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1.
Diagn Pathol ; 17(1): 31, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite a reported cardiac injury in patients with new coronavirus infection, the possibility and specifics of genuine viral myocarditis in COVID-19 remains not fully clear. PURPOSE: To study the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the myocardium and the morphological properties of myocarditis in patients with severe coronavirus infection (COVID-19). METHODS: Autopsy data of eight elderly patients (75.6 ± 7.4 years), four male and four female, with severe new coronavirus infection were studied. The lifetime diagnosis of COVID-19 is based on a positive result of the PCR study. The inclusion criterion was the presence of morphological signs of myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria. A standard histological examination included staining by hematoxylin and eosin, toluidin blue and Van Gieson. An immunohistochemical study was performed using antibodies to CD3, CD 68, CD20, perforin, toll-like receptor (TLR) types 4 and 9. PCR in real-time was performed to determine the viral RNA in the myocardium. RESULTS: All patients had severe bilateral viral pneumonia. In all cases, myocarditis was not clinically diagnosed. Morphological examination of the heart found signs of active lymphocytic myocarditis. PCR identified the SARS-Cov2 RNA in all cases. There were also signs of destructive coronaritis in all cases, thrombovasculitis, lymphocytic pericarditis (in 3 cases) and endocarditis (in 2 cases). The absence of neutrophils confirms the aseptic nature of inflammation. An immunohistochemical study showed the CD3-positive T lymphocytes in the infiltrates. Increased expression of TLR type 4 and less 9 was also detected. CONCLUSION: Morphological and immunohistochemical evidence of myocarditis in COVID-19 was presented. Lymphocytic infiltrations and positive PCR confirm the viral nature of inflammation. Myocarditis in COVID-19 is also characterized by coronaritis with microvascular thrombosis and associated with lymphocytic endo- and pericarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Myocarditis/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Heart/virology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Cells ; 11(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690345

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is an extremely contagious disease whereby the virus damages the host's respiratory tract via entering through the ACE2 receptor. Cardiovascular disorder is being recognized in the majority of COVID-19 patients; yet, the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and heart failure has not been established. In the present study, SARS-CoV-2 infection was induced in the monkey model. Thereafter, heart tissue samples were collected, and pathological changes were analyzed in the left ventricular tissue by hematoxylin and eosin, trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining specific to T lymphocytes and macrophages. The findings revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces several pathological changes in the heart, which cause cardiomyocyte disarray, mononuclear infiltrates of inflammatory cells, and hypertrophy. Furthermore, collagen-specific staining showed the development of cardiac fibrosis in the interstitial and perivascular regions in the hearts of infected primates. Moreover, the myocardial tissue samples displayed multiple foci of inflammatory cells positive for T lymphocytes and macrophages within the myocardium. These findings suggest the progression of the disease, which can lead to the development of severe complications, including heart failure. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 antigen staining detected the presence of virus particles in the myocardium. Thus, we found that SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory immune response in the heart, which possibly contributes to myocardial remodeling and subsequent fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Heart/virology , Heart Failure/virology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/virology , Immune System/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(3): e023251, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642967

ABSTRACT

Background In multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, there is paucity of longitudinal data on cardiac outcomes. We analyzed cardiac outcomes 3 to 4 months after initial presentation using echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Results We included 60 controls and 60 cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Conventional echocardiograms and deformation parameters were analyzed at 4 time points: (1) acute phase (n=60), (2) subacute phase (n=50; median, 3 days after initial echocardiography), (3) 1-month follow-up (n=39; median, 22 days), and (4) 3- to 4-month follow-up (n=25; median, 91 days). Fourteen consecutive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies were reviewed for myocardial edema or fibrosis during subacute (n=5) and follow-up (n=9) stages. In acute phase, myocardial injury was defined as troponin-I level ≥0.09 ng/mL (>3 times normal) or brain-type natriuretic peptide >800 pg/mL. All deformation parameters, including left ventricular global longitudinal strain, peak left atrial strain, longitudinal early diastolic strain rate, and right ventricular free wall strain, recovered quickly within the first week, followed by continued improvement and complete normalization by 3 months. Median time to normalization of both global longitudinal strain and left atrial strain was 6 days (95% CI, 3-9 days). Myocardial injury at presentation (70% of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children cases) did not affect short-term outcomes. Four patients (7%) had small coronary aneurysms at presentation, all of which resolved. Only 1 of 9 patients had residual edema but no fibrosis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusions Our short-term study suggests that functional recovery and coronary outcomes are good in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Use of sensitive deformation parameters provides further reassurance that there is no persistent subclinical dysfunction after 3 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
4.
Bioengineered ; 13(2): 2486-2497, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625949

