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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597826

ABSTRACT

Organoids are tiny, self-organized, three-dimensional tissue cultures that are derived from the differentiation of stem cells. The growing interest in the use of organoids arises from their ability to mimic the biology and physiology of specific tissue structures in vitro. Organoids indeed represent promising systems for the in vitro modeling of tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, drug therapy testing, toxicology screening, and disease modeling. Although 2D cell cultures have been used for more than 50 years, even for their simplicity and low-cost maintenance, recent years have witnessed a steep rise in the availability of organoid model systems. Exploiting the ability of cells to re-aggregate and reconstruct the original architecture of an organ makes it possible to overcome many limitations of 2D cell culture systems. In vitro replication of the cellular micro-environment of a specific tissue leads to reproducing the molecular, biochemical, and biomechanical mechanisms that directly influence cell behavior and fate within that specific tissue. Lineage-specific self-organizing organoids have now been generated for many organs. Currently, growing cardiac organoid (cardioids) from pluripotent stem cells and cardiac stem/progenitor cells remains an open challenge due to the complexity of the spreading, differentiation, and migration of cardiac muscle and vascular layers. Here, we summarize the evolution of biological model systems from the generation of 2D spheroids to 3D organoids by focusing on the generation of cardioids based on the currently available laboratory technologies and outline their high potential for cardiovascular research.


Subject(s)
Adult Stem Cells/cytology , Organ Culture Techniques/methods , Organoids/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Heart/physiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Regeneration , Spheroids, Cellular/cytology
2.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 86, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac evaluations, including cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and biomarker results, are needed in children during mid-term recovery after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The incidence of CMR abnormalities 1-3 months after recovery is over 50% in older adults and has ranged between 1 and 15% in college athletes. Abnormal cardiac biomarkers are common in adults, even during recovery. METHODS: We performed CMR imaging in a prospectively-recruited pediatric cohort recovered from COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We obtained CMR data and serum biomarkers. We compared these results to age-matched control patients, imaged prior to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: CMR was performed in 17 children (13.9 years, all ≤ 18 years) and 29 age-matched control patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cases were recruited with symptomatic COVID-19 (11/17, 65%) or MIS-C (6/17, 35%) and studied an average of 2 months after diagnosis. All COVID-19 patients had been symptomatic with fever (73%), vomiting/diarrhea (64%), or breathing difficulty (55%) during infection. Left ventricular and right ventricular ejection fractions were indistinguishable between cases and controls (p = 0.66 and 0.70, respectively). Mean native global T1, global T2 values and segmental T2 maximum values were also not statistically different from control patients (p ≥ 0.06 for each). NT-proBNP and troponin levels were normal in all children. CONCLUSIONS: Children prospectively recruited following SARS-CoV-2 infection had normal CMR and cardiac biomarker evaluations during mid-term recovery. Trial Registration Not applicable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood
4.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 385-397, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970134

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak that became a pandemic in 2020, causing more than 30 million infections and 1 million deaths to date. As the scientific community has looked for vaccines and drugs to treat or eliminate the virus, unexpected features of the disease have emerged. Apart from respiratory complications, cardiovascular disease has emerged as a major indicator of poor prognosis in COVID-19. It has therefore become of utmost importance to understand how SARS-CoV-2 damages the heart. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) cardiovascular derivatives were rapidly recognized as an invaluable tool to address this, not least because one of the major receptors for the virus is not recognized by SARS-CoV-2 in mice. Here, we outline how hPSC-derived cardiovascular cells have been utilized to study COVID-19, and their potential for further understanding the cardiac pathology and in therapeutic development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Heart/physiology , Heart/virology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Humans
5.
J Therm Biol ; 93: 102705, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739933

ABSTRACT

Heat adaption through acclimatisation or acclimation improves cardiovascular stability by maintaining cardiac output due to compensatory increases in stroke volume. The main aim of this study was to assess whether 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) could be used to confirm differences in resting echocardiographic parameters, before and after active heat acclimation (HA). Thirteen male endurance trained cyclists underwent a resting blinded TTE before and after randomisation to either 5 consecutive daily exertional heat exposures of controlled hyperthermia at 32°C with 70% relative humidity (RH) (HOT) or 5-days of exercise in temperate (21°C with 36% RH) environmental conditions (TEMP). Measures of HA included heart rate, gastrointestinal temperature, skin temperature, sweat loss, total non-urinary fluid loss (TNUFL), plasma volume and participant's ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Following HA, the HOT group demonstrated increased sweat loss (p = 0.01) and TNUFL (p = 0.01) in comparison to the TEMP group with a significantly decreased RPE (p = 0.01). On TTE, post exposure, there was a significant comparative increase in the HOT group in left ventricular end diastolic volume (p = 0.029), SV (p = 0.009), left atrial volume (p = 0.005), inferior vena cava diameter (p = 0.041), and a significant difference in mean peak diastolic mitral annular velocity (e') (p = 0.044). Cardiovascular adaptations to HA appear to be predominantly mediated by improvements in increased preload and ventricular compliance. TTE is a useful tool to demonstrate and quantify cardiac HA.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Heart/physiology , Sweating , Thermotolerance , Adult , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Plasma Volume , Random Allocation , Vasodilation
6.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(11): 2812-2813, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732125
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