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2.
Cancer Discov ; 12(1): 62-73, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595223

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection results in both acute mortality and persistent and/or recurrent disease in patients with hematologic malignancies, but the drivers of persistent infection in this population are unknown. We found that B-cell lymphomas were at particularly high risk for persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity. Further analysis of these patients identified discrete risk factors for initial disease severity compared with disease chronicity. Active therapy and diminished T-cell counts were drivers of acute mortality in COVID-19-infected patients with lymphoma. Conversely, B cell-depleting therapy was the primary driver of rehospitalization for COVID-19. In patients with persistent SARS-CoV-2 positivity, we observed high levels of viral entropy consistent with intrahost viral evolution, particularly in patients with impaired CD8+ T-cell immunity. These results suggest that persistent COVID-19 infection is likely to remain a risk in patients with impaired adaptive immunity and that additional therapeutic strategies are needed to enable viral clearance in this high-risk population. SIGNIFICANCE: We describe the largest cohort of persistent symptomatic COVID-19 infection in patients with lymphoid malignancies and identify B-cell depletion as the key immunologic driver of persistent infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate ongoing intrahost viral evolution in patients with persistent COVID-19 infection, particularly in patients with impaired CD8+ T-cell immunity.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , /virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
3.
Br J Cancer ; 125(7): 939-947, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using an updated dataset with more patients and extended follow-up, we further established cancer patient characteristics associated with COVID-19 death. METHODS: Data on all cancer patients with a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction swab for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at Guy's Cancer Centre and King's College Hospital between 29 February and 31 July 2020 was used. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to identify which factors were associated with COVID-19 mortality. RESULTS: Three hundred and six SARS-CoV-2-positive cancer patients were included. Seventy-one had mild/moderate and 29% had severe COVID-19. Seventy-two patients died of COVID-19 (24%), of whom 35 died <7 days. Male sex [hazard ratio (HR): 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-3.38)], Asian ethnicity [3.42 (1. 59-7.35)], haematological cancer [2.03 (1.16-3.56)] and a cancer diagnosis for >2-5 years [2.81 (1.41-5.59)] or ≥5 years were associated with an increased mortality. Age >60 years and raised C-reactive protein (CRP) were also associated with COVID-19 death. Haematological cancer, a longer-established cancer diagnosis, dyspnoea at diagnosis and raised CRP were indicative of early COVID-19-related death in cancer patients (<7 days from diagnosis). CONCLUSIONS: Findings further substantiate evidence for increased risk of COVID-19 mortality for male and Asian cancer patients, and those with haematological malignancies or a cancer diagnosis >2 years. These factors should be accounted for when making clinical decisions for cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Hospitals , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Risk Factors
5.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(8): e583-e592, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Haematological malignancies and their treatments are likely to affect SARS-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy. We aimed to evaluate serological response to BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with haematological malignancies by type of treatment. METHODS: Our national prospective cohort study was done in Lithuania and assessed serological response to one and two BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine doses in healthy health-care workers and in patients with haematological malignancies. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older, had received both vaccine doses, and had available biobanked blood samples from before vaccination and after the second dose. Biobanked samples and health data were obtained from Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos Biobank. Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG Quant II chemiluminescent microparticle assay was used to quantify serum anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1 IgG antibody (anti-S1 IgG antibody) concentrations 0-10 days before the first BNT162b2 vaccine, on the day of second immunisation (around day 21), and 7 to 21 days after the second immunisation. Adverse events were assessed by a standardised questionnaire. Breakthrough infections were characterised clinically and by SARS-CoV-2 genotyping whenever possible. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04871165. FINDINGS: Between Jan 8 and April 21, 2021, 885 participants with haematological malignancies were included in the study. 