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can target cardiomyocytes (CMs) to directly invade the heart resulting in high mortality. This study aims to explore the biological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infected myocardium based on omics by collecting transcriptome data and analyzing them with a series of bioinformatics tools. Totally, 86 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were discovered in SARS-CoV-2 infected CMs, and 15 miRNAs were discovered to target 60 genes. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that these DEGs were mainly enriched in the inflammatory signaling pathway. After the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, several genes including CCL2 and CXCL8 were regarded as the hub genes. SRC inhibitor saracatinib was predicted to potentially act against the cardiac dysfunction induced by SARS-CoV-2. Among the 86 DEGs, 28 were validated to be dysregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infected hearts. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) showed that malaria, IL-17 signaling pathway, and complement and coagulation cascades were significantly enriched. Immune infiltration analysis indicated that 'naive B cells' was significantly increased in the SARS-CoV-2 infected heart. The above results may help to improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation , Chemokine CCL2/biosynthesis , Complement System Proteins , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genome, Human , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-17/blood , Interleukin-8/biosynthesis , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Prognosis , Protein Interaction Mapping , Signal Transduction
5.
Elife ; 102021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597375

ABSTRACT

For the first time, we have used phase-contrast X-ray tomography to characterize the three-dimensional (3d) structure of cardiac tissue from patients who succumbed to Covid-19. By extending conventional histopathological examination by a third dimension, the delicate pathological changes of the vascular system of severe Covid-19 progressions can be analyzed, fully quantified and compared to other types of viral myocarditis and controls. To this end, cardiac samples with a cross-section of 3.5mm were scanned at a laboratory setup as well as at a parallel beam setup at a synchrotron radiation facility the synchrotron in a parallel beam configuration. The vascular network was segmented by a deep learning architecture suitable for 3d datasets (V-net), trained by sparse manual annotations. Pathological alterations of vessels, concerning the variation of diameters and the amount of small holes, were observed, indicative of elevated occurrence of intussusceptive angiogenesis, also confirmed by high-resolution cone beam X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, we implemented a fully automated analysis of the tissue structure in the form of shape measures based on the structure tensor. The corresponding distributions show that the histopathology of Covid-19 differs from both influenza and typical coxsackie virus myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/pathology , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/virology , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Synchrotrons , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580692

ABSTRACT

Although blood-heart-barrier (BHB) leakage is the hallmark of congestive (cardio-pulmonary) heart failure (CHF), the primary cause of death in elderly, and during viral myocarditis resulting from the novel coronavirus variants such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome novel corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as COVID-19, the mechanism is unclear. The goal of this project is to determine the mechanism of the BHB in CHF. Endocardial endothelium (EE) is the BHB against leakage of blood from endocardium to the interstitium; however, this BHB is broken during CHF. Previous studies from our laboratory, and others have shown a robust activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) during CHF. MMP-9 degrades the connexins leading to EE dysfunction. We demonstrated juxtacrine coupling of EE with myocyte and mitochondria (Mito) but how it works still remains at large. To test whether activation of MMP-9 causes EE barrier dysfunction, we hypothesized that if that were the case then treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could, in fact, inhibit MMP-9, and thus preserve the EE barrier/juxtacrine signaling, and synchronous endothelial-myocyte coupling. To determine this, CHF was created by aorta-vena cava fistula (AVF) employing the mouse as a model system. The sham, and AVF mice were treated with HCQ. Cardiac hypertrophy, tissue remodeling-induced mitochondrial-myocyte, and endothelial-myocyte contractions were measured. Microvascular leakage was measured using FITC-albumin conjugate. The cardiac function was measured by echocardiography (Echo). Results suggest that MMP-9 activation, endocardial endothelial leakage, endothelial-myocyte (E-M) uncoupling, dyssynchronous mitochondrial fusion-fission (Mfn2/Drp1 ratio), and mito-myocyte uncoupling in the AVF heart failure were found to be rampant; however, treatment with HCQ successfully mitigated some of the deleterious cardiac alterations during CHF. The findings have direct relevance to the gamut of cardiac manifestations, and the resultant phenotypes arising from the ongoing complications of COVID-19 in human subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart/virology , Animals , Blood/virology , Blood Physiological Phenomena/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomegaly/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelium/metabolism , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Failure/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Muscle Cells/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
7.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 164: 13-16, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527886

