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1.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(12): 202, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585877

ABSTRACT

There is evidence of reduced SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness in patients with hematological malignancies. We hypothesized that tumor and treatment-related immunosuppression can be depicted in peripheral blood, and that immune profiling prior to vaccination can help predict immunogenicity. We performed a comprehensive immunological characterization of 83 hematological patients before vaccination and measured IgM, IgG, and IgA antibody response to four viral antigens at day +7 after second-dose COVID-19 vaccination using multidimensional and computational flow cytometry. Health care practitioners of similar age were the control group (n = 102). Forty-four out of 59 immune cell types were significantly altered in patients; those with monoclonal gammopathies showed greater immunosuppression than patients with B-cell disorders and Hodgkin lymphoma. Immune dysregulation emerged before treatment, peaked while on-therapy, and did not return to normalcy after stopping treatment. We identified an immunotype that was significantly associated with poor antibody response and uncovered that the frequency of neutrophils, classical monocytes, CD4, and CD8 effector memory CD127low T cells, as well as naive CD21+ and IgM+D+ memory B cells, were independently associated with immunogenicity. Thus, we provide novel immune biomarkers to predict COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in hematological patients, which are complementary to treatment-related factors and may help tailoring possible vaccine boosters.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(10): 1474-1481, 2021.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), patients with cancer may be at a higher risk of suffering from COVID-19. Although patients with hematological malignancy (HM) are reported to have a higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with those with solid cancer, the effects of treatment for HM on COVID-19 severity have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the risk factors, including number and timing of chemotherapeutic regimens for HM, for COVID-19 severity in 17 patients with HM, who had developed nosocomial COVID-19 in our department, by dividing them into two groups; a severe group (N=7) and a non-severe group (N=10). RESULTS: The overall mortality rate was 47%, and mortality in the severe group was significantly higher than that in the non-severe group (odds ratio [OR], 18.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1223.17, P=0.02). Univariate analysis identified two or more chemotherapeutic regimens for HM (OR, 17.34; 95%CI, 1.15-1165.33, P=0.03) and a low hemoglobin level (P=0.02) as significant risk factors for COVID-19 severity. However, a history of chemotherapy for HM within 3 months prior to the onset of COVID-19 was not a significant risk factor (P=0.54). CONCLUSION: A history of multiple chemotherapeutic regimens in patients with HM may be a risk factor for COVID-19 severity, and physicians should be aware of this.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hematologic Neoplasms , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 1012-1024, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472229

ABSTRACT

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking age to infectious disease risk are incompletely understood. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from genotyping of blood-derived DNA, are structural somatic variants indicative of clonal hematopoiesis, and are associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality. Here, we show that mCAs predispose to diverse types of infections. We analyzed mCAs from 768,762 individuals without hematological cancer at the time of DNA acquisition across five biobanks. Expanded autosomal mCAs were associated with diverse incident infections (hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.36; P = 1.8 × 10-7), including sepsis (HR 2.68; 95% CI = 2.25-3.19; P = 3.1 × 10-28), pneumonia (HR 1.76; 95% CI = 1.53-2.03; P = 2.3 × 10-15), digestive system infections (HR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.73; P = 2.2 × 10-9) and genitourinary infections (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.41; P = 3.7 × 10-4). A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 loci, which were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. These results suggest that mCAs are a marker of impaired immunity and confer increased predisposition to infections.


