Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 23
Filter
1.
Turk J Haematol ; 39(1): 43-54, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707760

ABSTRACT

Objective: Patients with solid malignancies are more vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than the healthy population. The outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in highly immunosuppressed populations, such as in patients with hematological malignancies, is a point of interest. We aimed to analyze the symptoms, complications, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality rates of patients with hematological malignancies infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Turkey. Materials and Methods: In this multicenter study, we included 340 adult and pediatric patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 from March to November 2020. Diagnosis and status of primary disease, treatment schedules for hematological malignancies, time from last treatment, life expectancy related to the hematological disease, and comorbidities were recorded, together with data regarding symptoms, treatment, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: Forty four patients were asymptomatic at diagnosis of SARS-CoV- 2 infection. Among symptomatic patients, fever, cough, and dyspnea were observed in 62.6%, 48.8%, and 41.8%, respectively. Sixty-nine (20%) patients had mild SARS-CoV-2 disease, whereas moderate, severe, and critical disease was reported in 101 (29%), 71 (20%), and 55 (16%) patients, respectively. Of the entire cohort, 251 (73.8%) patients were hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2. Mortality related to SARS-CoV-2 infection was 26.5% in the entire cohort; this comprised 4.4% of those patients with mild disease, 12.4% of those with moderate disease, and 83% of those with severe or critical disease. Active hematological disease, lower life expectancy related to primary hematological disease, neutropenia at diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, ICU admission, and first-line therapy used for coronavirus disease-2019 treatment were found to be related to higher mortality rates. Treatments with hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin were associated with a higher rate of mortality in comparison to favipiravir use. Conclusion: Patients with hematological malignancy infected with SARS-CoV-2 have an increased risk of severe disease and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Adult , Amides/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220130, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700096

ABSTRACT

Importance: Large cohorts of patients with active cancers and COVID-19 infection are needed to provide evidence of the association of recent cancer treatment and cancer type with COVID-19 mortality. Objective: To evaluate whether systemic anticancer treatments (SACTs), tumor subtypes, patient demographic characteristics (age and sex), and comorbidities are associated with COVID-19 mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: The UK Coronavirus Cancer Monitoring Project (UKCCMP) is a prospective cohort study conducted at 69 UK cancer hospitals among adult patients (≥18 years) with an active cancer and a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients registered from March 18 to August 1, 2020, were included in this analysis. Exposures: SACT, tumor subtype, patient demographic characteristics (eg, age, sex, body mass index, race and ethnicity, smoking history), and comorbidities were investigated. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was all-cause mortality within the primary hospitalization. Results: Overall, 2515 of 2786 patients registered during the study period were included; 1464 (58%) were men; and the median (IQR) age was 72 (62-80) years. The mortality rate was 38% (966 patients). The data suggest an association between higher mortality in patients with hematological malignant neoplasms irrespective of recent SACT, particularly in those with acute leukemias or myelodysplastic syndrome (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.30-3.60) and myeloma or plasmacytoma (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.04-2.26). Lung cancer was also significantly associated with higher COVID-19-related mortality (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.11-2.25). No association between higher mortality and receiving chemotherapy in the 4 weeks before COVID-19 diagnosis was observed after correcting for the crucial confounders of age, sex, and comorbidities. An association between lower mortality and receiving immunotherapy in the 4 weeks before COVID-19 diagnosis was observed (immunotherapy vs no cancer therapy: OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.86). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study of patients with active cancer suggest that recent SACT is not associated with inferior outcomes from COVID-19 infection. This has relevance for the care of patients with cancer requiring treatment, particularly in countries experiencing an increase in COVID-19 case numbers. Important differences in outcomes among patients with hematological and lung cancers were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries , United Kingdom
3.
Br J Cancer ; 126(5): 691-692, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623449

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients with COVID-19 have reduced survival. While most cancer patients, like the general population, have an almost 100% rate of seroconversion after COVID-19 infection or vaccination, patients with haematological malignancies have lower seroconversion rates and are far less likely to gain adequate protection. This raises the concern that patients with haematological malignancies, especially those receiving immunosuppressive therapies, may still develop the fatal disease when infected with COVID-19 after vaccination. There is an urgent need to develop Guidelines to help direct vaccination schedules and protective measures in oncology patients, differentiating those with haematological malignancies and those in an immunocompromised state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Seroconversion , Vaccination
5.
Blood ; 139(10): 1439-1451, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472341