ABSTRACT

Aged males disproportionately succumb to increased COVID-19 severity, hospitalization, and mortality compared to females. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) facilitate SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and may have sexually dimorphic regulation. As viral load dictates disease severity, we investigated the expression, protein levels, and activity of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Our data reveal that aged males have elevated ACE2 in both mice and humans across organs. We report the first comparative study comprehensively investigating the impact of sex and age in murine and human levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, to begin to elucidate the sex bias in COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
Aging/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sex Characteristics , Aging/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Heart/virology , Humans , Intestine, Small/enzymology , Intestine, Small/virology , Kidney/enzymology , Kidney/virology , Lung/enzymology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Myocardium/enzymology , Organ Specificity , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Young Adult
8.
Am J Pathol ; 191(12): 2064-2071, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506649

ABSTRACT

Current understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathophysiology is limited by disease heterogeneity, complexity, and a paucity of studies assessing patient tissues with advanced molecular tools. Rapid autopsy tissues were evaluated using multiscale, next-generation RNA-sequencing methods (bulk, single-nuclei, and spatial transcriptomics) to provide unprecedented molecular resolution of COVID-19-induced damage. Comparison of infected/uninfected tissues revealed four major regulatory pathways. Effectors within these pathways could constitute novel therapeutic targets, including the complement receptor C3AR1, calcitonin receptor-like receptor, or decorin. Single-nuclei RNA sequencing of olfactory bulb and prefrontal cortex highlighted remarkable diversity of coronavirus receptors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was rarely expressed, whereas basigin showed diffuse expression, and alanyl aminopeptidase, membrane, was associated with vascular/mesenchymal cell types. Comparison of lung and lymph node tissues from patients with different symptoms (one had died after a month-long hospitalization with multiorgan involvement, and the other had died after a few days of respiratory symptoms) with digital spatial profiling resulted in distinct molecular phenotypes. Evaluation of COVID-19 rapid autopsy tissues with advanced molecular techniques can identify pathways and effectors, map diverse receptors at the single-cell level, and help dissect differences driving diverging clinical courses among individual patients. Extension of this approach to larger data sets will substantially advance the understanding of the mechanisms behind COVID-19 pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Autopsy , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Profiling , Heart/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/pathology , Prefrontal Cortex/virology , Respiratory System/metabolism , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , Salivary Glands/metabolism , Salivary Glands/pathology , Salivary Glands/virology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction/genetics
10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(2): 542-555, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467310

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 is associated with adverse outcome. However, it is unclear whether cell-specific consequences are associated with cardiac SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, we investigated heart tissue utilizing in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and RNA-sequencing in consecutive autopsy cases to quantify virus load and characterize cardiac involvement in COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 95 SARS-CoV-2-positive autopsy cases were included. A relevant SARS-CoV-2 virus load in the cardiac tissue was detected in 41/95 deceased (43%). Massive analysis of cDNA ends (MACE)-RNA-sequencing was performed to identify molecular pathomechanisms caused by the infection of the heart. A signature matrix was generated based on the single-cell dataset 'Heart Cell Atlas' and used for digital cytometry on the MACE-RNA-sequencing data. Thus, immune cell fractions were estimated and revealed no difference in immune cell numbers in cases with and without cardiac infection. This result was confirmed by quantitative immunohistological diagnosis. MACE-RNA-sequencing revealed 19 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a q-value <0.05 (e.g. up: IFI44L, IFT3, TRIM25; down: NPPB, MB, MYPN). The upregulated DEGs were linked to interferon pathways and originate predominantly from endothelial cells. In contrast, the downregulated DEGs originate predominately from cardiomyocytes. Immunofluorescent staining showed viral protein in cells positive for the endothelial marker ICAM1 but rarely in cardiomyocytes. The Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis revealed that downregulated GO terms were linked to cardiomyocyte structure, whereas upregulated GO terms were linked to anti-virus immune response. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that cardiac infection induced transcriptomic alterations mainly linked to immune response and destruction of cardiomyocytes. While endothelial cells are primarily targeted by the virus, we suggest cardiomyocyte destruction by paracrine effects. Increased pro-inflammatory gene expression was detected in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiac tissue but no increased SARS-CoV-2 associated immune cell infiltration was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Male , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication
11.
J Virol ; 95(20): e0101021, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440800

ABSTRACT

The host response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is poorly understood due to a lack of an animal model that recapitulates severe human disease. Here, we report a Syrian hamster model that develops progressive lethal pulmonary disease that closely mimics severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated host responses using a multi-omic, multiorgan approach to define proteome, phosphoproteome, and transcriptome changes. These data revealed both type I and type II interferon-stimulated gene and protein expression along with a progressive increase in chemokines, monocytes, and neutrophil-associated molecules throughout the course of infection that peaked in the later time points correlating with a rapidly developing diffuse alveolar destruction and pneumonia that persisted in the absence of active viral infection. Extrapulmonary proteome and phosphoproteome remodeling was detected in the heart and kidneys following viral infection. Together, our results provide a kinetic overview of multiorgan host responses to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. IMPORTANCE The current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has created an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis of this infection. These efforts have been impaired by the lack of animal models that recapitulate severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we report a hamster model that develops severe COVID-19-like disease following infection with human isolates of SARS-CoV-2. To better understand pathogenesis, we evaluated changes in gene transcription and protein expression over the course of infection to provide an integrated multiorgan kinetic analysis of the host response to infection. These data reveal a dynamic innate immune response to infection and corresponding immune pathologies consistent with severe human disease. Altogether, this model will be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and for testing interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Proteome , Transcriptome , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Ontology , Heart/virology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/virology , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Myocardium/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
12.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 99(11): 1128-1136, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430219

ABSTRACT

The epidemiological outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), alias COVID-19, began in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in late December and eventually turned into a pandemic that has led to over 3.71 million deaths and over 173 million infected cases worldwide. In addition to respiratory manifestations, COVID-19 patients with neurological and myocardial dysfunctions exhibit a higher risk of in-hospital mortality. The immune function tends to be affected by cardiovascular risk factors and is thus indirectly related to the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Many neurological symptoms and manifestations have been reported in COVID-19 patients; however, detailed descriptions on the prevalence and characteristic features of these symptoms are restricted due to insufficient data. It is thus advisable for clinicians to be vigilant for both cardiovascular and neurological manifestations to detect them at an early stage to avoid inappropriate management of COVID-19 and to address the manifestations adequately. Patients with severe COVID-19 are notably more susceptible to developing cardiovascular and neurological complications than non-severe COVID-19 patients. This review focuses on the consequential outcomes of COVID-19 on cardiovascular and neuronal functions, including other influencing factors.