857 patients were anti-S1 IgG seronegative at timepoint 0 and constituted the main analysis cohort. The age-matched comparison was made between 315 patients with haematological malignancies who were aged 18-60 years and 67 healthy health-care workers in the same age group. Patients aged 18-60 years with haematological malignancies had lower median anti-S1 IgG antibody responses after two BNT162b2 vaccine doses than did health-care workers of the same age group (median 6961 AU/mL [IQR 1292-20 672] vs 21 395 AU/mL [14 831-33 553]; p<0·0001). Compared with untreated patients with haematological malignancies (n=53; median 5761 AU/mL [629-16 141]), patients actively treated with Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKIs; n=44; 0 AU/mL [0-7]; p<0·0001), ruxolitinib (n=16; 10 AU/mL [0-45]; p<0·0001), venetoclax (n=10; 4 AU/mL [0-1218]; p=0·0005), or anti-CD20 antibody therapy (n=87; 17 AU/mL [1-2319]; p<0·0001) showed particularly poor anti-S1 IgG antibody responses following two BNT162b2 doses. Patients being treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (n=41; 10 537 AU/mL [IQR 2335-19 388]) or patients who received autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT; n=192; 6203 AU/mL [1451-16 834]) or allogeneic HSCT (n=122; 6304 AU/mL [1120-16 913]) were among the subgroups with the highest numerical responses. Nine SARS-CoV-2 infections and three COVID-19 deaths were observed among fully vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies. INTERPRETATION: Patients with haematological malignancies mount blunted and heterogeneous antibody responses to the full course of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. Patients who are actively treated with BTKIs, ruxolitinib, venetoclax, or anti-CD20 antibody therapies seem to be the most negatively affected and might be left unprotected from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Breakthrough severe SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies emphasise the importance of ongoing strict adherence to non-pharmacological interventions and household vaccination while SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in the community. FUNDING: Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos. TRANSLATION: For the Lithuanian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/blood , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Lithuania/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
6.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(6): 499-502, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, the complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection occur less frequently than in adults but the characteristics of this disease in oncology patients are not well characterized. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in patients younger than 18 years of age with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and cancer diagnoses between April and September 2020. Demographic variables, laboratory, and radiologic findings and complications of each case were identified. A descriptive analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 33 patients were identified; the median age was 10 years. Fifteen patients (42%) were in chemotherapy at the time of the infection diagnosis, in two patients the chemotherapy protocol was permanently suspended. The most common symptom was fever in 20 patients (60%). Seven patients (21.2%) showed mild pneumonia, four patients (12.1%) severe pneumonia, and three cases (9.0%) were classified as critical. In the evaluated cohort, five patients (15.1%) died, and in two of those, death was caused by COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Children with an oncologic disease, the search for COVID cases should be oriented to patients with fever, including febrile neutropenia, the presence of respiratory symptoms, and the search for epidemiologic contact. A higher frequency of complications and mortality attributed to COVID-19, two in pediatric oncohematologic patients was found. Institutional strategies to detect the infection early and lower institutional infection are indicated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Adolescent , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
7.
Br J Cancer ; 125(5): 658-671, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 30 million COVID-19 cases have been diagnosed worldwide from late 2019. Among frail persons, cancer patients are at high risk of death from COVID-19. METHODS: The French prospective cohort ONCOVID-19 enrolled patients with solid or haematological tumour, receiving anticancer treatment and presenting with clinical symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. COVID-19 was confirmed through detectable SARS-CoV2 by RT-PCR (repeated twice if negative first) and/or specific CT-scan. The study aims to assess the 28-day mortality rate after the first COVID test. RESULTS: From March 1st to May 21st 2020, 23 French cancer centres and hospitals enrolled 1230 cancer patients with suspicion of COVID-19, including 1162 (94.5%) matching the inclusion criteria. We identified 425 (36.6%) COVID-19 positive patients including 155 (13.3%) diagnosed with CT-scan only, while 737 (63.4%) patients were COVID-19 negative. Death at day-28 occurred in 116/425 (27.8%) COVID-19 positive patients, and in 118/737 (16.3%) COVID-19 negative patients (p < 0·0001). With a median follow-up of 2.1 (1.6-2.4) months, 310 (26.7%) deaths were reported including 143 (33.6%) in the COVID-19 positive population, and 167 (22.7%) in the COVID-19 negative patients. Male gender, age, metastatic disease, immunosuppressive treatments, lymphopenia, COVID-19 diagnosis and diabetes were independent risk factors for death. CONCLUSION: Patients with solid and haematological cancers presenting COVID-19 symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed or not are both at high-risk of early mortality. COVID-19 is reported as the cause of death in 50% of COVID-19 positive patients with cancer. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04363632.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
8.
Leukemia ; 35(10): 2885-2894, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253922