ABSTRACT

Evidence regarding the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine in patients with impaired immunity is limited. Initial observations suggest a lower humoral response in these patients. We evaluated the relative effectiveness of the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with hematological neoplasms compared with matched controls. Data on patients with hematological neoplasms after 2 vaccine doses were extracted and matched 1:1 with vaccinated controls. Subpopulation analyses focused on patients receiving therapy for hematological neoplasm, patients without treatment who were only followed, and recipients of specific treatments. The analysis focused on COVID-19 outcomes from days 7 through 43 after the second vaccine dose in these areas: documented COVID-19 infection by polymerase chain reaction; symptomatic infection; hospitalizations; severe COVID-19 disease; and COVID-19-related death. In a population of 4.7 million insured people, 32 516 patients with hematological neoplasms were identified, of whom 5017 were receiving therapy for an active disease. Vaccinated patients with hematological neoplasms, compared with vaccinated matched controls, had an increased risk of documented infections (relative risk [RR] 1.60, 95% CI 1.12-2.37); symptomatic COVID-19 (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.05-2.85); COVID-19-related hospitalizations (RR 3.13, 95% CI 1.68-7.08); severe COVID-19 (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.18-5.19); and COVID-19-related death (RR 1.66, 95% CI 0.72-4.47). Limiting the analysis to patients on hematological treatments showed a higher increased risk. This analysis shows that vaccinated patients with hematological neoplasms, in particular patients receiving treatment, suffer from COVID-19 outcomes more than vaccinated individuals with intact immune system. Ways to enhance COVID-19 immunity in this patient population, such as additional doses, should be explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , /immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257775, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to investigate whether FIB-4 index is useful in predicting mortality in patients with concurrent hematological malignancies and COVID-19. We also aimed to determine the optimal cut-off point for the prediction. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective cohort study conducted in Dharmais National Cancer Hospital, Indonesia. Consecutive sampling of adults with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 was performed between May 2020 and January 2021. COVID-19 screening test using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasopharyngeal samples were performed prior to hospitalization for chemotherapy. FIB-4 index is derived from [age (years) × AST (IU/L)]/[platelet count (109/L) × âˆšALT (U/L)]. The primary outcome of this study is mortality, defined as clinically validated death/non-survivor during a 3-months (90 days) follow-up. RESULTS: There were a total of 70 patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 in this study. Median FIB-4 Index was higher in non-survivors (13.1 vs 1.02, p<0.001). FIB-4 index above 3.85 has a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 84%, PLR of 5.27, and NLR of 0.32. The AUC was 0.849 95% CI 0.735-0.962, p<0.001. This cut-off point was associated with OR of 16.70 95% CI 4.07-66.67, p<0.001. In this study, a FIB-4 >3.85 confers to 80% posterior probability of mortality and FIB-4 <3.85 to 19% probability. FIB-4 >3.85 was associated with shorter time-to-mortality (HR 9.10 95% CI 2.99-27.65, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that FIB-4 >3.85 (HR 4.09 95% CI 1.32-12.70, p = 0.015) and CRP> 71.57 mg/L (HR 3.36 95% CI 1.08-10.50, p = 0.037) were independently associated with shorter time-to-mortality. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that a FIB-4 index >3.85 was independent predictor of mortality in patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Adult , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Male , Platelet Count/methods , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Turk J Haematol ; 39(1): 43-54, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411042

ABSTRACT

Objective: Patients with solid malignancies are more vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than the healthy population. The outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in highly immunosuppressed populations, such as in patients with hematological malignancies, is a point of interest. We aimed to analyze the symptoms, complications, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality rates of patients with hematological malignancies infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Turkey. Materials and Methods: In this multicenter study, we included 340 adult and pediatric patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 from March to November 2020. Diagnosis and status of primary disease, treatment schedules for hematological malignancies, time from last treatment, life expectancy related to the hematological disease, and comorbidities were recorded, together with data regarding symptoms, treatment, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: Forty four patients were asymptomatic at diagnosis of SARS-CoV- 2 infection. Among symptomatic patients, fever, cough, and dyspnea were observed in 62.6%, 48.8%, and 41.8%, respectively. Sixty-nine (20%) patients had mild SARS-CoV-2 disease, whereas moderate, severe, and critical disease was reported in 101 (29%), 71 (20%), and 55 (16%) patients, respectively. Of the entire cohort, 251 (73.8%) patients were hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2. Mortality related to SARS-CoV-2 infection was 26.5% in the entire cohort; this comprised 4.4% of those patients with mild disease, 12.4% of those with moderate disease, and 83% of those with severe or critical disease. Active hematological disease, lower life expectancy related to primary hematological disease, neutropenia at diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, ICU admission, and first-line therapy used for coronavirus disease-2019 treatment were found to be related to higher mortality rates. Treatments with hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin were associated with a higher rate of mortality in comparison to favipiravir use. Conclusion: Patients with hematological malignancy infected with SARS-CoV-2 have an increased risk of severe disease and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Adult , Amides/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(6): 499-502, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, the complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection occur less frequently than in adults but the characteristics of this disease in oncology patients are not well characterized. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in patients younger than 18 years of age with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and cancer diagnoses between April and September 2020. Demographic variables, laboratory, and radiologic findings and complications of each case were identified. A descriptive analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 33 patients were identified; the median age was 10 years. Fifteen patients (42%) were in chemotherapy at the time of the infection diagnosis, in two patients the chemotherapy protocol was permanently suspended. The most common symptom was fever in 20 patients (60%). Seven patients (21.2%) showed mild pneumonia, four patients (12.1%) severe pneumonia, and three cases (9.0%) were classified as critical. In the evaluated cohort, five patients (15.1%) died, and in two of those, death was caused by COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Children with an oncologic disease, the search for COVID cases should be oriented to patients with fever, including febrile neutropenia, the presence of respiratory symptoms, and the search for epidemiologic contact. A higher frequency of complications and mortality attributed to COVID-19, two in pediatric oncohematologic patients was found. Institutional strategies to detect the infection early and lower institutional infection are indicated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Adolescent , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
9.
Br J Cancer ; 125(5): 658-671, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 30 million COVID-19 cases have been diagnosed worldwide from late 2019. Among frail persons, cancer patients are at high risk of death from COVID-19. METHODS: The French prospective cohort ONCOVID-19 enrolled patients with solid or haematological tumour, receiving anticancer treatment and presenting with clinical symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. COVID-19 was confirmed through detectable SARS-CoV2 by RT-PCR (repeated twice if negative first) and/or specific CT-scan. The study aims to assess the 28-day mortality rate after the first COVID test. RESULTS: From March 1st to May 21st 2020, 23 French cancer centres and hospitals enrolled 1230 cancer patients with suspicion of COVID-19, including 1162 (94.5%) matching the inclusion criteria. We identified 425 (36.6%) COVID-19 positive patients including 155 (13.3%) diagnosed with CT-scan only, while 737 (63.4%) patients were COVID-19 negative. Death at day-28 occurred in 116/425 (27.8%) COVID-19 positive patients, and in 118/737 (16.3%) COVID-19 negative patients (p < 0·0001). With a median follow-up of 2.1 (1.6-2.4) months, 310 (26.7%) deaths were reported including 143 (33.6%) in the COVID-19 positive population, and 167 (22.7%) in the COVID-19 negative patients. Male gender, age, metastatic disease, immunosuppressive treatments, lymphopenia, COVID-19 diagnosis and diabetes were independent risk factors for death. CONCLUSION: Patients with solid and haematological cancers presenting COVID-19 symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed or not are both at high-risk of early mortality. COVID-19 is reported as the cause of death in 50% of COVID-19 positive patients with cancer. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04363632.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
10.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143612

ABSTRACT

The use of convalescent plasma in the treatment of COVID-19 may lead to a milder course of infection and has been associated with improved outcomes. Determining optimal treatments in high risk populations is crucial, as is the case in those with hematological malignancies. We analyzed a cohort of 23 patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 who had received plasma 48-72 h after the diagnosis of infection and compared it with a historical group of 22 patients who received other therapy. Overall survival in those who received convalescent plasma was significantly higher than in the historical group (p = 0.03460). The plasma-treated group also showed a significantly milder course of infection (p = 0.03807), characterized by less severe symptoms and faster recovery (p = 0.00001). In conclusion, we have demonstrated that convalescent plasma is an effective treatment and its early administration leads to clinical improvement, increased viral clearance and longer overall survival in patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first report to analyze the efficacy of convalescent plasma in a cohort of patients with hematological malignancies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/immunology , Survival , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 4(4): e1358, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes of novel coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) in onco-hematological patients are unknown. When compared to non-immunocompromised patients, onco-hematological patients seem to have higher mortality rates. AIMS: We describe the characteristics and outcomes of a consecutive cohort of 24 onco-hematological patients with COVID-19 during the first month of the pandemic. We also describe variations in healthcare resource utilization within our hematology department. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from patients between the first month of the pandemic were retrospectively collected. Clinical and logistic data were also collected and compared with the average values from the prior 3 months of activity. Prevalence of COVID-19 in our hematological population was 0.4%. Baseline characteristics were as follows: male sex: 83%, lymphoid diseases: 46%, median age: 69 (22-82) years. Median follow-up in survivors was 14 (9-28) days and inpatient mortality rate was 46%. Average time to moderate/severe respiratory insufficiency and death were 3 (1-10) and 10 (3-18) days, respectively. Only 1 out of every 12 patients who developed moderate to severe respiratory insufficiency recovered. Upon univariate analysis, the following factors were associated with higher mortality: age ≥ 70 years (P = .01) and D-dimer ≥900 mcg/L (P = .04). With respect to indirect effects during the COVID-19 pandemic, and when compared with the prior 3 months of activity, inpatient mortality (excluding patients with COVID-19 included in the study) increased by 56%. This was associated with a more frequent use of vasoactive drugs (+300%) and advanced respiratory support (+133%) in the hematology ward. In the outpatient setting, there was a reduction in initial visits (-55%) and chemotherapy sessions (-19%). A significant increase in phone visits was reported (+581%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic is associated with elevated mortality in hematological patients. Negative indirect effects are also evident within this setting.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Young Adult
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4814, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112009

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids, anti-CD20 agents, immunotherapies, and cytotoxic chemotherapy are commonly used in the treatment of patients with cancer. It is unclear how these agents affect patients with cancer who are infected with SARS-CoV-2. We retrospectively investigated associations between SARS-CoV-2-associated respiratory failure or death with receipt of the aforementioned medications and with pre-COVID-19 neutropenia. The study included all cancer patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center until June 2, 2020 (N = 820). We controlled for cancer-related characteristics known to predispose to worse COVID-19 as well as level of respiratory support during corticosteroid administration. Corticosteroid administration was associated with worse outcomes prior to use of supplemental oxygen; no statistically significant difference was observed in sicker cohorts. In patients with metastatic thoracic cancer, 9 of 25 (36%) and 10 of 31 (32%) had respiratory failure or death among those who did and did not receive immunotherapy, respectively. Seven of 23 (30%) and 52 of 187 (28%) patients with hematologic cancer had respiratory failure or death among those who did and did not receive anti-CD20 therapy, respectively. Chemotherapy itself was not associated with worse outcomes, but pre-COVID-19 neutropenia was associated with worse COVID-19 course. Relative prevalence of chemotherapy-associated neutropenia in previous studies may account for different conclusions regarding the risks of chemotherapy in patients with COVID-19. In the absence of prospective studies and evidence-based guidelines, our data may aid providers looking to assess the risks and benefits of these agents in caring for cancer patients in the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Neutropenia/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies
13.
Trials ; 22(1): 116, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Baricitinib is supposed to have a double effect on SARS-CoV2 infection. Firstly, it reduces the inflammatory response through the inhibition of the Januse-Kinase signalling transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Moreover, it reduces the receptor mediated viral endocytosis by AP2-associated protein kinase 1 (AAK1) inhibition. We propose the use of baricinitib to prevent the progression of the respiratory insufficiency in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia in onco-haematological patients. In this phase Ib/II study, the primary objective in the safety cohort is to describe the incidence of severe adverse events associated with baricitinib administration. The primary objective of the randomized phase (baricitinib cohort versus standard of care cohort) is to evaluate the number of patients who did not require mechanical oxygen support since start of therapy until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). The secondary objectives of the study (only randomized phase of the study) are represented by the comparison between the two arms of the study in terms of mortality and toxicity at day+30. Moreover, a description of the immunological related changes between the two arms of the study will be reported. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial is a phase I/II study with a safety run-in cohort (phase 1) followed by an open label phase II randomized controlled trial with an experimental arm compared to a standard of care arm. PARTICIPANTS: The study will be performed at the Institut Català d'Oncologia, a tertiary level oncological referral center in the Catalonia region (Spain). The eligibility criteria are: patients > 18 years affected by oncological diseases; ECOG performance status < 2 (Karnofsky score > 60%); a laboratory confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 by means of real -time PCR; radiological signs of low respiratory tract disease; absence of organ dysfunction (a total bilirubin within normal institutional limits, AST/ALT≤2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal, alkaline phosphatase ≤2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal, coagulation within normal institutional limits, creatinine clearance >30 mL/min/1.73 m2 for patients with creatinine levels above institutional normal); absence of HIV infection; no active or latent HBV or HCV infection. The exclusion criteria are: patients with oncological diseases who are not candidates to receive any active oncological treatment; hemodynamic instability at time of study enrollment; impossibility to receive oral medication; medical history of recent or active pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis or patients at high-risk of suffering them (surgical intervention, immobilization); multi organ failure, rapid worsening of respiratory function with requirement of fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) > 50% or high-flow nasal cannula before initiation of study treatment; uncontrolled intercurrent illness (ongoing or severe active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements); allergy to one or more of study treatments; pregnant or breastfeeding women; positive pregnancy test in a pre-dose examination. Patients should have the ability to understand, and the willingness to sign, a written informed consent document; the willingness to accept randomization to any assigned treatment arm; and must agree not to enroll in another study of an investigational agent prior to completion of Day +28 of study. An electronic Case Report Form in the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) platform will be used to collect the data of the trial. Removal from the study will apply in case of unacceptable adverse event(s), development of an intercurrent illness, condition or procedural complication, which could interfere with the patient's continued participation and voluntary patient withdrawal from study treatment (all patients are free to withdraw from participation in this study at any time, for any reasons, specified or unspecified, and without prejudice). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Treatment will be administered on an inpatient basis. We will compare the experimental treatment with baricitinib plus the institutional standard of care compared with the standard of care alone. During the phase I, we will define the dose-limiting toxicity of baricitinib and the dose to be used in the phase 2 part of the study. The starting baricitinib dose will be an oral tablet 4 mg-once daily which can be reduced to 2 mg depending on the observed toxicity. The minimum duration of therapy will be 5 days and it can be extended to 7 days. The standard of care will include the following therapies. Antibiotics will be individualized based on clinical suspicion, including the management of febrile neutropenia. Prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease will be administered to all participants. Remdesivir administration will be considered only in patients with severe pneumonia (SatO2 <94%) with less than 7 days of onset of symptoms and with supplemental oxygen requirements but not using high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In the randomized phase, tocilizumab or interferon will not be allowed in the experimental arm. Tocilizumab can be used in patients in the standard of care arm at the discretion of the investigator. If it is prescribed it will be used according to the following criteria: patients who, according to his baseline clinical condition, would be an ICU tributary, interstitial pneumonia with severe respiratory failure, patients who are not on mechanical ventilation or ECMO and who are still progressing with corticoid treatment or if they are not candidates for corticosteroids. Mild ARDS (PAFI <300 mmHg) with radiological or blood gases deterioration that meets at least one of the following criteria: CRP >100mg/L D-Dimer >1,000µg/L LDH >400U/L Ferritin >700ng/ml Interleukin 6 ≥40ng/L. The use of tocilizumab is not recommended if there are AST/ALT values greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal, neutrophils <500 cells/mm3, sepsis due to other pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2, presence of comorbidity that can lead to a poor prognosis, complicated diverticulitis or intestinal perforation, ongoing skin infection. The dose will be that recommended by the Spanish Medicine Agency in patients ≥75Kg: 600mg dose whereas in patients <75kg: 400mg dose. Exceptionally, a second infusion can be assessed 12 hours after the first in those patients who experience a worsening of laboratory parameters after a first favourable response. The use of corticosteroids will be recommended in patients who have had symptoms for more than 7 days and who meet all the following criteria: need for oxygen support, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory failure or rapid deterioration of gas exchange, appearance or worsening of bilateral alveolar-interstitial infiltrates at the radiological level. In case of indication, it is recommended: dexamethasone 6mg/d p.o. or iv for 10 days or methylprednisolone 32mg/d orally or 30mg iv for 10 days or prednisone 40mg day p.o. for 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES: Phase 1 part: to describe the toxicity profile of baricitinib in COVID19 oncological patients during the 5-7 day treatment period and until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). Phase 2 part: to describe the number of patients in the experimental arm that will not require mechanical oxygen support compared to the standard of care arm until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). RANDOMISATION: For the phase 2 of the study, the allocation ratio will be 1:1. Randomization process will be carried out electronically through the REDcap platform ( https://www.project-redcap.org/ ) BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label study. No blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The first part of the study (safety run-in cohort) will consist in the enrollment of 6 to 12 patients. In this population, we will test the toxicity of the experimental treatment. An incidence of severe adverse events grade 3-4 (graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.5.0) inferior than 33% will be considered sufficient to follow with the next part of the study. The second part of the study we will perform an interim analysis of efficacy at first 64 assessed patients and a definitive one will analyze 128 assessed patients. Interim and definitive tests will be performed considering in both cases an alpha error of 0.05. We consider for the control arm this rate is expected to be 0.60 and for the experimental arm of 0.80. Considering this data, a superiority test to prove a difference of 0.20 with an overall alpha error of 0.10 and a beta error of 0.2 will be performed. Considering a 5% of dropout rate, it is expected that a total of 136 patients, 68 for each study arm, will be required to complete study accrual. TRIAL STATUS: Version 5.0. 14th October 2020 Recruitment started on the 16th of December 2020. Expected end of recruitment is June 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: AEMPs: 20-0356 EudraCT: 2020-001789-12, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search (Not publically available as Phase I trial) Clinical trials: BARCOVID19, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ (In progress) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol."


