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2.
Semin Hematol ; 59(4): 192-197, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323456

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematologic conditions have a higher risk of severe COVID-19 and COVID-19-related death. This is related to immune deficiencies induced by hematologic conditions and/or the treatment thereof. Prospective vaccine immunogenicity studies have demonstrated that in the majority of patients, a 3-dose COVID-19 vaccination schedule leads to antibody concentrations comparable to levels obtained in healthy adults after a 2-dose schedule. In B cell depleted patients, humoral responses are poor, however vaccination did induce potent cellular immune responses. The effect of 3-dose vaccination schedules and COVID-19 booster vaccinations on the protection of patients with hematologic malignancies against severe COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death remains to be confirmed by population-based vaccine effectiveness studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 43: e390778, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315213

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and our armamentarium of strategies to combat it have evolved dramatically since the virus first emerged in late 2019. Vaccination remains the primary strategy to prevent severe illness, although the protective effect can vary in patients with hematologic malignancy. Strategies such as additional vaccine doses and now bivalent boosters can contribute to increased immune response, especially in the face of evolving viral variants. Because of these new variants, no approved monoclonal antibodies are available for pre-exposure or postexposure prophylaxis. Patients with symptomatic, mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and risk features for developing severe COVID-19, who present within 5-7 days of symptom onset, should be offered outpatient therapy with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (NR) or in some cases with intravenous (IV) remdesivir. NR interacts with many blood cancer treatments, and reviewing drug interactions is essential. Patients with severe COVID-19 should be managed with IV remdesivir, tocilizumab (or an alternate interleukin-6 receptor blocker), or baricitinib, as indicated based on the severity of illness. Dexamethasone can be considered on an individual basis, weighing oxygen requirements and patients' underlying disease and their perceived ability to clear infection. Finally, as CD19-targeted and B-cell maturation (BCMA)-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies become more heavily used for relapsed/refractory hematologic malignancies, viral infections including COVID-19 are increasingly recognized as common complications, but data on risk factors and prophylaxis in this patient population are scarce. We summarize the available evidence regarding viral infections after CAR T-cell therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Virus Diseases , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Virus Diseases/etiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects
4.
Eur J Haematol ; 111(1): 135-145, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies addressing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hematological malignancies have reported mortality rates of up to 40%; however, included predominantly hospitalized patients. METHODS: During the first year of the pandemic, we followed adult patients with hematological malignancies treated at a tertiary center in Jerusalem, Israel, who contracted COVID-19, with the aim of studying risk factors for adverse COVID-19-related outcomes. We used remote communication to track patients managed at home-isolation, and patient questioning to assess the source of COVID-19 infection, community versus nosocomial. RESULTS: Our series included 183 patients, median age was 62.5 years, 72% had at least one comorbidity and 39% were receiving active antineoplastic treatment. Hospitalization, critical COVID-19, and mortality rates were 32%, 12.6%, and 9.8%, respectively, remarkably lower than previously reported. Age, multiple comorbidities, and active antineoplastic treatment were significantly associated with hospitalization due to COVID-19. Treatment with monoclonal antibodies was strongly associated with both hospitalization and critical COVID-19. In older (≥60) patients not receiving active antineoplastic treatment, mortality, and severe COVID-19 rates were comparable to those of the general Israeli population. We did not detect patients that contracted COVID-19 within the Hematology Division. CONCLUSION: These findings are relevant for the future management of patients with hematological malignancies in COVID-19-affected regions.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Adult , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Factors , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization , Retrospective Studies
5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(6): 1454-1459, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the clinical outcomes and duration of viral shedding in high-risk patients with haematological malignancies hospitalized with COVID-19 during Omicron variant predominance who received early treatment with antivirals. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study on high-risk haematological patients admitted in our hospital between December 2021 and March 2022. We performed detection techniques on viral subgenomic mRNAs until negative results were obtained to document active, prolonged viral replication. RESULTS: This analysis included 60 consecutive adults with high-risk haematological malignancies and COVID-19. All of these patients underwent early treatment with remdesivir. Thirty-two (53%) patients received combined antiviral strategies, with sotrovimab or hyperimmune plasma being added to remdesivir. The median length of viral replication-as measured by real-time RT-PCR and/or subgenomic RNA detection-was 20 (IQR 14-28) days. Prolonged viral replication (6 weeks after diagnosis) was documented in six (10%) patients. Only two patients had prolonged infection for more than 2 months. Overall mortality was 5%, whereas COVID-19-related mortality was 0%. CONCLUSIONS: Current outcomes of high-risk patients with haematological malignancies hospitalized with COVID-19 during Omicron variant predminance are good with the use of early antiviral strategies. Persistent viral shedding is uncommon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatologic Agents , Hematologic Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy
6.
Br J Haematol ; 202(1): 31-39, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306618

