2 relaxation times: 53 msec ± 2 vs 52 msec ± 2 [P = .47]; T2 signal intensity ratios: 1.6 ± 0.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.3 [P = .10]). Visible myocardial edema was present in none of the participants. Three of 41 (7%) participants with CCS demonstrated nonischemic LGE, whereas no participants in the control group demonstrated nonischemic LGE (0 of 42 [0%]; P = .07). None of the participants fulfilled the 2018 Lake Louise criteria for the diagnosis of myocarditis. Conclusion Individuals with chronic COVID-19 syndrome who did not undergo hospitalization for COVID-19 did not demonstrate signs of active myocardial injury or inflammation at cardiac MRI. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Lima and Bluemke in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Chronic Disease , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , Patient Acuity , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
10.
Am Heart J ; 243: 43-53, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Long-terM OUtcomes after the Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome In Children (MUSIC) study aims to characterize the frequency and time course of acute and long-term cardiac and non-cardiac sequelae in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C), which are currently poorly understood. METHODS: This multicenter observational cohort study will enroll at least 600 patients <21 years old who meet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition of MIS-C across multiple North American centers over 2 years. The study will collect detailed hospital and follow-up data for up to 5 years, and optional genetic testing. Cardiac imaging at specific time points includes standardized echocardiographic assessment (all participants) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in those with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45% during the acute illness. The primary outcomes are the worst LVEF and the highest coronary artery z-score of the left anterior descending or right coronary artery. Other outcomes include occurrence and course of non-cardiac organ dysfunction, inflammation, and major medical events. Independent adjudication of cases will classify participants as definite, possible, or not MIS-C. Analysis of the outcomes will include descriptive statistics and regression analysis with stratification by definite or possible MIS-C. The MUSIC study will provide phenotypic data to support basic and translational research studies. CONCLUSION: The MUSIC study, with the largest cohort of MIS-C patients and the longest follow-up period to date, will make an important contribution to our understanding of the acute cardiac and non-cardiac manifestations of MIS-C and the long-term effects of this public health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adult , Child , Humans , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , United States , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
11.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myocardial dysfunction and coronary abnormalities are prominent features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). In this study we aim to evaluate the early and midterm outcomes of MIS-C. METHODS: This is a longitudinal 6-month cohort study of all children admitted and treated for MIS-C from April 17 to June 20, 2020. Patients were followed ∼2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months postadmission, with those with coronary aneurysms evaluated more frequently. RESULTS: Acutely, 31 (62%) patients required intensive care with vasoactive support, 26 (52%) had left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, 16 (32%) had LV diastolic dysfunction, 8 (16%) had coronary aneurysms (z score ≥2.5), and 4 (8%) had coronary dilation (z score <2.5). A total of 48 patients (96%) received immunomodulatory treatment. At 2 weeks, there was persistent mild LV systolic dysfunction in 1 patient, coronary aneurysms in 2, and dilated coronary artery in 1. By 8 weeks through 6 months, all patients returned to functional baseline with normal LV systolic function and resolution of coronary abnormalities. Cardiac MRI performed during recovery in select patients revealed no myocardial edema or fibrosis. Some patients demonstrated persistent diastolic dysfunction at 2 weeks (5, 11%), 8 weeks (4, 9%), and 6 months (1, 4%). CONCLUSIONS: Children with MIS-C treated with immunomodulators have favorable early outcomes with no mortality, normalization of LV systolic function, recovery of coronary abnormalities, and no inflammation or scarring on cardiac MRI. Persistence of diastolic dysfunction is of uncertain significance and indicates need for larger studies to improve understanding of MIS-C. These findings may help guide clinical management, outpatient monitoring, and considerations for sports clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Aneurysm/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
13.
Rofo ; 193(4): 472-473, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410846
14.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 101, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine are known to cause minor side effects at the injection site and mild global systemic symptoms in first 24-48 h. Recently published case series have reported a possible association between acute myocarditis and COVID-19 vaccination, predominantly in young males. METHODS: We report a case series of 5 young male patients with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-confirmed acute myocarditis within 72 h after receiving a dose of an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Our case series suggests that myocarditis in this setting is characterized by myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement in the lateral wall of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium, reduced global LV longitudinal strain, and preserved LV ejection fraction. All patients in our series remained clinically stable during a relatively short inpatient hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: In conjunction with other recently published case series and national vaccine safety surveillance data, this case series suggests a possible association between acute myocarditis and COVID-19 vaccination in young males and highlights a potential pattern in accompanying CMR abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Adult , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17798, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397898

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence of cardiac involvement post-SARS-CoV-2 infections in symptomatic as well as in oligo- and asymptomatic athletes. This study aimed to characterize the possible early effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections on myocardial morphology and cardiopulmonary function in athletes. Eight male elite handball players (27 ± 3.5 y) with past SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with four uninfected teammates (22 ± 2.6 y). Infected athletes were examined 19 ± 7 days after the first positive PCR test. Echocardiographic assessment of the global longitudinal strain under resting conditions was not significantly changed (- 17.7% vs. - 18.1%). However, magnetic resonance imaging showed minor signs of acute inflammation/oedema in all infected athletes (T2-mapping: + 4.1 ms, p = 0.034) without reaching the Lake-Louis criteria. Spiroergometric analysis showed a significant reduction in VO2max (- 292 ml/min, - 7.0%), oxygen pulse (- 2.4 ml/beat, - 10.4%), and respiratory minute volume (VE) (- 18.9 l/min, - 13.8%) in athletes with a history of SARS-CoV2 infection (p < 0.05, respectively). The parameters were unchanged in the uninfected teammates. SARS-CoV2 infection caused impairment of cardiopulmonary performance during physical effort in elite athletes. It seems reasonable to screen athletes after SARS-CoV2 infection with spiroergometry to identify performance limitations and to guide the return to competition.


