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1.
Acta Haematol ; 145(3): 235-243, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has emerged as a global pandemic that threatens thousands around the world. Observational cohort studies have demonstrated that cancer patients have inferior outcomes due to underlying malignancy, treatment-related immunosuppression, or increased comorbidities. We aimed to examine the representation of cancer patients (hematological malignancies and solid tumors) in COVID-19 therapeutic and prophylactic interventional trials. METHODS: In this review, all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between December 2019 and August 2021 were included. We included only trials evaluating medications that were recommended by NIH guidelines: steroids, tocilizumab, remdesivir, and REGN-COV2. RESULTS: The search yielded 541 potentially relevant RCTs, 22 of which were considered suitable. All trials included patients with solid cancer and hematological malignancies in the formal reported inclusion criteria. However, only two trials reported the accurate number of cancer patients included. Ten trials excluded neutropenic patients and seven trials excluded thrombocytopenic patients. Eleven trials excluded patients that were treated with any immunosuppression treatment. None of the two trials that included cancer patients reported separate outcomes for this population. CONCLUSION: Our systematic review shows that cancer patients are underrepresented in COVID-19 interventional therapeutic trials, and evidence regarding outcomes are lacking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Neoplasms , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Drug Combinations , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Acta Haematol ; 145(3): 297-309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the result of intricate interactions between the novel coronavirus and the immune system. In patients with hematologic malignancies (HM), these interactions dramatically change the clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19. SUMMARY: Patients with HM and COVID-19 are at an increased risk for prolonged viral shedding, more protracted and severe presentation, and death, even when compared to other immunocompromised hosts. HM (e.g., multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and anticancer treatments (e.g., anti-CD20 agents) that impair humoral immunity markedly increase the risk of severe COVID-19 as well as protracted viral shedding and possibly longer infectivity. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is an important player in the pathophysiology of severe and fatal COVID-19. Treatments targeting specific cytokines involved in CRS such as interleukin-6 and Janus kinase have proven beneficial in COVID-19 patients but were not assessed specifically in HM patients. Although neutropenia (as well as neutrophilia) was associated with increased COVID-19 mortality, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors were not beneficial in patients with COVID-19 and may have been associated with worse outcomes. Decreased levels of T lymphocytes and especially decreased CD4+ counts, and depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes, are a hallmark of severe COVID-19, and even more so among patients with HM, underlying the important role of T-helper dysfunction in severe COVID-19. In HM patients with intact cellular immunity, robust T-cell responses may compensate for an impaired humoral immune system. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the mechanisms of severe COVID-19 among patients with HM and assess the efficacy of new immunomodulating COVID-19 treatments in this population. KEY MESSAGES: Understanding the immunopathology of COVID-19 has greatly benefited from the previous research in patients with HM. So far, no COVID-19 treatments were properly evaluated in patients with HM. Patients with HM should be included in future RCTs assessing treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Neutropenia , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunity , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Neutropenia/complications
3.
Oncologist ; 27(2): e203-e205, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in cancer patients undergoing active cancer-directed treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This case series analyzes outcomes in terms of adverse events in 5297 patients undergoing anti-cancer treatment who were vaccinated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine at a single cancer center from March 6, 2021 to May 9, 2021. Adverse events were retrieved from the national Italian pharmacovigilance platform (http://www.vigicovid.it). RESULTS: Of the 5297 patients treated for either solid tumors (87%) or onco-hematologic malignancies (13%) who were vaccinated, 8 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were reported. One was a severe ADR and 7 were non-severe ADRs. Non-severe ADRs resolved within 48 hours. CONCLUSION: BNT162b2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was safely administered in the largest cohort of cancer patients reported to date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hematologic Neoplasms , Vaccines , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Vaccines/adverse effects
4.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(5): 86, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873485