Subject(s)
Heart/virology , Neurons , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Middle Aged
13.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(6): 2347-2349, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391863

ABSTRACT

Due to the development of novel functionalities, distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants such as B.1.1.7 fuel the current pandemic. B.1.1.7 is not only more transmissible, but may also cause an increased mortality compared to previous SARS-CoV-2 variants. Human tissue analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 is urgently needed, and we here present autopsy data from 7 consecutive SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 cases. The initial RT-qPCR analyses from nasopharyngeal swabs taken post mortem included typing assays for B.1.1.7. We quantitated SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 viral load in autopsy tissue of multiple organs. Highest levels of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 copies normalized to ß-globin were detected in the respiratory system (lung and pharynx), followed by the liver and heart. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 was found in 100% of cases in the lungs and in 85.7% in pharynx tissue. Detection also in the kidney and brain highlighting a pronounced organ tropism. Comparison of the given results to a former cohort of SARS-CoV-2 deaths during the first wave in spring 2020 showed resembling organ tropism. Our results indicate that also SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 has a relevant organ tropism beyond the respiratory tract. We speculate that B.1.1.7 spike protein's affinity to human ACE2 facilitates transmission, organ tropism, and ultimately morbidity and mortality. Further studies and larger cohorts are obligatory to proof this link.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Viral Tropism , Aged , Autopsy , Female , Heart/virology , Humans , Kidney/virology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pharynx/virology
16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(12): 1549-1566, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial involvement induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection might be important for long-term prognosis. The aim of this observational study was to characterize the myocardial effects during SARS-CoV-2 infections by echocardiography. RESULTS AND METHODS: An extended echocardiographic image acquisition protocol was performed in 18 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection assessing LV longitudinal, radial, and circumferential deformation including rotation, twist, and untwisting. Furthermore, LV deformation was analyzed in an age-matched control group of healthy individuals (n = 20). The most prevalent finding was a reduced longitudinal strain observed predominantly in more than one basal LV segment (n = 10/14 patients, 71%). This pattern reminded of a "reverse tako-tsubo" morphology that is not typical for other viral myocarditis. Additional findings included a biphasic pattern with maximum post-systolic or negative regional radial strain predominantly basal (n = 5/14 patients, 36%); the absence or dispersion of basal LV rotation (n = 6/14 patients, 43%); a reduced or positive regional circumferential strain in more than one segment (n = 7/14 patients, 50%); a net rotation showing late post-systolic twist or biphasic pattern (n = 8/14 patients, 57%); a net rotation showing polyphasic pattern and/or higher maximum net values during diastole (n = 8/14 patients, 57%). CONCLUSION: Myocardial involvement due to SARS-CoV-2-infection was highly prevalent in the present cohort-even in patients with mild symptoms. It appears to be characterized by specific speckle tracking deformation abnormalities in the basal LV segments. These data set the stage to prospectively test whether these parameters are helpful for risk stratification and for the long-term follow-up of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , Ventricular Function, Left
17.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(11): 1832-1840, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We assessed possible myocardial involvement in previously cardiac healthy post-COVID patients referred for persisting symptoms with suspected myocarditis. BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggested myocardial inflammation in patients with coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the prevalence of cardiac involvement among COVID patients varied between 1.4 and 78%. METHODS: A total of 56 post-COVID patients without previous heart diseases were included consecutively into this study. All patients had positive antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2. Patients were referred for persistent symptoms such as chest pain/discomfort, shortness of breath, or intolerance to activity. All patients underwent standardized cardiac assessment including electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). RESULTS: 56 Patients (46 ± 12 years, 54% females) presented 71 ± 66 days after their COVID-19 disease. In most patients, the course of COVID-19 was mild, with hospital treatment being necessary in five (9%). At presentation, patients most often reported persistent fatigue (75%), chest pain (71%), and shortness of breath (66%). Acute myocarditis was confirmed by T1/T2-weighed CMR and elevated NTpro-BNP levels in a single patient (2%). Left ventricular ejection fraction was 56% in this patient. Additional eight patients (14%) showed suspicious CMR findings, including myocardial edema without fibrosis (n = 3), or non-ischemic myocardial injury suggesting previous inflammation (n = 5). However, myocarditis could ultimately not be confirmed according to 2018 Lake Louise criteria; ECG, echo and lab findings were inconspicuous in all eight patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among 56 post-COVID patients with persistent thoracic complaints final diagnosis of myocarditis could be confirmed in a single patient using CMR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart/virology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Myocarditis/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
18.
Physiol Rep ; 9(17): e14998, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374672