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azetidines/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Purines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Cancer Cell ; 39(2): 257-275.e6, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009339

ABSTRACT

Given the immune system's importance for cancer surveillance and treatment, we have investigated how it may be affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection of cancer patients. Across some heterogeneity in tumor type, stage, and treatment, virus-exposed solid cancer patients display a dominant impact of SARS-CoV-2, apparent from the resemblance of their immune signatures to those for COVID-19+ non-cancer patients. This is not the case for hematological malignancies, with virus-exposed patients collectively displaying heterogeneous humoral responses, an exhausted T cell phenotype and a high prevalence of prolonged virus shedding. Furthermore, while recovered solid cancer patients' immunophenotypes resemble those of non-virus-exposed cancer patients, recovered hematological cancer patients display distinct, lingering immunological legacies. Thus, while solid cancer patients, including those with advanced disease, seem no more at risk of SARS-CoV-2-associated immune dysregulation than the general population, hematological cancer patients show complex immunological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure that might usefully inform their care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
16.
Blood ; 136(25): 2881-2892, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894984

ABSTRACT

Outcomes for patients with hematologic malignancy infected with COVID-19 have not been aggregated. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the risk of death and other important outcomes for these patients. We searched PubMed and EMBASE up to 20 August 2020 to identify reports of patients with hematologic malignancy and COVID-19. The primary outcome was a pooled mortality estimate, considering all patients and only hospitalized patients. Secondary outcomes included risk of intensive care unit admission and ventilation in hospitalized patients. Subgroup analyses included mortality stratified by age, treatment status, and malignancy subtype. Pooled prevalence, risk ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Thirty-four adult and 5 pediatric studies (3377 patients) from Asia, Europe, and North America were included (14 of 34 adult studies included only hospitalized patients). Risk of death among adult patients was 34% (95% CI, 28-39; N = 3240) in this sample of predominantly hospitalized patients. Patients aged ≥60 years had a significantly higher risk of death than patients <60 years (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.45-2.27; N = 1169). The risk of death in pediatric patients was 4% (95% CI, 1-9; N = 102). RR of death comparing patients with recent systemic anticancer therapy to no treatment was 1.17 (95% CI, 0.83-1.64; N = 736). Adult patients with hematologic malignancy and COVID-19, especially hospitalized patients, have a high risk of dying. Patients ≥60 years have significantly higher mortality; pediatric patients appear to be relatively spared. Recent cancer treatment does not appear to significantly increase the risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Prognosis , Survival Rate
17.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(4): 952-955, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894381