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) appears limited due to disease and treatment-associated immune impairment. We conducted a systematic review of prospective studies published from 10/12/2021 onwards in medical databases to assess clinical efficacy parameters, humoral and cellular immunogenicity and adverse events (AE) following two doses of COVID-19 approved vaccines. In 57 eligible studies reporting 7393 patients, clinical outcomes were rarely reported and rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection (range 0-11.9%), symptomatic disease (0-2.7%), hospital admission (0-2.8%), or death (0-0.5%) were low. Seroconversion rates ranged from 38.1-99.1% across studies with the highest response rate in myeloproliferative diseases and the lowest in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients with B-cell depleting treatment had lower seroconversion rates as compared to other targeted treatments or chemotherapy. The vaccine-induced T-cell response was rarely and heterogeneously reported (26.5-85.9%). Similarly, AEs were rarely reported (0-50.9% ≥1 AE, 0-7.5% ≥1 serious AE). In conclusion, HM patients present impaired humoral and cellular immune response to COVID-19 vaccination with disease and treatment specific response patterns. In light of the ongoing pandemic with the easing of mitigation strategies, new approaches to avert severe infection are urgently needed for this vulnerable patient population that responds poorly to current COVID-19 vaccine regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 163, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) currently constitutes the leading and overwhelming health issue worldwide. In comparison with adults, children present milder symptoms, with most having an asymptomatic course. We hypothesized that COVID-19 infection has a negative impact on the continuation of chemotherapy and increases nonrelapse mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was performed to assess the course of SARS-CoV-2 among children with hematological or oncological malignancies and its impact on cancer therapy. Records of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 155 children with malignancies from 14 Polish centers for pediatric hematology and oncology were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 replication was observed in 155 patients. Forty-nine patients were symptomatic, with the following being the most common manifestations: fever (31 patients), gastrointestinal symptoms (10), coryza (13), cough (13) and headache (8). In children who were retested, the median time of a positive PCR result was 16 days (range 1-70 days), but 12.7% of patients were positive beyond day + 20. The length of viral PCR positivity correlated with the absolute neutrophil count at diagnosis. Seventy-six patients did not undergo further SARS-CoV-2 testing and were considered convalescents after completion of isolation. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 15 children, remdesivir in 6, convalescent plasma in 4, oxygen therapy in 3 (1-mechanical ventilation), steroids in 2, intravenous immunoglobulins in 2, and heparin in 4. Eighty patients were treated with chemotherapy within 30 days after SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis or were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection during 30 days of chemotherapy administration. Respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19 and associated with oxygen therapy were present in 4 patients in the study population, and four deaths were recorded (2 due to COVID-19 and 2 due to progressive malignancy). The probability of 100-day overall survival was 97.3% (95% CI 92.9-99%). Delay in the next chemotherapy cycle occurred in 91 of 156 cases, with a median of 14 days (range 2-105 days). CONCLUSIONS: For the majority of pediatric cancer patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection does not result in a severe, life-threatening course. Our data show that interruptions in therapy are common and can result in suboptimal therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Management , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Male , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Curr Oncol ; 29(6): 3940-3949, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869495

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematological malignancies have an increased risk of serious outcomes following COVID-19 infection, suggesting broader protection is needed beyond vaccination. Monoclonal antibodies such as sotrovimab, casirivimab-imdevimab, and bamlanivimab have provided valuable options for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. More recently, monoclonal antibodies have been examined for the prevention of COVID-19 infection. The monoclonal antibody combination, tixagevimab-cilgavimab, was recently approved by Health Canada as pre-exposure prophylaxis against COVID-19 in individuals who are immunocompromised or where vaccination is not recommended. Prophylactic approaches such as the use of tixagevimab-cilgavimab, in addition to COVID-19 vaccination, may provide additional protection for patients with hematological malignancies who are at greater risk of serious outcomes from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans
7.
Trends Immunol ; 43(6): 459-465, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864570

ABSTRACT

Much has been learned about the genes and pathways that contribute to a diverse array of hematopoietic malignancies and other hematopoietic diseases. However, for many of these diseases, an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant remains the preferred treatment option. This opinion article provides the perspective of a molecular immunologist who became a transplant patient after many years studying basic mechanisms of blood cell development. Among many lessons learned were the magnitude of racial and ethnic disparities in donor registries, the substantial improvement in outcomes over time that were due to the collective impact of numerous advances, the benefits and limitations of genetic and clinical data, and the remarkably intricate balance between promoting graft-versus-disease activity of donor cells while suppressing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).


Subject(s)
Graft vs Host Disease , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Graft vs Host Disease/genetics , Humans , Transplantation Conditioning , Transplantation, Homologous
8.
Blood Rev ; 54: 100931, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864540