Subject(s)
Aging/genetics , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Sepsis/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/pathology , Biological Specimen Banks , Chromosome Aberrations , Communicable Diseases/complications , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Digestive System Diseases/epidemiology , Digestive System Diseases/genetics , Digestive System Diseases/microbiology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mosaicism , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/microbiology , Risk Factors , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/microbiology , Urogenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Urogenital Abnormalities/genetics , Urogenital Abnormalities/microbiology , Young Adult
5.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 168, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) are at high risk of mortality from SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). A better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes may improve clinical management in these patients. We therefore studied baseline characteristics of HM patients developing COVID-19 and analyzed predictors of mortality. METHODS: The survey was supported by the Scientific Working Group Infection in Hematology of the European Hematology Association (EHA). Eligible for the analysis were adult patients with HM and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 observed between March and December 2020. RESULTS: The study sample includes 3801 cases, represented by lymphoproliferative (mainly non-Hodgkin lymphoma n = 1084, myeloma n = 684 and chronic lymphoid leukemia n = 474) and myeloproliferative malignancies (mainly acute myeloid leukemia n = 497 and myelodysplastic syndromes n = 279). Severe/critical COVID-19 was observed in 63.8% of patients (n = 2425). Overall, 2778 (73.1%) of the patients were hospitalized, 689 (18.1%) of whom were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Overall, 1185 patients (31.2%) died. The primary cause of death was COVID-19 in 688 patients (58.1%), HM in 173 patients (14.6%), and a combination of both COVID-19 and progressing HM in 155 patients (13.1%). Highest mortality was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (199/497, 40%) and myelodysplastic syndromes (118/279, 42.3%). The mortality rate significantly decreased between the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020) and the second wave (October-December 2020) (581/1427, 40.7% vs. 439/1773, 24.8%, p value < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, age, active malignancy, chronic cardiac disease, liver disease, renal impairment, smoking history, and ICU stay correlated with mortality. Acute myeloid leukemia was a higher mortality risk than lymphoproliferative diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms that COVID-19 patients with HM are at high risk of lethal complications. However, improved COVID-19 prevention has reduced mortality despite an increase in the number of reported cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
6.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 163, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) currently constitutes the leading and overwhelming health issue worldwide. In comparison with adults, children present milder symptoms, with most having an asymptomatic course. We hypothesized that COVID-19 infection has a negative impact on the continuation of chemotherapy and increases nonrelapse mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was performed to assess the course of SARS-CoV-2 among children with hematological or oncological malignancies and its impact on cancer therapy. Records of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 155 children with malignancies from 14 Polish centers for pediatric hematology and oncology were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 replication was observed in 155 patients. Forty-nine patients were symptomatic, with the following being the most common manifestations: fever (31 patients), gastrointestinal symptoms (10), coryza (13), cough (13) and headache (8). In children who were retested, the median time of a positive PCR result was 16 days (range 1-70 days), but 12.7% of patients were positive beyond day + 20. The length of viral PCR positivity correlated with the absolute neutrophil count at diagnosis. Seventy-six patients did not undergo further SARS-CoV-2 testing and were considered convalescents after completion of isolation. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 15 children, remdesivir in 6, convalescent plasma in 4, oxygen therapy in 3 (1-mechanical ventilation), steroids in 2, intravenous immunoglobulins in 2, and heparin in 4. Eighty patients were treated with chemotherapy within 30 days after SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis or were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection during 30 days of chemotherapy administration. Respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19 and associated with oxygen therapy were present in 4 patients in the study population, and four deaths were recorded (2 due to COVID-19 and 2 due to progressive malignancy). The probability of 100-day overall survival was 97.3% (95% CI 92.9-99%). Delay in the next chemotherapy cycle occurred in 91 of 156 cases, with a median of 14 days (range 2-105 days). CONCLUSIONS: For the majority of pediatric cancer patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection does not result in a severe, life-threatening course. Our data show that interruptions in therapy are common and can result in suboptimal therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Management , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Male , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(9): 151, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408475

ABSTRACT

The ability of patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) to develop an effective humoral immune response after COVID-19 is unknown. A prospective study was performed to monitor the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLD), multiple myeloma (MM), or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndromes (MDS/MPN). Antibody (Ab) levels to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) protein were measured at +1, +3, +6 months after nasal swabs became PCR-negative. Forty-five patients (9 FL, 8 DLBCL, 8 CLD, 10 MM, 10 MDS/MPS) and 18 controls were studied. Mean anti-N and anti-S-Ab levels were similar between HM patients and controls, and shared the same behavior, with anti-N Ab levels declining at +6 months and anti-S-Ab remaining stable. Seroconversion rates were lower in HM patients than in controls. In lymphoma patients mean Ab levels and seroconversion rates were lower than in other HM patients, primarily because all nine patients who had received rituximab within 6 months before COVID-19 failed to produce anti-N and anti-S-Ab. Only one patient requiring hematological treatment after COVID-19 lost seropositivity after 6 months. No reinfections were observed. These results may inform vaccination policies and clinical management of HM patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Rituximab/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/drug effects , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antibody Formation/physiology , Antibody Specificity/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Rituximab/therapeutic use
8.
Br J Cancer ; 125(7): 939-947, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using an updated dataset with more patients and extended follow-up, we further established cancer patient characteristics associated with COVID-19 death. METHODS: Data on all cancer patients with a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction swab for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at Guy's Cancer Centre and King's College Hospital between 29 February and 31 July 2020 was used. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to identify which factors were associated with COVID-19 mortality. RESULTS: Three hundred and six SARS-CoV-2-positive cancer patients were included. Seventy-one had mild/moderate and 29% had severe COVID-19. Seventy-two patients died of COVID-19 (24%), of whom 35 died <7 days. Male sex [hazard ratio (HR): 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-3.38)], Asian ethnicity [3.42 (1. 59-7.35)], haematological cancer [2.03 (1.16-3.56)] and a cancer diagnosis for >2-5 years [2.81 (1.41-5.59)] or ≥5 years were associated with an increased mortality. Age >60 years and raised C-reactive protein (CRP) were also associated with COVID-19 death. Haematological cancer, a longer-established cancer diagnosis, dyspnoea at diagnosis and raised CRP were indicative of early COVID-19-related death in cancer patients (<7 days from diagnosis). CONCLUSIONS: Findings further substantiate evidence for increased risk of COVID-19 mortality for male and Asian cancer patients, and those with haematological malignancies or a cancer diagnosis >2 years. These factors should be accounted for when making clinical decisions for cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Hospitals , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Risk Factors
9.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(8): 142, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351934