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 variant Omicron surge in Beijing, China, a better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes may improve clinical management in patients with haematological malignancies (HM) diagnosed with COVID-19. The study sample includes 412 cases, mainly represented by acute leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), plasma cell disorders and lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. COVID-19 pneumonia was observed in 10.4% (43/412) of patients, and severe/critical illness was observed in 5.3% (22/412). Among the 86 cases with advanced malignancies, 17.6% (12/86) of patients developed severe/critical COVID-19, which was significantly higher than reported in patients with stable malignancies (9/326, 2.70%, p < 0.001). Similarly, the advanced malignancy cohort had a higher mortality rate (9/86, 10.5% vs. 0/326, 0%, p < 0.001) and a poor 30-day overall survival (OS) compared with the stable malignancy cohort (74.2% vs. 100.0%, p < 0.0001). Overall, nine patients (2.2%) died. The primary cause of death was progressive HM in four patients and a combination of both COVID-19 and HM in five patients. In the multivariable analysis, over 65 years of age, comorbidities and advanced malignancy were correlated with severe/critical COVID-19 in HM patients. This study sheds light on the poor outcomes among COVID-19 HM patients with the leading cause of advanced malignancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/epidemiology
7.
Ann Hematol ; 101(10): 2337-2345, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270323

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) are at a higher risk of developing severe form and protracted course of COVID-19 disease. We investigated whether the combination of viral replication inhibition with remdesivir and administration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins with convalescent plasma (CP) therapy might be sufficient to treat B-cell-depleted patients with COVID-19. We enrolled 20 consecutive patients with various HMs with profound B-cell lymphopenia and COVID-19 pneumonia between December 2020 and May 2021. All patients demonstrated undetectable baseline anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin levels before CP. Each patient received at least a complete course of remdesivir and at least one unit of CP. Previous anti-CD20 therapy resulted in a more prolonged SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity compared to other causes of B-cell lymphopenia (p = 0.004). Timing of CP therapy showed a significant impact on the clinical outcome. Simultaneous use of remdesivir and CP reduced time period for oxygen weaning after diagnosis (p = 0.017), length of hospital stay (p = 0.007), and PCR positivity (p = 0.012) compared to patients who received remdesivir and CP consecutively. In addition, time from the diagnosis to CP therapy affected the length of oxygen dependency (p < 0.001) and hospital stay (p < 0.0001). In those cases where there were at least 10 days from the diagnosis to plasma administration, oxygen dependency was prolonged vs. patients with shorter interval (p = 0.006). In conclusion, the combination of inhibition of viral replication with passive immunization was proved to be efficient and safe. Our results suggest the clear benefit of early, combined administration of remdesivir and CP to avoid protracted COVID-19 disease among patients with HMs and B-cell lymphopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Lymphopenia , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/therapy , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Serotherapy
8.
Ann Hematol ; 102(4): 961-966, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285943

