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Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834926


The H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been circulating in China for more than 20 years, attracting more and more attention due to the potential threat of them. At present, vaccination is a common prevention and control strategy in poultry farms, but as virus antigenicity evolves, the immune protection efficiency of vaccines has constantly been challenged. In this study, we downloaded the hemagglutinin (HA) protein sequences of the H9N2 subtype AIVs from 1994 to 2019 in China-with a total of 5138 sequences. The above sequences were analyzed in terms of time and space, and it was found that h9.4.2.5 was the most popular in various regions of China. Furthermore, the prevalence of H9N2 subtype AIVs in China around 2006 was different. The domestic epidemic branch was relatively diversified from 1994 to 2006. After 2006, the epidemic branch each year was h9.4.2.5. We compared the sequences around 2006 as a whole and screened out 15 different amino acid positions. Based on the HA protein of A/chicken/Guangxi/55/2005 (GX55), the abovementioned amino acid mutations were completed. According to the 12-plasmid reverse genetic system, the rescue of the mutant virus was completed using A/PuertoRico/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) as the backbone. The cross hemagglutination inhibition test showed that these mutant sites could transform the parental strain from the old to the new antigenic region. Animal experiments indicated that the mutant virus provided significant protection against the virus from the new antigenic region. This study revealed the antigenic evolution of H9N2 subtype AIVs in China. At the same time, it provided an experimental basis for the development of new vaccines.

Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chickens , China/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Hemagglutinins/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Phylogeny
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481008


Measles virus (MeV) genotype B3 is one globally significant circulating genotype. Here, we present a systematic description of long-term evolutionary characterizations of the MeV genotype B3's hemagglutinin (H) gene in the elimination era. Our results show that the B3 H gene can be divided into two main sub-genotypes, and the highest intra-genotypic diversity was observed in 2004. MeV genotype B3's H gene diverged in 1976; its overall nucleotide substitution rate is estimated to be 5.697 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year, and is slowing down. The amino acid substitution rate of genotype B3's H gene is also decreasing, and the mean effective population size has been in a downward trend since 2000. Selection pressure analysis only recognized a few sites under positive selection, and the number of positive selection sites is getting smaller. All of these observations may reveal that genotype B3's H gene is not under strong selection pressure, and is becoming increasingly conservative. MeV H-gene or whole-genome sequencing should be routine, so as to better elucidate the molecular epidemiology of MeV in the future.

Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , Measles virus/genetics , China , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genotype , Hemagglutinins/genetics , Humans , Measles/virology , Molecular Epidemiology/methods , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
Comput Biol Chem ; 93: 107532, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275230


Zoonotic Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly pathogenic and transmissible considered as emerging pandemic disease. The virus belongs from a large virus Coronaviridae family affect respiratory tract of animal and human likely originated from bat and homology to SARA-CoV and MERS-CoV. The virus consists of single-stranded positive genomic RNA coated by nucleocapsid protein. The rate of mutation in any virulence gene may influence the phenomenon of host radiation. We have studied the molecular evolution of selected virulence genes (HA, N, RdRP and S) of novel COVID-19. We used a site-specific comparison of synonymous (silent) and non-synonymous (amino acid altering) nucleotide substitutions. Maximum Likelihood genealogies based on differential gamma distribution rates were used for the analysis of null and alternate hypothesis. The null hypothesis was found more suitable for the analysis using Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) method, confirming higher rate of substitution. The analysis revealed that RdRP gene had the fastest rate evolution followed by HA gene. We have also reported the new motifs for different virulence genes, which are further useful to design new detection and diagnosis kit for COVID -19.

Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Hemagglutinins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virulence/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Base Sequence , Evolution, Molecular , Genes, Viral , Phosphoproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity