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1.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e127-e133, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608558

ABSTRACT

Data regarding the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of pediatric hematologic patients are limited in this corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. We investigated the status of 113 pediatric hematologic patients in Wuhan union hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic from January 23 to March 10, 2020. All the patients had routine blood and biochemical examination, as well as chest computed tomography scans, and the nucleic acid, immunoglobulin G-immunoglobulin M combined antibodies tests for SARS-CoV-2. After admission, all patients were single-room isolated for 5 to 7 days. The results showed that only 1 (0.88%) child with leukemia was confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection and 15 (13.2%) children were considered as suspected cases. Comparing to the nonsuspected patients, the suspected cases had lower white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, neutrophil count, serum calcium ion level and serum albumin concentration, as well as higher levels of C-reactive protein. All the suspected cases were ruled out of SARS-CoV-2 infection by twice negative tests for the virus. Therefore, the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hematologic malignancy children was low during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. COVID-19 got early detected and the virus spread out in the ward was effectively blocked by increasing test frequency and using single-room isolation for 5 to 7 days after admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Leukemia/blood , Leukemia/complications , Leukocyte Count , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Br J Haematol ; 196(3): 577-584, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556001

ABSTRACT

Patients with haemato-oncological malignancies are one of the high-risk groups for a severe course in case of COVID-19 infections. Furthermore, vaccination results in significantly lower response rates in haematological malignancies and lower antibody levels in patients with solid cancer. We investigated efficacy and safety of a heterologous booster vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S DNA vector vaccine in haemato-oncological patients without antibody response after double-dose BNT162b2 messenger (m-)RNA COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 32 haemato-oncological non-responders to double-dose BNT162b2 received a heterologous booster vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S. Blood samples were assessed directly before the vaccination (T0) and four weeks after (T1). Safety assessment was performed using a standardised questionnaire. The overall response rate was 31%, with a mean (SD) antibody titre of 693·79 (1 096·99) binding activity units (BAU)/ml. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or lymphoma showed a significantly lower response rate (P = 0·048). Adverse events were reported in 29·6% of patients, of which 7·1% were graded as severe, including grade III and IV events following the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events (CTCAE). The heterologous booster vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S led to a serological response in nine out of 29 patients without response after double-dose BNT162b2. Furthermore, the vaccination was safe in our cohort, leading to mainly mild local and systemic reactions. Overall, this vaccination regimen should be further evaluated to increase the response rate in the highly vulnerable population of haemato-oncological patients.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms/blood , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(8): e583-e592, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Haematological malignancies and their treatments are likely to affect SARS-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy. We aimed to evaluate serological response to BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with haematological malignancies by type of treatment. METHODS: Our national prospective cohort study was done in Lithuania and assessed serological response to one and two BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine doses in healthy health-care workers and in patients with haematological malignancies. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older, had received both vaccine doses, and had available biobanked blood samples from before vaccination and after the second dose. Biobanked samples and health data were obtained from Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos Biobank. Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG Quant II chemiluminescent microparticle assay was used to quantify serum anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1 IgG antibody (anti-S1 IgG antibody) concentrations 0-10 days before the first BNT162b2 vaccine, on the day of second immunisation (around day 21), and 7 to 21 days after the second immunisation. Adverse events were assessed by a standardised questionnaire. Breakthrough infections were characterised clinically and by SARS-CoV-2 genotyping whenever possible. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04871165. FINDINGS: Between Jan 8 and April 21, 2021, 885 participants with haematological malignancies were included in the study. 