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematological malignancies who experience severe infections are at risk of developing dangerous complications due to excessive inflammatory cytokines. To improve the prognosis, it is crucial to identify better ways to manage the systemic inflammatory storm after infection. In this study, we evaluated four patients with hematological malignancies who developed severe bloodstream infections during the agranulocytosis phase. Despite receiving antibiotics, all four patients presented elevated serum IL-6 levels as well as persistent hypotension or organ injury. Adjuvant therapy with tocilizumab, an IL-6-receptor antibody, was administered, and three of the four patients showed significant improvement. Unfortunately, the fourth patient died due to multiple organ failure caused by antibiotic resistance. Our preliminary experience suggests that tocilizumab, as an adjuvant therapy, may help alleviate systemic inflammation and reduce risk of organ injury in patients with elevated IL-6 levels and severe infection. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this IL-6 targeting approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Treatment Outcome , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy
9.
Br J Haematol ; 201(4): 628-639, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272144

ABSTRACT

Outcome of early treatment of COVID-19 with antivirals or anti-spike monoclonal antibodies (MABs) in patients with haematological malignancies (HM) is unknown. A retrospective study of HM patients treated for mild/moderate COVID-19 between March 2021 and July 2022 was performed. The main composite end-point was treatment failure (severe COVID-19 or COVID-19-related death). We included 328 consecutive patients who received MABs (n = 120, 37%; sotrovimab, n = 73) or antivirals (n = 208, 63%; nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, n = 116) over a median of two days after symptoms started; 111 (33.8%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); 89 (27%) were transplant/CAR-T (chimaeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy) recipients. Most infections (n = 309, 94%) occurred during the Omicron period. Failure developed in 31 patients (9.5%). Its independent predictors were older age, fewer vaccine doses, and treatment with MABs. Rate of failure was lower in the Omicron versus the pre-Omicron period (7.8% versus 36.8%, p < 0.001). During the Omicron period, predictors of failure were age, fewer vaccine doses and diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (AML/MDS). Independent predictors of longer viral shedding were age, comorbidities, hospital admission at diagnosis, NHL/CLL, treatment with MABs. COVID-19-associated mortality was 3.4% (n = 11). The mortality in those who developed severe COVID-19 after early treatment was 26% in the Omicron period. Patients with HM had a significant risk of failure of early treatment, even during the Omicron period, with high mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
10.
J Hematol Oncol ; 16(1): 32, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270800

ABSTRACT

Only few studies have analyzed the efficacy of tixagevimab/cilgavimab to prevent severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related complications in hematologic malignancies (HM) patients. Here, we report cases of breakthrough COVID-19 after prophylactic tixagevimab/cilgavimab from the EPICOVIDEHA registry). We identified 47 patients that had received prophylaxis with tixagevimab/cilgavimab in the EPICOVIDEHA registry. Lymphoproliferative disorders (44/47, 93.6%) were the main underlying HM. SARS-CoV-2 strains were genotyped in 7 (14.9%) cases only, and all belonged to the omicron variant. Forty (85.1%) patients had received vaccinations prior to tixagevimab/cilgavimab, the majority of them with at least two doses. Eleven (23.4%) patients had a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, 21 (44.7%) a moderate infection, while 8 (17.0%) had severe infection and 2 (4.3%) critical. Thirty-six (76.6%) patients were treated, either with monoclonal antibodies, antivirals, corticosteroids, or with combination schemes. Overall, 10 (21.3%) were admitted to a hospital. Among these, two (4.3%) were transferred to intensive care unit and one (2.1%) of them died. Our data seem to show that the use of tixagevimab/cilgavimab may lead to a COVID-19 severity reduction in HM patients; however, further studies should incorporate further HM patients to confirm the best drug administration strategies in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Immunization, Passive , Registries
11.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(4): 952-955, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249335

