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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736943

ABSTRACT

Rouleaux (stacked clumps) of red blood cells (RBCs) observed in the blood of COVID-19 patients in three studies call attention to the properties of several enveloped virus strains dating back to seminal findings of the 1940s. For COVID-19, key such properties are: (1) SARS-CoV-2 binds to RBCs in vitro and also in the blood of COVID-19 patients; (2) although ACE2 is its target for viral fusion and replication, SARS-CoV-2 initially attaches to sialic acid (SA) terminal moieties on host cell membranes via glycans on its spike protein; (3) certain enveloped viruses express hemagglutinin esterase (HE), an enzyme that releases these glycan-mediated bindings to host cells, which is expressed among betacoronaviruses in the common cold strains but not the virulent strains, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS. The arrangement and chemical composition of the glycans at the 22 N-glycosylation sites of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and those at the sialoglycoprotein coating of RBCs allow exploration of specifics as to how virally induced RBC clumping may form. The in vitro and clinical testing of these possibilities can be sharpened by the incorporation of an existing anti-COVID-19 therapeutic that has been found in silico to competitively bind to multiple glycans on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sialoglycoproteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Basigin/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Glycosylation , Hemagglutination , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Humans , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
2.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0156121, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529876

ABSTRACT

Historically part of the coronavirus (CoV) family, torovirus (ToV) was recently classified in the new family Tobaniviridae. While reverse genetics systems have been established for various CoVs, none exist for ToVs. Here, we developed a reverse genetics system using an infectious full-length cDNA clone of bovine ToV (BToV) in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Recombinant BToV harboring genetic markers had the same phenotype as wild-type (wt) BToV. To generate two types of recombinant virus, the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene was edited, as cell-adapted wtBToV generally loses full-length HE (HEf), resulting in soluble HE (HEs). First, recombinant viruses with HEf and hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged HEf or HEs genes were rescued. These exhibited no significant differences in their effect on virus growth in HRT18 cells, suggesting that HE is not essential for viral replication in these cells. Thereafter, we generated a recombinant virus (rEGFP) wherein HE was replaced by the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. rEGFP expressed EGFP in infected cells but showed significantly lower levels of viral growth than wtBToV. Moreover, rEGFP readily deleted the EGFP gene after one passage. Interestingly, rEGFP variants with two mutations (C1442F and I3562T) in nonstructural proteins (NSPs) that emerged during passage exhibited improved EGFP expression, EGFP gene retention, and viral replication. An rEGFP into which both mutations were introduced displayed a phenotype similar to that of these variants, suggesting that the mutations contributed to EGFP gene acceptance. The current findings provide new insights into BToV, and reverse genetics will help advance the current understanding of this neglected pathogen. IMPORTANCE ToVs are diarrhea-causing pathogens detected in various species, including humans. Through the development of a BAC-based BToV, we introduced the first reverse genetics system for Tobaniviridae. Utilizing this system, recombinant BToVs with a full-length HE gene were generated. Remarkably, although clinical BToVs generally lose the HE gene after a few passages, some recombinant viruses generated in the current study retained the HE gene for up to 20 passages while accumulating mutations in NSPs, which suggested that these mutations may be involved in HE gene retention. The EGFP gene of recombinant viruses was unstable, but rEGFP into which two NSP mutations were introduced exhibited improved EGFP expression, gene retention, and viral replication. These data suggested the existence of an NSP-based acceptance or retention mechanism for exogenous RNA or HE genes. Recombinant BToVs and reverse genetics are powerful tools for understanding fundamental viral processes, pathogenesis, and BToV vaccine development.


Subject(s)
DNA, Complementary , Genome, Viral , Reverse Genetics , Torovirus/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial , Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Reporter , Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Mutation , Plasmids/genetics , Torovirus/isolation & purification , Torovirus Infections , Transfection
3.
Mol Divers ; 25(3): 1999-2000, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303350

ABSTRACT

We read with interest the article by Patel et al. on the identification of potential inhibitors of coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase. The authors considered hemagglutinin-esterase as a glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and selected hemagglutinin-esterase as a target to identify potential inhibitors using a combination of various computational approaches, and however, SARS-CoV-2 genome lacks hemagglutinin-esterase gene; thus, hemagglutinin-esterase does not exist in SARS-CoV-2 particle.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism
4.
Mol Divers ; 25(1): 421-433, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808075