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with hematological malignancies. Antibodies blocking spike binding to immobilized ACE-2 (NAb) correlated with anti-Spike (S) IgG d42 titers (Spearman r = 0.865, p < 0.0001), and an anti-S IgG d42 level ≥3100 UA/mL was predictive of NAb ≥ 30%, the positivity cutoff for NAb (p < 0.0001). Only 47% of the patients achieved an anti-S IgG d42 level ≥3100 UA/mL after the two BNT162b2 inocula, compared to 87% of healthy controls. In multivariable analysis, male patients, use of B-cell targeting treatment within the last 12 months prior to vaccination, and CD19+ B-cell level <120/uL, were associated with a significantly decreased probability of achieving a protective anti-S IgG level after the second BNT162b2 inoculum. Finally, using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, we found a significant increase in T-cell response against the S protein, with 53% of patients having an anti-S IgG-positive ELISPOT after the second BNT162b2 inoculum. There was a correlation between the anti-S ELISPOT response and IgG d42 level (Spearman r = 0.3026, p = 0.012). These findings suggest that vaccination with two BNT162b2 inocula translates into a significant increase in humoral and cellular response in patients with hematological malignancies, but only around half of the patients can likely achieve effective immune protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Comorbidity , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Young Adult
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255524, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether immunosuppressed (IS) patients have a worse prognosis of COVID-19 compared to non-IS patients is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcome of IS patients hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to non-IS patients. METHODS: We designed a retrospective cohort study. We included all patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry, a large multicentre national cohort in Spain, from March 27th until June 19th, 2020. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of in-hospital death among IS compared to non-IS patients. RESULTS: Among 13 206 included patients, 2 111 (16.0%) were IS. A total of 166 (1.3%) patients had solid organ (SO) transplant, 1081 (8.2%) had SO neoplasia, 332 (2.5%) had hematologic neoplasia, and 570 (4.3%), 183 (1.4%) and 394 (3.0%) were receiving systemic steroids, biological treatments, and immunosuppressors, respectively. Compared to non-IS patients, the aOR (95% CI) for in-hospital death was 1.60 (1.43-1.79) for all IS patients, 1.39 (1.18-1.63) for patients with SO cancer, 2.31 (1.76-3.03) for patients with haematological cancer and 3.12 (2.23-4.36) for patients with SO transplant. The aOR (95% CI) for death for patients who were receiving systemic steroids, biological treatments and immunosuppressors compared to non-IS patients were 2.16 (1.80-2.61), 1.97 (1.33-2.91) and 2.06 (1.64-2.60), respectively. IS patients had a higher odds than non-IS patients of in-hospital acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure, myocarditis, thromboembolic disease and multiorgan failure. CONCLUSIONS: IS patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have a higher odds of in-hospital complications and death compared to non-IS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Hospital Mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Odds Ratio , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain
12.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(8): e583-e592, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Haematological malignancies and their treatments are likely to affect SARS-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy. We aimed to evaluate serological response to BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with haematological malignancies by type of treatment. METHODS: Our national prospective cohort study was done in Lithuania and assessed serological response to one and two BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine doses in healthy health-care workers and in patients with haematological malignancies. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older, had received both vaccine doses, and had available biobanked blood samples from before vaccination and after the second dose. Biobanked samples and health data were obtained from Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos Biobank. Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG Quant II chemiluminescent microparticle assay was used to quantify serum anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1 IgG antibody (anti-S1 IgG antibody) concentrations 0-10 days before the first BNT162b2 vaccine, on the day of second immunisation (around day 21), and 7 to 21 days after the second immunisation. Adverse events were assessed by a standardised questionnaire. Breakthrough infections were characterised clinically and by SARS-CoV-2 genotyping whenever possible. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04871165. FINDINGS: Between Jan 8 and April 21, 2021, 885 participants with haematological malignancies were included in the study. 857 patients were anti-S1 IgG seronegative at timepoint 0 and constituted the main analysis cohort. The age-matched comparison was made between 315 patients with haematological malignancies who were aged 18-60 years and 67 healthy health-care workers in the same age group. Patients aged 18-60 years with haematological malignancies had lower median anti-S1 IgG antibody responses after two BNT162b2 vaccine doses than did health-care workers of the same age group (median 6961 AU/mL [IQR 1292-20 672] vs 21 395 AU/mL [14 831-33 553]; p<0·0001). Compared with untreated patients with haematological malignancies (n=53; median 5761 AU/mL [629-16 141]), patients actively treated with Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKIs; n=44; 0 AU/mL [0-7]; p<0·0001), ruxolitinib (n=16; 10 AU/mL [0-45]; p<0·0001), venetoclax (n=10; 4 AU/mL [0-1218]; p=0·0005), or anti-CD20 antibody therapy (n=87; 17 AU/mL [1-2319]; p<0·0001) showed particularly poor anti-S1 IgG antibody responses following two BNT162b2 doses. Patients being treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (n=41; 10 537 AU/mL [IQR 2335-19 388]) or patients who received autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT; n=192; 6203 AU/mL [1451-16 834]) or allogeneic HSCT (n=122; 6304 AU/mL [1120-16 913]) were among the subgroups with the highest numerical responses. Nine SARS-CoV-2 infections and three COVID-19 deaths were observed among fully vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies. INTERPRETATION: Patients with haematological malignancies mount blunted and heterogeneous antibody responses to the full course of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. Patients who are actively treated with BTKIs, ruxolitinib, venetoclax, or anti-CD20 antibody therapies seem to be the most negatively affected and might be left unprotected from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Breakthrough severe SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies emphasise the importance of ongoing strict adherence to non-pharmacological interventions and household vaccination while SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in the community. FUNDING: Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos. TRANSLATION: For the Lithuanian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/blood , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Lithuania/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
13.
Br J Haematol ; 195(3): 371-377, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314037

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with high mortality in patients with haematological malignancies (HM) and rate of seroconversion is unknown. The ITA-HEMA-COV project (NCT04352556) investigated patterns of seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 IgG in patients with HMs. A total of 237 patients, SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive with at least one SARS-CoV-2 IgG test performed during their care, entered the analysis. Among these, 62 (26·2%) had myeloid, 121 (51·1%) lymphoid and 54 (22·8%) plasma cell neoplasms. Overall, 69% of patients (164 of 237) had detectable IgG SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. Serologically negative patients (31%, 73 of 237) were evenly distributed across patients with myeloid, lymphoid and plasma cell neoplasms. In the multivariable logistic regression, chemoimmunotherapy [odds ratio (OR), 3·42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·04-11·21; P = 0·04] was associated with a lower rate of seroconversion. This effect did not decline after 180 days from treatment withdrawal (OR, 0·35; 95% CI: 0·11-1·13; P = 0·08). This study demonstrates a low rate of seroconversion in HM patients and indicates that treatment-mediated immune dysfunction is the main driver. As a consequence, we expect a low rate of seroconversion after vaccination and thus we suggest testing the efficacy of seroconversion in HM patients.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Young Adult
15.
Am J Hematol ; 96(10): 1195-1203, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286098

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematologic malignancies have an increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Vaccination against COVID-19 is especially important in these patients, but whether they develop an immune response following vaccination is unknown. We studied serologic responses to the BNT162b2 vaccine in this population. A lower proportion of patients were seropositive following vaccination (75%) than in a comparison group (99%; p < 0.001), and median (interquartile range [IQR]) antibody titers in patients were lower (90 [12.4-185.5] and 173 [133-232] AU/ml, respectively; p < 0.001). Older age, higher lactate dehydrogenase, and number of treatment lines correlated with lower seropositivity likelihood and antibody titers, while absolute lymphocyte count, globulin level, and time from last treatment to vaccination correlated with higher seropositivity likelihood and antibody titers. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients had the lowest seropositivity rate followed by indolent lymphoma. Patients recently treated with chemo-immunotherapy, anti-CD20 antibodies, BCL2, BTK or JAK2 inhibitors had significantly less seropositive responses and lower median (IQR) antibody titers (29%, 1.9 [1.9-12] AU/ml; 0%, 1.9 [1.9-1.9] AU/ml; 25%, 1.9 [1.9-25] AU/ml; 40%, 1.9 [1.9-92.8] AU/ml; and 42%, 10.9 [5.7-66.4] AU/ml, respectively; p < 0.001). Serological response to BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with hematologic malignancies is considerably impaired, and they could remain at risk for severe COVID-19 infection and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , Lymphoma/complications , Lymphoma/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
16.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 21(9): 606-612, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents an important infectious complication associated with high mortality rates in patients with hematologic diseases. There have not been published any epidemiologic studies from Czech Republic so far. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is the first analysis of patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow failure syndromes treated at single hematology center in the Czech Republic between March 1 and December 31, 2020, in whom COVID-19 infection was confirmed. RESULTS: The sample comprised 96 patients aged 26 to 84 years (median, 66.0 years). At the time of their COVID-19 diagnosis, 75 patients (78.1%) were treated for hematologic diseases. Twenty-seven patients (28.1%) in the sample had complete remission (CR) of their hematologic disease. They were nonsignificantly more likely to have asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 infection than those who failed to achieve CR (74.1% vs. 56.5%; P = .06). A more severe course of the infection was significantly correlated with older age (P = .047). Lung involvement was also statistically significantly associated with older age (P = .045). Over the study period, a total of 15 patients died. Age greater than 60 years was significantly associated with deaths from COVID-19 (P = .036), with failure to achieve CR having a statistically nonsignificant impact on mortality (P = .22). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the prognostic significance of age for achieving treatment response of hematologic disease as well as the severity and mortality of COVID-19 in hematology patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders/complications , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders/diagnosis , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders/epidemiology , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/diagnosis , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
Transfusion ; 61(8): 2503-2511, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243670

ABSTRACT

In the absence of effective countermeasures, human convalescent plasma has been widely used to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the causative agent of novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), including among patients with innate or acquired immunosuppression. However, the association between COVID-19-associated mortality in patients with immunosuppression and therapeutic use of convalescent plasma is unknown. We review 75 reports, including one large matched-control registry study of 143 COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancies, and 51 case reports and 23 case series representing 238 COVID-19 patients with immunosuppression. We review clinical features and treatment protocols of COVID-19 patients with immunosuppression after treatment with human convalescent plasma. We also discuss the time course and clinical features of recovery. The available data from case reports and case series provide evidence suggesting a mortality benefit and rapid clinical improvement in patients with several forms of immunosuppression following COVID-19 convalescent plasma transfusion. The utility of convalescent plasma or other forms of antibody therapy in immune-deficient and immune-suppressed patients with COVID-19 warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Immune Tolerance , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
18.
Nat Med ; 27(7): 1280-1289, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238011

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer have high mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the immune parameters that dictate clinical outcomes remain unknown. In a cohort of 100 patients with cancer who were hospitalized for COVID-19, patients with hematologic cancer had higher mortality relative to patients with solid cancer. In two additional cohorts, flow cytometric and serologic analyses demonstrated that patients with solid cancer and patients without cancer had a similar immune phenotype during acute COVID-19, whereas patients with hematologic cancer had impairment of B cells and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody responses. Despite the impaired humoral immunity and high mortality in patients with hematologic cancer who also have COVID-19, those with a greater number of CD8 T cells had improved survival, including those treated with anti-CD20 therapy. Furthermore, 77% of patients with hematologic cancer had detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses. Thus, CD8 T cells might influence recovery from COVID-19 when humoral immunity is deficient. These observations suggest that CD8 T cell responses to vaccination might provide protection in patients with hematologic cancer even in the setting of limited humoral responses.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/complications , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
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