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aim to report the outcome of COVID-19 in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. HCT recipients (n = 32) with hematological disease and hospitalized for COVID-19 were included in the study. A cohort of age and comorbid disease-matched hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancy but not underwent HCT (n = 465), and another cohort of age and comorbid disease-matched hospitalized COVID-19 patients without cancer (n = 497) were also included in the study for comparison. Case fatality rate (CFR) was 5.6% in patients without cancer, 11.8 in patients with hematological malignancy and 15.6% in HCT recipients. The CFR in HCT recipients who were not receiving immunosuppressive agents at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis was 11.5%, whereas it was 33% in HCT recipients who were receiving an immunosuppressive agent at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. In conclusion, our study reveals that for the current pandemic, HCT recipients, especially those receiving immunosuppressive drugs, constitute a special population of cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage
12.
Br J Haematol ; 201(5): 813-823, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283066

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients, such as those with a haematological malignancy, are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe outcomes and mortality. Tixagevimab/cilgavimab is a monoclonal antibody combination which binds to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The PROVENT phase III clinical trial reported that tixagevimab/cilgavimab prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of COVID-19 infection in immunocompromised participants. However, the trial was conducted before the Omicron variant became prevalent. This systematic review and meta-analysis provide an up-to-date summary of the real-world effectiveness of tixagevimab/cilgavimab in immunocompromised patients, including patients with haematological malignancies. Clinical studies from 1 January 2021 to 1 October 2022, which reported breakthrough COVID-19 infections after tixagevimab/cilgavimab, were included. COVID-19-related hospitalisations, intensive care admissions and mortality were also assessed. A meta-analysis was performed to ascertain overall clinical effectiveness. Eighteen studies, with 25 345 immunocompromised participants, including 5438 patients with haematological pathologies, were included in the review. The overall clinical effectiveness of tixagevimab/cilgavimab against COVID-19 breakthrough infection, hospitalisation, intensive care admission and COVID-19-specific mortality was 40.54%, 66.19%, 82.13% and 92.39%, respectively. This review highlights the clinical effectiveness of tixagevimab/cilgavimab at reducing COVID-19 infection and severe outcomes for immunosuppressed individuals, including patients with a haematological malignancy, during the Omicron-predominant era. Real-world studies are important to provide ongoing certainty of the clinical benefit for immunocompromised patients against new SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunocompromised Host
13.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 19(5): e672-e682, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282890

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The use of virtual care rapidly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and has persisted as a routine method of care delivery. Much of the literature on virtual care in oncology has focused on solid tumors, and little is known about its application in malignant hematology. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with hematologic malignancies at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre from October 2019 to March 2021 to determine the use of virtual care during this period, cost-savings associated with virtual visits, and patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the Your Voice Matters survey, a provincially administered survey to evaluate patient experience. RESULTS: Overall, 12.1% (1,122/9,295) of patients had a virtual visit during the study period (0% from October 2019 to February 2020, 36% from March to August 2020, and 30% from September 2020 to March 2021), of which 36% were in the lymphoma clinic and 46% were in the myeloma clinic. The mean two-way opportunity cost for an in-person visit was $168.00 CAD per person with public transit, and $120.40 CAD per person driving. Responses to the Your Voice Matters survey indicated that patients with a virtual visit reported that physical symptoms were discussed appropriately (mean 4.73/5), and were more likely to ask for a follow-up virtual visit compared with patients with in-person visits (mean 4.50/5 v 3.02/5, respectively; P < .01). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that virtual care may be a feasible and well-received tool for delivering care to a substantial proportion of patients with hematologic malignancies, while enabling substantial cost-savings to patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Multiple Myeloma/therapy
16.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(12): 173, 2022 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185780

