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2.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 64(1): 3-8, 2023.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261855

ABSTRACT

When the omicron variant became the most dominant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) variant causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan, 11 patients with hematological diseases infected with this new variant were treated at our institution. Among them, four of the five patients who had been treated with chemotherapy progressed to moderate-II COVID-19, and two of them died. In contrast, five of the six patients who did not receive the treatment remained at mild to moderate-I stage of COVID-19, except for a single case progressing to moderate-II COVID-19. While all four patients infused with anti-coronavirus monoclonal antibodies within 8 days after the onset survived, the other two patients, being withheld from treatment or treated later, died. In these two cases, anti-SARS-Cov-2 immunoglobulin G antibodies remained at low titers. Although the omicron variant is considered a less harmful SARS-Cov-2 variant, patients with hematological disorders, particularly those who are immunosuppressed caused by chemotherapy, should be continuously cared for as they remain at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 due to insufficient or delayed anti-viral humoral immunity development. Thus, the rapid introduction of antiviral monoclonal antibodies together with anti-viral reagents may rescue these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Antiviral Agents , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral
3.
Intern Med ; 61(11): 1681-1686, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951862

ABSTRACT

Objective Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread globally. Although the relationship between anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and COVID-19 severity has been reported, information is lacking regarding the seropositivity of patients with particular types of diseases, including hematological diseases. Methods In this single-center, retrospective study, we compared SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity between patients with hematological diseases and those with non-hematological diseases. Results In total, 77 adult COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Of these, 30 had hematological disorders, and 47 had non-hematological disorders. The IgG antibody against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein was detected less frequently in patients with hematological diseases (60.0%) than in those with non-hematological diseases (91.5%; p=0.029). Rituximab use was significantly associated with seronegativity (p=0.010). Conclusion Patients with hematological diseases are less likely to develop anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than those with non-hematological diseases, which may explain the poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients in this high-risk group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Japan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 54, 2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines according to antibody response in immunosuppressed patients such as hematological patients has not yet been established. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective multicenter registry-based cohort study conducted from December 2020 to December 2021 by the Spanish transplant and cell therapy group was used to analyze the relationship of antibody response at 3-6 weeks after full vaccination (2 doses) with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in 1394 patients with hematological disorders. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 165 days after complete immunization, 37 out of 1394 (2.6%) developed breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection at median of 77 days (range 7-195) after full vaccination. The incidence rate was 6.39 per 100 persons-year. Most patients were asymptomatic (19/37, 51.4%), whereas only 19% developed pneumonia. The mortality rate was 8%. Lack of detectable antibodies at 3-6 weeks after full vaccination was the only variable associated with breakthrough infection in multivariate logistic regression analysis (Odds Ratio 2.35, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.6, p = 0.012). Median antibody titers were lower in cases than in non-cases [1.83 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (range 0-4854.93) vs 730.81 BAU/mL (range 0-56,800), respectively (p = 0.007)]. We identified 250 BAU/mL as a cutoff above which incidence and severity of the infection were significantly lower. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the benefit of developing an antibody response in these highly immunosuppressed patients. Level of antibody titers at 3 to 6 weeks after 2-dose vaccination links with protection against both breakthrough infection and severe disease for non-Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann Hematol ; 101(8): 1825-1834, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858973

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 in patients with hematological diseases is associated with a high mortality. Moreover, preventive vaccination demonstrated reduced efficacy and the knowledge on influencing factors is limited. In this single-center study, antibody levels of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured ≥ 2 weeks after 2nd COVID-19 vaccination with a concentration ≥ 0.8 U/mL considered positive. Between July and October 2021, in a total of 373 patients (median age 64 years, 44% women) with myeloid neoplasms (n = 214, 57%), lymphoid neoplasms (n = 124, n = 33%), and other diseases (n = 35, 10%), vaccination was performed with BNT162b2 (BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), ChADOx1 (AstraZeneca), or a combination. A total of 229 patients (61%) were on active therapy within 3 months prior vaccination and 144 patients (39%) were previously treated or treatment naïve. Vaccination-related antibody response was negative in 56/373 patients (15%): in 39/124 patients with lymphoid neoplasms, 13/214 with myeloid neoplasms, and 4/35 with other diseases. Active treatment per se was not correlated with negative response. However, rituximab and BTK inhibitor treatment were correlated significantly with a negative vaccination response, whereas younger age and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) disease were associated with positive response. In addition, 5 of 6 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) and negative vaccination response were on active treatment with ruxolitinib. In conclusion, a remarkable percentage of patients with hematological diseases had no response after 2nd COVID-19 vaccination. Multivariable analysis revealed important factors associated with response to vaccination. The results may serve as a guide for better protection and surveillance in this vulnerable patient cohort.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloproliferative Disorders/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Treatment Failure , Vaccination
6.
Acta Haematol ; 145(3): 267-274, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662365

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in changes in management and imaging routines for patients with hematological malignancies. Treating physicians had to familiarize themselves with a new disease, with distinct imaging manifestations, sometimes overlapping with other infections prevalent in this patient population. In some aspects, infected hematological patients might exhibit a different disease course, and routine imaging in asymptomatic hematological patients may result in unexpected COVID-19 findings, implying covert infection, that should be further explored. Furthermore, some complications of hematological diseases and treatments may present with findings similar to COVID-19 manifestations, and treating physicians must consider both possibilities in the differential diagnosis. In this review, we aimed to present the influence the COVID-19 pandemic had on hematological malignancy imaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Hematol ; 114(6): 709-718, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474138

ABSTRACT

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests cannot always detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus, possibly due to differences in sensitivity between sample types. Under these circumstances, immunochromatography may serve as an alternative method to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies that indicate a history of infection. In our analysis of patients with severe COVID-19 infection, we found that 14 of 19 serum samples were positive for IgG antibodies, whereas 6 of 10 samples from patients with asymptomatic or mild cases were negative. Two patients with immune thrombocytopenia who were treated with prednisolone experienced aggressive COVID-19-related respiratory failure and eventually died. Patients not in remission and those who received steroid-based chemotherapy had a higher risk of death, and patients with lymphoid malignancies including lymphoma and myeloma died in larger numbers than those with myeloid malignancies. A stricter cohorting strategy based on repeat PCR tests or isolation to a private room should be adopted in routine care in hematology departments to prevent viral spread to the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/mortality , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infection Control/methods , Japan , Male , Patient Isolation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257560, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430541

ABSTRACT

Certain clinical indications and treatments such as the use of rasburicase in cancer therapy and 8-aminoquinolines for Plasmodium vivax malaria treatment would benefit from a point-of-care test for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of one such test: the STANDARD™ G6PD Test (SD BIOSENSOR, South Korea). First, biological interference on the test performance was evaluated in specimens with common blood disorders, including high white blood cell (WBC) counts. Second, the test precision on fingerstick specimens was evaluated against five individuals of each, deficient, intermediate, and normal G6PD activity status. Third, clinical performance of the test was evaluated at three point-of-care settings in the United States. The test performed equivalently to the reference assay in specimens with common blood disorders. High WBC count blood samples resulted in overestimation of G6PD activity in both the reference assay and the STANDARD G6PD Test. The STANDARD G6PD Test showed good precision on multiple fingerstick specimens from the same individual. The same G6PD threshold values (U/g Hb) were applied for a semiquantitative interpretation for fingerstick- and venous-derived results. The sensitivity/specificity values (95% confidence intervals) for the test for G6PD deficiency were 100 (92.3-100.0)/97 (95.2-98.2) and 100 (95.7-100.0)/97.4 (95.7-98.5) for venous and capillary specimens, respectively. The same values for females with intermediate (> 30% to ≤ 70%) G6PD activity were 94.1 (71.3-99.9)/88.2 (83.9-91.7) and 82.4 (56.6-96.2)/87.6(83.3-91.2) for venous and capillary specimens, respectively. The STANDARD G6PD Test enables point-of-care testing for G6PD deficiency.


Subject(s)
Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/diagnosis , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/blood , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Specimen Collection , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/standards , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/complications , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reference Standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The hematological abnormalities are assumed to be involved in the disease progression of COVID-19. However, the actual associations between specific blood parameters and COVID-19 are not well understood. Here we aimed to assess the correlations between hematological parameters and the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We included COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Evercare Hospital Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh, between November 10, 2020, to April 12, 2021, with a confirmed case of RT-PCR test. We recorded demographic information, clinical data, and routine hematological examination results of all COVID-19 patients. We performed statistical analyses and interpretation of data to compare severe COVID-19 patients (SCP) and non-severe COVID-19 patients (NSCP). RESULTS: The age and BMI of the admitted COVID-19 patients were 48.79±8.53 years and 25.82±3.75 kg/m2. This study included a total of 306 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Among them, NSCP and SCP were 198 and 108, respectively. And we recorded 12 deaths from SCP. We observed the alterations of several hematological parameters between SCP and NSCP. Among them, we noticed the increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), d-dimer, and ferritin showed good indicative value to evaluate the severity of COVID-19. Also, there were positive correlations among these parameters. Moreover, we found correlations between the outcomes of COVID-19 patients with patient's demographics and comorbid diseases. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, CRP, d-dimer, and ferritin levels at admission to hospitals represent simple assessment factors for COVID-19 severity and the treatment decisions at the hospital setup. These blood parameters could serve as indicators for the prognosis and severity of COVID-19. Therefore, our study findings might help to develop a treatment protocol for COVID-19 patients at the hospital setup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Int J Hematol ; 114(6): 719-724, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274955

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are considered at high risk of acquiring coronavirus disease (COVID-19). To identify patients who are likely to be diagnosed with severe COVID-19, we analyzed the risk factors for mortality in patients admitted to the hematology department at our institute. The mortality rate of all patients was as high as 62% (21 of the 34 patients), and most of these patients had malignant malignancies. Patients before an achievement of remission had a 10.8-fold higher risk of death than those in remission. The group receiving chemotherapy with steroids had a shorter survival time and had an 8.3-fold higher risk of death than that receiving chemotherapy without steroids. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to carefully monitor or follow-up patients with active diseases and patients receiving steroid-containing chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Hematologic Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Cross Infection/complications , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/drug therapy , Hematologic Diseases/mortality , Humans , Japan , Male , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
15.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 21(9): 606-612, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents an important infectious complication associated with high mortality rates in patients with hematologic diseases. There have not been published any epidemiologic studies from Czech Republic so far. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is the first analysis of patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow failure syndromes treated at single hematology center in the Czech Republic between March 1 and December 31, 2020, in whom COVID-19 infection was confirmed. RESULTS: The sample comprised 96 patients aged 26 to 84 years (median, 66.0 years). At the time of their COVID-19 diagnosis, 75 patients (78.1%) were treated for hematologic diseases. Twenty-seven patients (28.1%) in the sample had complete remission (CR) of their hematologic disease. They were nonsignificantly more likely to have asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 infection than those who failed to achieve CR (74.1% vs. 56.5%; P = .06). A more severe course of the infection was significantly correlated with older age (P = .047). Lung involvement was also statistically significantly associated with older age (P = .045). Over the study period, a total of 15 patients died. Age greater than 60 years was significantly associated with deaths from COVID-19 (P = .036), with failure to achieve CR having a statistically nonsignificant impact on mortality (P = .22). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the prognostic significance of age for achieving treatment response of hematologic disease as well as the severity and mortality of COVID-19 in hematology patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders/complications , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders/diagnosis , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders/epidemiology , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/diagnosis , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(4): 1188-1201, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090244

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2. Although pulmonary manifestations have been identified as the major symptoms, several hematological abnormalities have also been identified. This review summarizes the reported hematological abnormalities (changes in platelet, white blood cell, and hemoglobin, and coagulation/fibrinolytic alterations), explores their patho-mechanisms, and discusses its management. Common hematological abnormalities in COVID-19 are lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated D-dimer levels. These alterations are significantly more common/prominent in patients with severe COVID-19 disease, and thus may serve as a possible biomarker for those needing hospitalization and intensive care unit care. Close attention needs to be paid to coagulation abnormalities, and steps should be taken to prevent these occurring or to mitigate their harmful effects. The effect of COVID-19 in patients with hematological abnormalities and recognized hematological drug toxicities of therapies for COVID-19 are also outlined.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Lymphopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Erythrocytes/pathology , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Humans , Leukocytes/pathology , Lymphopenia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
18.
Ann Hematol ; 100(2): 309-320, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014126

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Primarily an infection of the lower respiratory tract, it is now well known to cause multisystem abnormalities. Hematologic manifestations constitute a significant area of concern. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infects monocytes and endothelial cells leading to a complex downstream cascade, cytokine storm, and eventual intravascular thrombosis. Coronavirus disease 2019 causes lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and thrombocytopenia. Prophylactic anticoagulation is vital in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, as its effect on the coagulation system is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The disease can cause both arterial and venous thromboses, especially pulmonary embolism and pulmonary microthrombi. A high index of suspicion is indispensable in recognizing these complications, and timely institution of therapeutic anticoagulation is vital in treating them. Virus-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation is uncommon but shares some similarities to sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. Marked elevations in hematologic biomarkers such as lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, ferritin, and C-reactive protein are associated with worse outcomes. Understanding the pathophysiology and recognizing factors associated with poor prognosis are crucial in improving patient outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hematologic Diseases/blood , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
19.
Br J Haematol ; 191(2): 194-206, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966626

ABSTRACT

Haematology patients receiving chemo- or immunotherapy are considered to be at greater risk of COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify risk factors for COVID-19 severity and assess outcomes in patients where COVID-19 complicated the treatment of their haematological disorder. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 55 patients with haematological disorders and COVID-19, including 52 with malignancy, two with bone marrow failure and one immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). COVID-19 diagnosis coincided with a new diagnosis of a haematological malignancy in four patients. Among patients, 82% were on systemic anti-cancer therapy (SACT) at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. Of hospitalised patients, 37% (19/51) died while all four outpatients recovered. Risk factors for severe disease or mortality were similar to those in other published cohorts. Raised C-reactive protein at diagnosis predicted an aggressive clinical course. The majority of patients recovered from COVID-19, despite receiving recent SACT. This suggests that SACT, where urgent, should be administered despite intercurrent COVID-19 infection, which should be managed according to standard pathways. Delay or modification of therapy should be considered on an individual basis. Long-term follow-up studies in larger patient cohorts are required to assess the efficacy of treatment strategies employed during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Immunotherapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Black People , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Cross Infection/complications , Female , Hematologic Diseases/drug therapy , Hematologic Diseases/mortality , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Leukemia/complications , Leukemia/drug therapy , Leukemia/mortality , London/epidemiology , Lymphoma/complications , Lymphoma/drug therapy , Lymphoma/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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