ABSTRACT

This study reports on 382 COVID-19 patients having undergone allogeneic (n = 236) or autologous (n = 146) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) or to the Spanish Group of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (GETH). The median age was 54.1 years (1.0-80.3) for allogeneic, and 60.6 years (7.7-81.6) for autologous HCT patients. The median time from HCT to COVID-19 was 15.8 months (0.2-292.7) in allogeneic and 24.6 months (-0.9 to 350.3) in autologous recipients. 83.5% developed lower respiratory tract disease and 22.5% were admitted to an ICU. Overall survival at 6 weeks from diagnosis was 77.9% and 72.1% in allogeneic and autologous recipients, respectively. Children had a survival of 93.4%. In multivariate analysis, older age (p = 0.02), need for ICU (p < 0.0001) and moderate/high immunodeficiency index (p = 0.04) increased the risk while better performance status (p = 0.001) decreased the risk for mortality. Other factors such as underlying diagnosis, time from HCT, GVHD, or ongoing immunosuppression did not significantly impact overall survival. We conclude that HCT patients are at high risk of developing LRTD, require admission to ICU, and have increased mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate , Transplantation, Homologous , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1099-1104, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196442

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aim to report the outcomes for COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancy in Turkey. Data from laboratory-confirmed 188 897 COVID-19 patients diagnosed between 11 March 2020 and 22 June 2020 included in the Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Health database were analyzed retrospectively. All COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancy (n = 740) were included in the study and an age, sex, and comorbidity-matched cohort of COVID-19 patients without cancer (n = 740) at a 1:1 ratio was used for comparison. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (30.1%), myelodysplastic syndrome (19.7%), myeloproliferative neoplasm (15.7%) were the most common hematological malignancies. The rates of severe and critical disease were significantly higher in patients with hematological malignancy compared with patients without cancer (P = .001). The rates of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were higher in patients with hematological malignancy compared with the patients without cancer (P = .023, P = .001, respectively). The length of hospital stay and ICU stay was similar between groups (P = .7, P = .3, retrospectively). The rate of mechanical ventilation (MV) support was higher in patients with hematological malignancy compared with the control group (P = .001). The case fatality rate was 13.8% in patients with hematological malignancy, and it was 6.8% in the control group (P = .001). This study reveals that there is an increased risk of COVID-19-related serious events (ICU admission, MV support, or death) in patients with hematological malignancy compared with COVID-19 patients without cancer and confirms the high vulnerability of patients with hematological malignancy in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 4(4): e1358, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes of novel coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) in onco-hematological patients are unknown. When compared to non-immunocompromised patients, onco-hematological patients seem to have higher mortality rates. AIMS: We describe the characteristics and outcomes of a consecutive cohort of 24 onco-hematological patients with COVID-19 during the first month of the pandemic. We also describe variations in healthcare resource utilization within our hematology department. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from patients between the first month of the pandemic were retrospectively collected. Clinical and logistic data were also collected and compared with the average values from the prior 3 months of activity. Prevalence of COVID-19 in our hematological population was 0.4%. Baseline characteristics were as follows: male sex: 83%, lymphoid diseases: 46%, median age: 69 (22-82) years. Median follow-up in survivors was 14 (9-28) days and inpatient mortality rate was 46%. Average time to moderate/severe respiratory insufficiency and death were 3 (1-10) and 10 (3-18) days, respectively. Only 1 out of every 12 patients who developed moderate to severe respiratory insufficiency recovered. Upon univariate analysis, the following factors were associated with higher mortality: age ≥ 70 years (P = .01) and D-dimer ≥900 mcg/L (P = .04). With respect to indirect effects during the COVID-19 pandemic, and when compared with the prior 3 months of activity, inpatient mortality (excluding patients with COVID-19 included in the study) increased by 56%. This was associated with a more frequent use of vasoactive drugs (+300%) and advanced respiratory support (+133%) in the hematology ward. In the outpatient setting, there was a reduction in initial visits (-55%) and chemotherapy sessions (-19%). A significant increase in phone visits was reported (+581%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic is associated with elevated mortality in hematological patients. Negative indirect effects are also evident within this setting.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Young Adult
11.
Eur J Cancer ; 147: 154-160, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077873