ABSTRACT

There has been limited data presented to characterize and quantify breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections, hospitalizations, and mortality in vaccinated patients with hematologic malignancies (HM). We performed a retrospective cohort study of patient electronic health records of 514,413 fully vaccinated patients from 63 healthcare organizations in the US, including 5956 with HM and 508,457 without malignancies during the period from December 2020 to October 2021. The breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients with HM steadily increased and reached 67.7 cases per 1000 persons in October 2021. The cumulative risk of breakthrough infections during the period in patients with HM was 13.4%, ranging from 11.0% for acute lymphocytic leukemia to 17.2% and 17.4% for multiple myeloma and chronic myeloid leukemia respectively, all higher than the risk of 4.5% in patients without malignancies (p < 0.001). No significant racial disparities in breakthrough infections were observed. The overall hospitalization risk was 37.8% for patients with HM who had breakthrough infections, significantly higher than 2.2% for those who had no breakthrough infections (hazard ratio or HR: 34.49, 95% CI: 25.93-45.87). The overall mortality risk was 5.7% for patients with HM who had breakthrough infections, significantly higher than the 0.8% for those who had no breakthrough infections (HR: 10.25, 95% CI: 5.94-17.69). In summary, this study shows that among the fully vaccinated population, patients with HM had significantly higher risk for breakthrough infections compared to patients without cancer and that breakthrough infections in patients with HM were associated with significant clinical outcomes including hospitalizations and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 67, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854816

ABSTRACT

Although messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have established efficacy for prevention of severe SARS-CoV2 infection in the general population, their effectiveness in patients with malignancy, especially those on anti-neoplastic therapies, remains an area of open research. In order to better understand the risk of developing breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection and the outcomes associated with breakthrough infection for cancer patients, individual patient data from a curated outcomes database at the University of Kansas were retrospectively reviewed to determine the rate of breakthrough infection during an 8-month period encompassing the height of the delta variant surge. Although the rate of breakthrough infection in cancer patients after two doses of an mRNA vaccine remained low at 1.1%, hospitalization and death rates were 27 and 5%, respectively. Patients with hematologic malignancies, especially multiple myeloma, and those on anti-neoplastic therapy at the time of vaccination were found to be at higher risk for developing breakthrough infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
Leukemia ; 36(6): 1467-1480, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830027

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel virus that spread worldwide from 2019 causing the Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterised by an initial viral phase followed in some patients by a severe inflammatory phase. Importantly, immunocompromised patients may have a prolonged viral phase, shedding infectious viral particles for months, and absent or dysfunctional inflammatory phase. Among haematological patients, COVID-19 has been associated with high mortality rate in acute leukaemia, high risk-myelodysplastic syndromes, and after haematopoietic cell transplant and chimeric-antigen-receptor-T therapies. The clinical symptoms and signs were similar to that reported for the overall population, but the severity and outcome were worse. The deferral of immunodepleting cellular therapy treatments is recommended for SARS-CoV-2 positive patient, while in the other at-risk cases, the haematological treatment decisions must be weighed between individual risks and benefits. The gold standard for the diagnosis is the detection of viral RNA by nucleic acid testing on nasopharyngeal-swabbed sample, which provides high sensitivity and specificity; while rapid antigen tests have a lower sensitivity, especially in asymptomatic patients. The prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection is based on strict infection control measures recommended for aerosol-droplet-and-contact transmission. Vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 has shown high efficacy in reducing community transmission, hospitalisation and deaths due to severe COVID-19 disease in the general population, but immunosuppressed/haematology patients may have lower sero-responsiveness to vaccinations. Moreover, the recent emergence of new variants may require vaccine modifications and strategies to improve efficacy in these vulnerable patients. Beyond supportive care, the specific treatment is directed at viral replication control (antivirals, anti-spike monoclonal antibodies) and, in patients who need it, to the control of inflammation (dexamethasone, anti-Il-6 agents, and others). However, the benefit of all these various prophylactic and therapeutic treatments in haematology patients deserves further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Leukemia , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2210880, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825765