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) have demonstrated impaired immune responses following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Factors associated with poor immunogenicity remain largely undetermined. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and medRxiv databases to identify studies that reported humoral or cellular immune responses (CIR) following complete SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The primary aim was to estimate the seroconversion rate (SR) following complete SARS-CoV-2 vaccination across various subtypes of HM diseases and treatments. The secondary aims were to determine the rates of development of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and CIR following complete vaccination and SR following booster doses. A total of 170 studies were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis of primary and secondary outcomes. A meta-analysis of 150 studies including 20,922 HM patients revealed a pooled SR following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination of 67.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.8-70.4%; I2 = 94%). Meta-regression analysis showed that patients with lymphoid malignancies, but not myeloid malignancies, had lower seroconversion rates than those with solid cancers (R2 = 0.52, P < 0.0001). Patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CART), B-cell targeted therapies or JAK inhibitors were associated with poor seroconversion (R2 = 0.39, P < 0.0001). The pooled NAb and CIR rates were 52.8% (95% CI; 45.8-59.7%, I2 = 87%) and 66.6% (95% CI, 57.1-74.9%; I2 = 86%), respectively. Approximately 20.9% (95% CI, 11.4-35.1%, I2 = 90%) of HM patients failed to elicit humoral and cellular immunity. Among non-seroconverted patients after primary vaccination, only 40.5% (95% CI, 33.0-48.4%; I2 = 87%) mounted seroconversion after the booster. In conclusion, HM patients, especially those with lymphoid malignancies and/or receiving CART, B-cell targeted therapies, or JAK inhibitors, showed poor SR after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. A minority of patients attained seroconversion after booster vaccination. Strategies to improve immune response in these severely immunosuppressed patients are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing
17.
Oncoimmunology ; 12(1): 2163785, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166017

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic still represents a threat for immunosuppressed and hematological malignancy (HM) bearing patients, causing increased morbidity and mortality. Given the low anti-SARSCoV-2 IgG titers post-vaccination, the COVID-19 threat prompted the prophylactic use of engineered anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, potential clinical significance of T cell responses has been overlooked during the first waves of the pandemic, calling for additional in-depth studies. We reported that the polarity and the repertoire of T cell immune responses govern the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in health care workers and solid cancer patients. Here, we longitudinally analyzed humoral and cellular immune responses at each BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine injection in 47 HM patients under therapy. Only one-third of HM, mostly multiple myeloma (MM) bearing patients, could mount S1-RBD-specific IgG responses following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccines. This vaccine elicited a S1-RBD-specific Th1 immune response in about 20% patients, mostly in MM and Hodgkin lymphoma, while exacerbating Th2 responses in the 10% cases that presented this recognition pattern at baseline (mostly rituximab-treated patients). Performing a third booster barely improved the percentage of patients developing an S1-RBD-specific Th1 immunity and failed to seroconvert additional HM patients. Finally, 16 patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2, of whom 6 developed a severe infection. Only S1-RBD-specific Th1 responses were associated with protection against SARS-CoV2 infection, while Th2 responses or anti-S1-RBD IgG titers failed to correlate with protection. These findings herald the paramount relevance of vaccine-induced Th1 immune responses in hematological malignancies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
18.
Prague Med Rep ; 123(4): 250-257, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145507

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 viral load in a respiratory sample can be inversely quantified using the cycle threshold (Ct), defined as the number of amplification cycles required to detect the viral genome in a quantitative PCR assay using reverse transcriptase (RT-qPCR). It may be classified as high (Ct < 25), intermediate (25-30) and low (Ct > 30). We describe the clinical course of 3 patients with haematological neoplasms who contracted COVID-19. None of them had been vaccinated. Firstly, a 22-year-old male with a refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia experienced an oligosymptomatic COVID-19 and had a Ct of 23 with an ascending curve. Another male, aged 23, had recently begun treatment for a promyelocytic leukaemia. He had a subacute course with high oxygen requirements. His Ct dropped from 28, when he only experienced fever, to 14.8, during the most critical period and on the edge of ventilatory support. Viral clearance was documented 126 days after the beginning of the symptoms. Finally, a 60-year-old male had received rituximab as maintenance therapy for a follicular lymphoma 3 months before contracting COVID-19. He had a fulminant course and required mechanical ventilation a few days later. We highlight the association between the course of CoViD-19 and the Ct. Viral shedding was longer than in immunocompetent hosts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Neoplasms , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications
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