ABSTRACT

The worldwide spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated infectious coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed a unique challenge to medical staff, patients and their families. Patients with cancer, particularly those with haematologic malignancies, have been identified to be at high risk to develop severe COVID-19. Since publication of our previous guideline on evidence-based management of COVID-19 in patients with cancer, research efforts have continued and new relevant data has come to light, maybe most importantly in the field of vaccination studies. Therefore, an update of our guideline on several clinically important topics is warranted. Here, we provide a concise update of evidence-based recommendations for rapid diagnostics, viral shedding, vaccination and therapy of COVID-19 in patients with cancer. This guideline update was prepared by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology by critically reviewing the currently available data on these topics applying evidence-based medicine criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Evidence-Based Medicine/standards , Evidence-Based Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Germany/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Hematology/organization & administration , Hematology/standards , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/standards , Infectious Disease Medicine/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Medicine/standards , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Medical Oncology/standards , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Societies, Medical/standards , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/standards
14.
Cancer Cell ; 39(2): 257-275.e6, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009339

ABSTRACT

Given the immune system's importance for cancer surveillance and treatment, we have investigated how it may be affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection of cancer patients. Across some heterogeneity in tumor type, stage, and treatment, virus-exposed solid cancer patients display a dominant impact of SARS-CoV-2, apparent from the resemblance of their immune signatures to those for COVID-19+ non-cancer patients. This is not the case for hematological malignancies, with virus-exposed patients collectively displaying heterogeneous humoral responses, an exhausted T cell phenotype and a high prevalence of prolonged virus shedding. Furthermore, while recovered solid cancer patients' immunophenotypes resemble those of non-virus-exposed cancer patients, recovered hematological cancer patients display distinct, lingering immunological legacies. Thus, while solid cancer patients, including those with advanced disease, seem no more at risk of SARS-CoV-2-associated immune dysregulation than the general population, hematological cancer patients show complex immunological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure that might usefully inform their care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
15.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(12): 921-939, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999888

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Within a matter of months, this highly contagious novel virus has led to a global outbreak and is still spreading rapidly across continents. In patients with COVID-19, underlying chronic diseases and comorbidities are associated with dismal treatment outcomes. Owing to their immunosuppressive status, patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) are at an increased risk of infection and have a worse prognosis than patients without HMs. Accordingly, intensive attention should be paid to this cohort. In this review, we summarize and analyze specific clinical manifestations for patients with coexisting COVID-19 and HMs. Furthermore, we briefly describe customized management strategies and interventions for this susceptible cohort. This review is intended to guide clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Management , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Risk Factors
17.
Blood ; 136(25): 2881-2892, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894984