ABSTRACT

The spread of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. The disease has spread rapidly, and research shows that COVID-19 can induce long-lasting cardiac damage. COVID-19 can result in elevated cardiac biomarkers indicative of acute cardiac injury, and research utilizing echocardiography has shown that there is mechanical dysfunction in these patients as well, especially when observing the isovolumic, systolic, and diastolic portions of the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study was to present two case studies on COVID-19 positive patients who had their cardiac mechanical function assessed every day during the acute period to show that cardiac function in these patients was altered, and the damage occurring can change from day-to-day. Participant 1 showed compromised cardiac function in the systolic time, diastolic time, isovolumic time, and the calculated heart performance index (HPI), and these impairments were sustained even 23 days post-symptom onset. Furthermore, Participant 1 showed prolonged systolic periods that lasted longer than the diastolic periods, indicative of elevated pulmonary artery pressure. Participant 2 showed decreases in systole and consequently, increases in HPI during the 3 days post-symptom onset, and these changes returned to normal after day 4. These results showed that daily observation of cardiac function can provide detailed information about the overall mechanism by which cardiac dysfunction is occurring and that COVID-19 can induce cardiac damage in unique patterns and thus can be studied on a case-by-case basis, day-to-day during infection. This could allow us to move toward more personalized cardiovascular medical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventricular Function , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular/instrumentation , Heart/virology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Time Factors , Transducers
19.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of echocardiography in patients hospitalised with suspected coronavirus infection and to assess its impact on clinical management. METHODS: We studied 79 adults from a prospective registry of inpatients with suspected coronavirus infection at a single academic centre. Echocardiographic indications included abnormal biomarkers, shock, cardiac symptoms, arrhythmia, worsening hypoxaemia or clinical deterioration. Study type (limited or complete) was assessed for each patient. The primary outcome measure was echocardiography-related change in clinical management, defined as intensive care transfer, medication changes, altered ventilation parameters or subsequent cardiac procedures within 24 hours of echocardiography. Coronavirus-positive versus coronavirus-negative patient groups were compared. The relationship between echocardiographic findings and coronavirus mortality was assessed. RESULTS: 56 patients were coronavirus-positive and 23 patients were coronavirus-negative with symptoms attributed to other diagnoses. Coronavirus-positive patients more often received limited echocardiograms (70% vs 26%, p=0.001). The echocardiographic indication for coronavirus-infected patients was frequently worsening hypoxaemia (43% vs 4%) versus chest pain, syncope or clinical heart failure (23% vs 44%). Echocardiography changed management less frequently in coronavirus-positive patients (18% vs 48%, p=0.01). Among coronavirus-positive patients, 14 of 56 (25.0%) died during hospitalisation. Those who died more often had echocardiography to evaluate clinical deterioration (71% vs 24%) and had elevated right ventricular systolic pressures (37 mm Hg vs 25 mm Hg), but other parameters were similar to survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiograms performed on hospitalised patients with coronavirus infection were often technically limited, and their findings altered patient management in a minority of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Doppler , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
20.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335235

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), has claimed millions of human lives worldwide since the emergence of the zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China in December 2019. Notably, most severe and fatal SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans have been associated with underlying clinical conditions, including diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases. Here, we describe a case of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in a domestic cat (Felis catus) that presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a chronic heart condition that has been described as a comorbidity of COVID-19 in humans and that is prevalent in domestic cats. The lung and heart of the affected cat presented clear evidence of SARS-CoV-2 replication, with histological lesions similar to those observed in humans with COVID-19 with high infectious viral loads being recovered from these organs. The study highlights the potential impact of comorbidities on the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals and provides important information that may contribute to the development of a feline model with the potential to recapitulate the clinical outcomes of severe COVID-19 in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/pathology , Cats , Heart/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication
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