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aim to report the outcome of COVID-19 in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. HCT recipients (n = 32) with hematological disease and hospitalized for COVID-19 were included in the study. A cohort of age and comorbid disease-matched hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancy but not underwent HCT (n = 465), and another cohort of age and comorbid disease-matched hospitalized COVID-19 patients without cancer (n = 497) were also included in the study for comparison. Case fatality rate (CFR) was 5.6% in patients without cancer, 11.8 in patients with hematological malignancy and 15.6% in HCT recipients. The CFR in HCT recipients who were not receiving immunosuppressive agents at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis was 11.5%, whereas it was 33% in HCT recipients who were receiving an immunosuppressive agent at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. In conclusion, our study reveals that for the current pandemic, HCT recipients, especially those receiving immunosuppressive drugs, constitute a special population of cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage
18.
Eur J Haematol ; 106(1): 72-81, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772443

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with haematological disorders may be particularly vulnerable to respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; however, this is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, nationwide study including 66 patients in follow-up at Danish haematology departments with a malignant or non-malignant haematological disorder and with verified SARS-CoV-2 infection. Outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admission and one-month survival rate. RESULTS: Mean age was 66.7 years, 60.6% were males, 90.9% had comorbidity, and 13.6% had a BMI ≥ 30. The most frequent diagnoses were chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/lymphoma (47.0%), multiple myeloma (16.7%) and acute leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (AL/MDS) (12.1%). Treatment for the haematological disease was ongoing in 59.1% of cases. Neutropenia was present in 6.5%, lymphopenia in 46.6% and hypogammaglobulinaemia in 26.3%. The SARS-CoV-2 infection was mild in 50.0%, severe in 36.4% and critical in 13.6%. After one month, 21.2% had been admitted to ICU, and 24.2% died. Mortality was highest in older patients, patients with severe/critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, high comorbidity score or high performance status score, purine analogue treatment and with AL/MDS. Although older patients and patients with comorbidities had the highest mortality rates, mortality was considerable among all haematological patients. CONCLUSION: Haematological patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection has a severe clinical course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Cancer ; 126(23): 5069-5076, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are considered highly vulnerable to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there are still few data on COVID-19 occurring in hematologic patients. METHODS: One hundred two patients with COVID-19 symptoms and a nasopharyngeal swab positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seen at 2 hematologic departments located in Lombardy, Italy, during March 2020 were studied. Risk factors for acquiring COVID-19 were analyzed by comparisons of patients with COVID-19 and the standard hematologic population managed at the same institutions in 2019. Thirty-day survival was compared with the survival of matched uninfected control patients with similar hematologic disorders and nonhematologic patients affected by COVID-19. RESULTS: Male sex was significantly more prevalent in patients with COVID-19. The infection occurred across all different types of hematologic disease; however, the risk of acquiring a COVID-19 infection was lower for patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia, and higher for patients with immune-mediated anemia on immunosuppressive-related treatments. The 30-day mortality rate was 39.2%, which was higher than the rates for nonhematologic patients with COVID-19 (23.5%; P = .02) and uninfected hematologic controls (3%; P < .001). The severity of the respiratory syndrome at presentation and active hematologic treatment were independently associated with a worse prognosis. Neither diagnosis nor disease status affected the prognosis. The worst prognosis was demonstrated among patients on active hematologic treatment and those with more severe respiratory syndrome at COVID-19 presentation. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients should be advised to seek medical attention at the earliest signs of dyspnea and/or respiratory infection. Physicians should perform a risk-benefit analysis to determine the impact of temporarily deferring nonlifesaving treatments versus the risk of adverse outcomes associated with COVID-19. LAY SUMMARY: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection occurs across all different types of hematologic disease; however, the risk of acquiring it is lower for patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia, and higher for patients with immune-mediated anemia on immunosuppressive treatment. The 30-day mortality rate is 39.2%, which is far higher than the rates for both uninfected hematologic controls (3%; P < .001) and nonhematologic patients with COVID-19 (23.5%; P = .02) despite matching for age, sex, comorbidities, and severity of disease. Variables independently associated with a worse prognosis are the severity of the respiratory syndrome at presentation and any type of active hematologic treatment. Neither diagnosis nor disease status influence the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL