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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(13): 16682-16689, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241701


Heat-related illnesses (HRIs), mainly heat exhaustion (HE) and heat stroke (HS), are characterized by an elevation of core body temperature. In this study, we aimed to explore the HRIs' types and patient characteristics among a sample taken from various representative in-field points in the Hajj season. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 at 80 data collection points distributed in the field. Data related to demographics, features and risk factors were collected and analyzed from all encountered cases with suspected HRIs. Moreover, we developed a diagnostic tree for HRIs by using the XGBoost model. Out of the 1200 persons encountered during the study period, 231 fulfilled the criteria of HRIs spectrum and were included in this study. Around 6% had HS and 20% had HE. All HS cases (100%) were from outside of Saudi Arabia as compared with 72.5% diagnosed with HE (27.5% were from Saudi Arabia). In addition, 16% were considered as heat-induced muscle spasms, and 7% had limb heat edema. Additionally, most of HRIs cases were reported between 11 am and 1 pm. The HRIs diagnostic tree model gave a diagnostic accuracy of 93.6%. This study highlights the magnitude of HRIs among pilgrims in Hajj and provides a diagnostic tree that can aid in the risk stratification and diagnosis of these patients. We advise the implementation of more educational campaigns to pilgrims regarding preventable measures especially for the vulnerable groups (e.g. from outside Saudi Arabia, those with comorbidities and light-skinned people).

Heat Stroke , Hot Temperature , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heat Stroke/diagnosis , Humans , Saudi Arabia , Travel
J Nippon Med Sch ; 88(1): 80-86, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736471


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and heat-related illness are systemic febrile diseases. These illnesses must be differentiated during a COVID-19 pandemic in summer. However, no studies have compared and distinguished heat-related illness and COVID-19. We compared data from patients with early heat-related illness and those with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 90 patients with early heat-related illness selected from the Heatstroke STUDY 2017-2019 (nationwide registries of heat-related illness in Japan) and 86 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had fever or fatigue and were admitted to one of two hospitals in Tokyo, Japan. RESULTS: Among vital signs, systolic blood pressure (119 vs. 125 mm Hg, p = 0.02), oxygen saturation (98% vs. 97%, p < 0.001), and body temperature (36.6°C vs. 37.6°C, p<0.001) showed significant between-group differences in the heatstroke and COVID-19 groups, respectively. The numerous intergroup differences in laboratory findings included disparities in white blood cell count (10.8 × 103/µL vs. 5.2 × 103/µL, p<0.001), creatinine (2.2 vs. 0.85 mg/dL, p<0.001), and C-reactive protein (0.2 vs. 2.8 mg/dL, p<0.001), although a logistic regression model achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.966 using these three factors. A Random Forest machine learning model achieved an accuracy, precision, recall, and AUC of 0.908, 0.976, 0.842, and 0.978, respectively. Creatinine was the most important feature of this model. CONCLUSIONS: Acute kidney injury was associated with heat-related illness, which could be essential in distinguishing or evaluating patients with fever in the summer during a COVID-19 pandemic.

Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Creatinine/blood , Heat Stroke/diagnosis , Seasons , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Climate , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Heat Stroke/blood , Heat Stroke/complications , Hot Temperature , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Tokyo