ABSTRACT

Outcomes for patients with hematologic malignancy infected with COVID-19 have not been aggregated. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the risk of death and other important outcomes for these patients. We searched PubMed and EMBASE up to 20 August 2020 to identify reports of patients with hematologic malignancy and COVID-19. The primary outcome was a pooled mortality estimate, considering all patients and only hospitalized patients. Secondary outcomes included risk of intensive care unit admission and ventilation in hospitalized patients. Subgroup analyses included mortality stratified by age, treatment status, and malignancy subtype. Pooled prevalence, risk ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Thirty-four adult and 5 pediatric studies (3377 patients) from Asia, Europe, and North America were included (14 of 34 adult studies included only hospitalized patients). Risk of death among adult patients was 34% (95% CI, 28-39; N = 3240) in this sample of predominantly hospitalized patients. Patients aged ≥60 years had a significantly higher risk of death than patients <60 years (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.45-2.27; N = 1169). The risk of death in pediatric patients was 4% (95% CI, 1-9; N = 102). RR of death comparing patients with recent systemic anticancer therapy to no treatment was 1.17 (95% CI, 0.83-1.64; N = 736). Adult patients with hematologic malignancy and COVID-19, especially hospitalized patients, have a high risk of dying. Patients ≥60 years have significantly higher mortality; pediatric patients appear to be relatively spared. Recent cancer treatment does not appear to significantly increase the risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Prognosis , Survival Rate
18.
Cancer Med ; 9(22): 8412-8422, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are considered a high-risk group for viral pneumonia, with an increased probability of fatal outcome. Here, we investigated the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with solid and hematological cancers and concomitant Covid-19 at a Comprehensive Cancer Center in a Covid-19 hotspot area in Germany. METHODS: We performed a retrospective single center cohort study of 39 patients with hematological and solid cancers who were hospitalized at the University Hospital Freiburg for Covid-19. Using univariate and multivariate Cox regression models we compared time to severe events and overall survival to an age-matched control cohort of 39 patients with confirmed Covid-19 without a cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: In the cancer cohort 29 patients had a diagnosis of a solid tumor, and 10 had a hematological malignancy. In total, eight patients (21%) in the cancer and 14 patients (36%) from the noncancer cohort died during the observation period. Presence of a malignancy was not significantly associated with survival or time to occurrence of severe events. Major influences on mortality were high IL-6 levels at Covid-19 diagnosis (HR = 6.95, P = .0121) and age ≥ 65 years (HR = 6.22, P = .0156). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to an age-matched noncancer cohort, we did not observe an association between a cancer diagnosis and a more severe disease course or higher fatality rate in patients with Covid-19. Patients with a hematological malignancy showed a trend towards a longer duration until clinical improvement and longer hospitalization time compared to patients with a solid cancer. Cancer per se does not seem to be a confounder for dismal outcome in Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Oncology Service, Hospital/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
19.
Cancer ; 126(23): 5069-5076, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are considered highly vulnerable to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there are still few data on COVID-19 occurring in hematologic patients. METHODS: One hundred two patients with COVID-19 symptoms and a nasopharyngeal swab positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seen at 2 hematologic departments located in Lombardy, Italy, during March 2020 were studied. Risk factors for acquiring COVID-19 were analyzed by comparisons of patients with COVID-19 and the standard hematologic population managed at the same institutions in 2019. Thirty-day survival was compared with the survival of matched uninfected control patients with similar hematologic disorders and nonhematologic patients affected by COVID-19. RESULTS: Male sex was significantly more prevalent in patients with COVID-19. The infection occurred across all different types of hematologic disease; however, the risk of acquiring a COVID-19 infection was lower for patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia, and higher for patients with immune-mediated anemia on immunosuppressive-related treatments. The 30-day mortality rate was 39.2%, which was higher than the rates for nonhematologic patients with COVID-19 (23.5%; P = .02) and uninfected hematologic controls (3%; P < .001). The severity of the respiratory syndrome at presentation and active hematologic treatment were independently associated with a worse prognosis. Neither diagnosis nor disease status affected the prognosis. The worst prognosis was demonstrated among patients on active hematologic treatment and those with more severe respiratory syndrome at COVID-19 presentation. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients should be advised to seek medical attention at the earliest signs of dyspnea and/or respiratory infection. Physicians should perform a risk-benefit analysis to determine the impact of temporarily deferring nonlifesaving treatments versus the risk of adverse outcomes associated with COVID-19. LAY SUMMARY: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection occurs across all different types of hematologic disease; however, the risk of acquiring it is lower for patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia, and higher for patients with immune-mediated anemia on immunosuppressive treatment. The 30-day mortality rate is 39.2%, which is far higher than the rates for both uninfected hematologic controls (3%; P < .001) and nonhematologic patients with COVID-19 (23.5%; P = .02) despite matching for age, sex, comorbidities, and severity of disease. Variables independently associated with a worse prognosis are the severity of the respiratory syndrome at presentation and any type of active hematologic treatment. Neither diagnosis nor disease status influence the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
20.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(5): e608-e612, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733313

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has caused anxiety among children with hematology-oncology disease and their families, as it has in every segment of society. In this study, we aimed to detect the anxiety levels of children with hematologic or oncologic disease and of their parents after the COVID-19 outbreak. The sample consisted of 15 patients 12 to 18 years of age receiving treatment in the Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Unit in Altinbas University Medical Faculty Bahçelievler Medikalpark Hospital and 33 parents of the same unit patients between 6 and 18 years of age, and their 35 healthy peers and their parents. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was applied to participant children and their parents to evaluate their general anxiety and pandemic-related anxiety levels. Children with a hematology-oncology disease and their families were compared with healthy peers and their families. No significant difference was observed for pandemic-related anxiety levels (P>0.05). Both parent groups exhibited higher anxiety levels with regard to the pandemic than did their children (P<0.05). Children with hematology-oncology disease reported significantly higher trait anxiety levels when compared with healthy peers (P=0.01). The families of children who had not received stem cell transplantation had higher state and trait anxiety scores than the families of children who had received the transplantation (P<0.05). Even though they were in the high-risk group, children with a hematology-oncology disease and their families had pandemic-related anxiety levels comparable with those of healthy peers and their families.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Health Status , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
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