ABSTRACT

Importance: SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with more severe disease and death in patients with cancer. However, the implications of certain tumor types, treatments, and the age and sex of patients with cancer for the outcomes of COVID-19 remain unclear. Objective: To assess the differences in clinical outcomes between patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection and patients without cancer but with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to identify patients with cancer at particularly high risk for a poor outcome. Data Sources: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for articles published in English until June 14, 2021. References in these articles were reviewed for additional studies. Study Selection: All case-control or cohort studies were included that involved 10 or more patients with malignant disease and SARS-CoV-2 infection with or without a control group (defined as patients without cancer but with SARS-CoV-2 infection). Studies were excluded if they involved fewer than 10 patients, were conference papers or abstracts, were preprint reports, had no full text, or had data that could not be obtained from the corresponding author. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two investigators independently performed data extraction using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The difference in mortality between patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection and control patients as well as the difference in outcomes for various tumor types and cancer treatments. Pooled case fatality rates, a random-effects model, and random-effects meta-regressions were used. Results: A total of 81 studies were included, involving 61 532 patients with cancer. Among 58 849 patients with available data, 30 557 male individuals (52%) were included and median age ranged from 35 to 74 years. The relative risk (RR) of mortality from COVID-19 among patients with vs without cancer when age and sex were matched was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.46-1.95; P < .001; I2 = 51.0%). The RR of mortality in patients with cancer vs control patients was associated with decreasing age (exp [b], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P = .03). Compared with other cancers, lung cancer (RR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.45-1.94; P < .001; I2 = 32.9%), and hematologic cancer (RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.31-1.54; P < .001; I2 = 6.8%) were associated with a higher risk of death. Although a higher point estimate was found for genitourinary cancer (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00-1.24; P = .06; I2 = 21.5%), the finding was not statistically significant. Breast cancer (RR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36-0.71; P < .001; I2 = 86.2%) and gynecological cancer (RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.93; P = .009; I2 = 0%) were associated with a lower risk of death. Chemotherapy was associated with the highest overall pooled case fatality rate of 30% (95% CI, 25%-36%; I2 = 86.97%; range, 10%-100%), and endocrine therapy was associated with the lowest at 11% (95% CI, 6%-16%; I2 = 70.68%; range, 0%-27%). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection had a higher risk of death than patients without cancer. Younger age, lung cancer, and hematologic cancer were also risk factors associated with poor outcomes from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267139, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799047

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 infection resulting from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began to spread across the globe in early 2020. Patients with hematologic malignancies are supposed to have an increased risk of mortality from coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) infection. From Pakistan, we report the analysis of the outcome and interaction between patient demographics and tumor subtype and COVID-19 infection and hematological malignancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective study included adult patients with a history of histologically proven hematological malignancies who were tested positive for COVID-19 via PCR presented at the oncology department of 5 tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan from February to August 2020. A patient with any known hematological malignancy who was positive for COVID-19 on RT-PCR, was included in the study. Chi-square test and Cox-regression hazard regression model was applied considering p ≤ 0.05 significant. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients with hematological malignancies were diagnosed with COVID-19, out of which 82 (76.64%) were alive, and 25 (23.36%) were dead. The significant hematological malignancy was B-cell Lymphoma in dead 4 (16.00%) and alive group 21 (25.61%), respectively. The majority of the patients in both the dead and alive group were on active treatment for hematological malignancy while they came positive for COVID-19 [21 (84.00%) & 48 (58.54%) p 0.020]. All patients in the dead group were admitted to the hospital 25 (100.00%), and among these, 14 (56.00%) were admitted in ICU with a median 11 (6-16.5) number of days. Among those who had contact exposure, the hazard of survival or death in patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 positive was 2.18 (CI: 1.90-4.44) times and 3.10 (CI: 2.73-4.60) times in patients with travel history compared to no exposure history (p 0.001). CONCLUSION: Taken together, this data supports the emerging consensus that patients with hematologic malignancies experience significant morbidity and mortality resulting from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Adult , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 30(2): 645-648, 2022 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786420

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide since outbreak in December 2019, and become a global public health crisis. Patients with hematological malignancy concurrently infected with COVID-19 are often associated with severe even fatal complications, due to low basic immune function, high intensity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and slow immune reconstruction post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and their treatment strategies, such as anti-infective therapy, blood transfusion, and the use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor need to be adjusted. The characteristics of patients, chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and other clinical factors may affect the prognosis of patients with hematological malignancy concurrently infected with COVID-19. Herein, the latest research progress is reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Prognosis
16.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(5): e24387, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772712

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It seems that there is an association between blood cancer and an increased risk of severe COVID-19. This study aimed to review the literature reporting the COVID-19 outcomes in patients with hematological malignancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched using the following keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, blood cancer, myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia. All the published articles in English from January 1, 2019, until March 10, 2021 were collected and evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 53 studies with 2395 patients were included based on inclusion criteria. Most of these studies took place in Spain (14.81%), followed by the USA (11.11%), China (9.26%), and the UK (9.26%). More than half of COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancy were male (56.73%). Oxygen therapy played an important role in COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, anticoagulant therapies such as enoxaparin and heparin were two great assists for these patients. Fever (74.24%), cough (67.64%), and fatigue (53.19%) were the most reported clinical manifestations. In addition, hypertension and dyslipidemia were the most common comorbidities. The mortality rate due to COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancies was 21.34%. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that hematologic cancer patients were more susceptible to a severe COVID-19 than patients without blood cancer. Thus, the management of COVID-19 in these patients requires much more attention, and their screening should perform regularly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Blood Adv ; 6(7): 2014-2034, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765426