Subject(s)
Athletes/statistics & numerical data , Athletic Performance/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Athletic Performance/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Germany , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spirometry/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(12): 1549-1566, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial involvement induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection might be important for long-term prognosis. The aim of this observational study was to characterize the myocardial effects during SARS-CoV-2 infections by echocardiography. RESULTS AND METHODS: An extended echocardiographic image acquisition protocol was performed in 18 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection assessing LV longitudinal, radial, and circumferential deformation including rotation, twist, and untwisting. Furthermore, LV deformation was analyzed in an age-matched control group of healthy individuals (n = 20). The most prevalent finding was a reduced longitudinal strain observed predominantly in more than one basal LV segment (n = 10/14 patients, 71%). This pattern reminded of a "reverse tako-tsubo" morphology that is not typical for other viral myocarditis. Additional findings included a biphasic pattern with maximum post-systolic or negative regional radial strain predominantly basal (n = 5/14 patients, 36%); the absence or dispersion of basal LV rotation (n = 6/14 patients, 43%); a reduced or positive regional circumferential strain in more than one segment (n = 7/14 patients, 50%); a net rotation showing late post-systolic twist or biphasic pattern (n = 8/14 patients, 57%); a net rotation showing polyphasic pattern and/or higher maximum net values during diastole (n = 8/14 patients, 57%). CONCLUSION: Myocardial involvement due to SARS-CoV-2-infection was highly prevalent in the present cohort-even in patients with mild symptoms. It appears to be characterized by specific speckle tracking deformation abnormalities in the basal LV segments. These data set the stage to prospectively test whether these parameters are helpful for risk stratification and for the long-term follow-up of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , Ventricular Function, Left
17.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(11): 1832-1840, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We assessed possible myocardial involvement in previously cardiac healthy post-COVID patients referred for persisting symptoms with suspected myocarditis. BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggested myocardial inflammation in patients with coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the prevalence of cardiac involvement among COVID patients varied between 1.4 and 78%. METHODS: A total of 56 post-COVID patients without previous heart diseases were included consecutively into this study. All patients had positive antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2. Patients were referred for persistent symptoms such as chest pain/discomfort, shortness of breath, or intolerance to activity. All patients underwent standardized cardiac assessment including electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). RESULTS: 56 Patients (46 ± 12 years, 54% females) presented 71 ± 66 days after their COVID-19 disease. In most patients, the course of COVID-19 was mild, with hospital treatment being necessary in five (9%). At presentation, patients most often reported persistent fatigue (75%), chest pain (71%), and shortness of breath (66%). Acute myocarditis was confirmed by T1/T2-weighed CMR and elevated NTpro-BNP levels in a single patient (2%). Left ventricular ejection fraction was 56% in this patient. Additional eight patients (14%) showed suspicious CMR findings, including myocardial edema without fibrosis (n = 3), or non-ischemic myocardial injury suggesting previous inflammation (n = 5). However, myocarditis could ultimately not be confirmed according to 2018 Lake Louise criteria; ECG, echo and lab findings were inconspicuous in all eight patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among 56 post-COVID patients with persistent thoracic complaints final diagnosis of myocarditis could be confirmed in a single patient using CMR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart/virology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Myocarditis/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
19.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(2): 403-410, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363845

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) primarily affects the pulmonary system, the involvement of the heart has become a well-known issue. Pulmonary CT plays an additive role in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. We aimed to investigate the association of echocardiographic indices with pulmonary CT scores and mortality in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 123 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in this study. The British Society of Thoracic Imaging (BSTI) score and echocardiographic parameters were calculated, and echocardiographic indices were compared between BSTI score grades. RESULTS: During in-hospital follow-up, 36 of 123 patients (29.3%) had died. BSTI score, IVS, LVPWd, RV mid-diameter, RV basal diameter, RV longitudinal diameter, sPAP, and RVMPI were higher, and RVFAC, TAPSE, and RVS were lower in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group. There were statistically significant changes between BSTI scores in terms of LVPWd, RV mid diameter, RV basal diameter, RV longitudinal diameter, sPAP, RVFAC, RVMPI, and TAPSE. BSTI score was positively correlated with sPAP and RV basal diameter and negatively correlated with TAPSE and RVFAC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sPAP (OR â€‹= â€‹1.071, p â€‹= â€‹0.002) and RV basal diameter (OR â€‹= â€‹1.184, p â€‹= â€‹0.005) were independent predictors of high BSTI scores (grade 4 and 5). Furthermore, age, sPAP, and a high BSTI score (grade 5) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Echocardiographic indices were correlated with BSTI scores, and patients with higher BSTI scores had more cardiac involvement in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Echocardiography/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Turkey/epidemiology
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(32): e229, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360704

ABSTRACT

Increasing rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination coverage will result in more vaccine-related side effects, including acute myocarditis. In Korea, we present a 24-year-old male with acute myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination (BNT162b2). His chest pain developed the day after vaccination and cardiac biomarkers were elevated. Echocardiography showed minimal pericardial effusion but normal myocardial contractility. Electrocardiography revealed diffuse ST elevation in lead II, and V2-5. Cardiac magnetic resonance images showed the high signal intensity of T2- short tau inversion recovery image, the high value of T2 mapping sequence, and late gadolinium enhancement in basal inferior and inferolateral wall. It was presumed that COVID-19 mRNA vaccination was probably responsible for acute myocarditis. Clinical course of the patient was favorable and he was discharged without any adverse event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chest Pain/pathology , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Republic of Korea , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
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