ABSTRACT

The pandemic outbreak of the Corona viral infection has become a critical global health issue. Biophysical and structural evidence shows that spike protein possesses a high binding affinity towards host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and viral hemagglutinin-acetylesterase (HE) glycoprotein receptor. We selected HE as a target in this study to identify potential inhibitors using a combination of various computational approaches such as molecular docking, ADMET analysis, dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations. Virtual screening of NPACT compounds identified 3,4,5-Trihydroxy-1,8-bis[(2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-2-yl]benzo[7]annulen-6-one, Silymarin, Withanolide D, Spirosolane and Oridonin as potential HE inhibitors with better binding energy. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations for 100 ns time scale revealed that most of the key HE contacts were retained throughout the simulations trajectories. Binding free energy calculations using MM/PBSA approach ranked the top-five potential NPACT compounds which can act as effective HE inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(41): 25759-25770, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807358

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1 are respiratory pathogens of zoonotic origin that have gained worldwide distribution. OC43 apparently emerged from a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) spillover. All three viruses attach to 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans via spike protein S with hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) acting as a receptor-destroying enzyme. In BCoV, an HE lectin domain promotes esterase activity toward clustered substrates. OC43 and HKU1, however, lost HE lectin function as an adaptation to humans. Replaying OC43 evolution, we knocked out BCoV HE lectin function and performed forced evolution-population dynamics analysis. Loss of HE receptor binding selected for second-site mutations in S, decreasing S binding affinity by orders of magnitude. Irreversible HE mutations led to cooperativity in virus swarms with low-affinity S minority variants sustaining propagation of high-affinity majority phenotypes. Salvageable HE mutations induced successive second-site substitutions in both S and HE. Apparently, S and HE are functionally interdependent and coevolve to optimize the balance between attachment and release. This mechanism of glycan-based receptor usage, entailing a concerted, fine-tuned activity of two envelope protein species, is unique among CoVs, but reminiscent of that of influenza A viruses. Apparently, general principles fundamental to virion-sialoglycan interactions prompted convergent evolution of two important groups of human and animal pathogens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/physiology , Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Animals , Biological Evolution , Cell Line , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/metabolism , Coronavirus, Bovine/physiology , Hemagglutinins, Viral/chemistry , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Humans , Lectins/genetics , Lectins/metabolism , Mice , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Selection, Genetic , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Virion/genetics , Virus Attachment , Virus Release
6.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772275

ABSTRACT

Membrane-associated RING-CH-type 8 (MARCH8) strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) incorporation into virions by downregulating its cell surface expression, but the mechanism is still unclear. We now report that MARCH8 also blocks the Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) incorporation via surface downregulation. To understand how these viral fusion proteins are downregulated, we investigated the effects of MARCH8 on EBOV GP maturation and externalization via the conventional secretion pathway. MARCH8 interacted with EBOV GP and furin when detected by immunoprecipitation and retained the GP/furin complex in the Golgi when their location was tracked by a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. MARCH8 did not reduce the GP expression or affect the GP modification by high-mannose N-glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but it inhibited the formation of complex N-glycans on the GP in the Golgi. Additionally, the GP O-glycosylation and furin-mediated proteolytic cleavage were also inhibited. Moreover, we identified a novel furin cleavage site on EBOV GP and found that only those fully glycosylated GPs were processed by furin and incorporated into virions. Furthermore, the GP shedding and secretion were all blocked by MARCH8. MARCH8 also blocked the furin-mediated cleavage of HIV-1 Env (gp160) and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA). We conclude that MARCH8 has a very broad antiviral activity by prohibiting different viral fusion proteins from glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage in the Golgi, which inhibits their transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane and incorporation into virions.IMPORTANCE Enveloped viruses express three classes of fusion proteins that are required for their entry into host cells via mediating virus and cell membrane fusion. Class I fusion proteins are produced from influenza viruses, retroviruses, Ebola viruses, and coronaviruses. They are first synthesized as a type I transmembrane polypeptide precursor that is subsequently glycosylated and oligomerized. Most of these precursors are cleaved en route to the plasma membrane by a cellular protease furin in the late secretory pathway, generating the trimeric N-terminal receptor-binding and C-terminal fusion subunits. Here, we show that a cellular protein, MARCH8, specifically inhibits the furin-mediated cleavage of EBOV GP, HIV-1 Env, and H5N1 HA. Further analyses uncovered that MARCH8 blocked the EBOV GP glycosylation in the Golgi and inhibited its transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Thus, MARCH8 has a very broad antiviral activity by specifically inactivating different viral fusion proteins.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus/chemistry , Glycoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , HIV-1/chemistry , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/chemistry , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Envelope Proteins/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ebolavirus/physiology , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/physiology , HeLa Cells , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , Protein Binding , THP-1 Cells , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Fusion Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism
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