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to assess the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with hematologic malignancies. A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies of immune responses to COVID-19 vaccination stratified by underlying malignancy and published from January 1, 2021, to August 31, 2021, was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Primary outcome was the rate of seropositivity after 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine with rates of seropositivity after 1 dose, rates of positive neutralizing antibodies, cellular responses, and adverse events as secondary outcomes. Rates were pooled from single-arm studies while rates of seropositivity were compared against the rate in healthy controls for comparator studies using a random effects model and expressed as a pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Forty-four studies (16 mixed group, 28 disease specific) with 7064 patients were included in the analysis (2331 after first dose, 4733 after second dose). Overall seropositivity rates were 62% to 66% after 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine and 37% to 51% after 1 dose. The lowest seropositivity rate was 51% in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and was highest in patients with acute leukemia (93%). After 2 doses, neutralizing antibody response rates were 57% to 60%, and cellular response rates were 40% to 75%. Active treatment, ongoing or recent treatment with targeted and CD-20 monoclonal antibody therapies within 12 months were associated with poor immune responses to COVID-19 vaccine. New approaches to prevention are urgently required to reduce COVID-19 infection morbidity and mortality in high-risk patient groups that respond poorly to COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 23(5): 688-702, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763473

ABSTRACT

OPINION STATEMENT: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed numerous challenges to the global healthcare system. Of particular gravity is adult and pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies who are among the most vulnerable groups of patients at risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. In the early phases of the pandemic, several treatment modifications were proposed for patients with leukemia. Largely speaking, these were adopting less-intense therapies and more utilization of the outpatient setting. Over time, our understanding and management have become more nuanced. Furthermore, equipped with vaccinations to prevent COVID-19 infection and availability of treatments in the presence of COVID-19 infection, the recommendations on management of patients with leukemia have evolved. Patient's leukemia characteristics, possibility of targeted therapy, vaccination status, symptomatology, comorbidities, goal of anti-leukemic therapy, the intensity of therapy, the setting of treatment, as well as loco regional factors like dynamic incidence of COVID-19 in the community and hospital/ICU bed status are among many factors that influence the decisions. Furthermore, the oncology community has adopted delaying the anti-leukemia therapy for a limited time frame, if clinically possible, so as to still deliver most appropriate therapy while minimizing risks. Early adoption of growth factor support and conservative blood transfusion practices have helped as well. In this review, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on outcomes and share considerations for treatments of leukemias. We describe the impact on both clinical care (from diagnosis to treatment) and research, and cover the literature on vaccines and treatments for COVID-19 in relation to leukemia.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Leukemia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Leukemia/epidemiology , Leukemia/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Acta Haematol ; 145(3): 233-234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752951
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e055814, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752878

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: ONCO-TreC platform consists of a mobile application delivered to patients as electronic diary and a web-based dashboard managed by healthcare professionals. We aim to compare the effectiveness of ONCO-TreC electronic diary with a standard paper diary, in improving adherence to oral cancer therapy in patients with solid and haematological tumours. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is an open label, superiority, randomised controlled trial conducted in two Italian oncology units. Patients will be randomised with a 1:1 ratio to electronic or paper diary. For both groups a counsellor will be responsible for drug and diary delivery. The evaluation period will end after six cycles of therapy. The primary aim is to compare the proportion of non-adherent patients in the two arms. Adherence will be measured through pill count; anyone who takes less than 90% of the total prescribed drug dose will be considered non-adherent. Assuming a percentage of non-adherent patients to oral therapy of 40% in arm B, and a 60% reduction in this percentage in arm A, a sample of 124 patients will provide 80% power to identify an absolute difference greater than 24 percentage points using a bilateral Fisher's exact test with a significance level of 0.05. Considering a dropout rate of 10%, approximately 136 patients will have to be enrolled. The primary analysis will be performed on the intention-to-treat population. Secondary aims are to describe the reasons for non-adherence, the level of satisfaction of patients and healthcare professionals with the paper and electronic diary, and the impact of non-adherence in terms of healthcare costs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from Romagna Ethics Committee (CEROM), study ID 2108, prot. n. IRST 100.28 of 10/04/2020. Informed consent will be obtained from all study participants. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conferences and event presentations. PROTOCOL VERSION: Version 2, 6 April 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04826458.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Mouth Neoplasms , Electronics , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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