857 patients were anti-S1 IgG seronegative at timepoint 0 and constituted the main analysis cohort. The age-matched comparison was made between 315 patients with haematological malignancies who were aged 18-60 years and 67 healthy health-care workers in the same age group. Patients aged 18-60 years with haematological malignancies had lower median anti-S1 IgG antibody responses after two BNT162b2 vaccine doses than did health-care workers of the same age group (median 6961 AU/mL [IQR 1292-20 672] vs 21 395 AU/mL [14 831-33 553]; p<0·0001). Compared with untreated patients with haematological malignancies (n=53; median 5761 AU/mL [629-16 141]), patients actively treated with Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKIs; n=44; 0 AU/mL [0-7]; p<0·0001), ruxolitinib (n=16; 10 AU/mL [0-45]; p<0·0001), venetoclax (n=10; 4 AU/mL [0-1218]; p=0·0005), or anti-CD20 antibody therapy (n=87; 17 AU/mL [1-2319]; p<0·0001) showed particularly poor anti-S1 IgG antibody responses following two BNT162b2 doses. Patients being treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (n=41; 10 537 AU/mL [IQR 2335-19 388]) or patients who received autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT; n=192; 6203 AU/mL [1451-16 834]) or allogeneic HSCT (n=122; 6304 AU/mL [1120-16 913]) were among the subgroups with the highest numerical responses. Nine SARS-CoV-2 infections and three COVID-19 deaths were observed among fully vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies. INTERPRETATION: Patients with haematological malignancies mount blunted and heterogeneous antibody responses to the full course of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. Patients who are actively treated with BTKIs, ruxolitinib, venetoclax, or anti-CD20 antibody therapies seem to be the most negatively affected and might be left unprotected from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Breakthrough severe SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies emphasise the importance of ongoing strict adherence to non-pharmacological interventions and household vaccination while SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in the community. FUNDING: Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos. TRANSLATION: For the Lithuanian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/blood , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Lithuania/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
6.
Eur J Haematol ; 105(5): 597-607, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in haematological patients (HP) has not been comprehensively reported. METHODS: We analysed 39 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and haematological malignancies. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared to a matched control group of 53 non-cancer patients with COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to assess the risk factors associated with poor outcome. RESULTS: The most frequent haematological diseases were lymphoma (30%) and multiple myeloma (30%). Eighty-seven % HP developed moderate or severe disease. Patients with haematological malignancies had a significantly higher mortality rate compared to non-cancer patients (35.9% vs 13.2%; P = .003 (odds ratio 6.652). The worst outcome was observed in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. Only age >70 years and C reactive protein >10 mg/dl at admission were associated with higher risk of death (odds ratio 34.86, P = .003 and 13.56,P = .03). Persistent viral sheddind was detected in 5 HP. Active chemotherapy, viral load at diagnosis and COVID-19 therapy were not predictors of outcome. CONCLUSION: Mortality of COVID-19 is significantly higher in patients with haematological malignancies compared to non-cancer patients. The impact of persistent viral shedding must be considered in order to re-start therapies and maintain infectious control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/blood , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Lymphoma/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
11.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 75, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although research on the effects of comorbidities on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is increasing, the risk of cancer history has not been evaluated for the mortality of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 3232 patients with pathogen-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized between January 18th and March 27th, 2020, at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Propensity score matching was used to minimize selection bias. RESULTS: In total, 2665 patients with complete clinical outcomes were analyzed. The impacts of age, sex, and comorbidities were evaluated separately using binary logistic regression analysis. The results showed that age, sex, and cancer history are independent risk factors for mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients with cancer exhibited a significant increase in mortality rate (29.4% vs. 10.2%, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the clinical outcomes of patients with hematological malignancies were worse, with a mortality rate twice that of patients with solid tumors (50% vs. 26.1%). Importantly, cancer patients with complications had a significantly higher risk of poor outcomes. One hundred nine cancer patients were matched to noncancer controls in a 1:3 ratio by propensity score matching. After propensity score matching, the cancer patients still had a higher risk of mortality than the matched noncancer patients (odds ratio (OR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.76-5.06). Additionally, elevations in ferritin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, procalcitonin, prothrombin time, interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed in cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated prognostic factors with epidemiological analysis and highlighted a higher risk of mortality for cancer patients with COVID-19. Importantly, cancer history was the only independent risk factor for COVID-19 among common comorbidities, while other comorbidities may act through other factors. Moreover, several laboratory parameters were significantly different between cancer patients and matched noncancer patients, which may indicate specific immune and inflammatory reactions in COVID-19 patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hematologic Neoplasms/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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