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1.
Med. lab ; 26(3): 219-236, 2022. Tabs, ilus, Grafs
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20244331

ABSTRACT

El virus SARS-CoV-2 continúa infectando a millones de individuos en el mundo. Aunque los síntomas más frecuentes observados en los pacientes con COVID-19 son fiebre, fatiga y tos, en los casos severos la hipercoagulabilidad y la inflamación son dos condiciones que pueden producir complicaciones y causar daño en órganos, poniendo en riesgo la vida del paciente. Con el fin de clasificar a los pacientes durante el triaje, se han explorado diferentes marcadores hematológicos, incluidos el recuento de plaquetas, linfocitos y eosinófilos, y la relación neutrófilos/ linfocitos, entre otros. Por su parte, para la evaluación de las coagulopatías, se vienen determinando marcadores como el dímero D y el fibrinógeno. En esta revisión se abordan las coagulopatías y los parámetros hematológicos en pacientes con COVID-19, al igual que las anormalidades en la coagulación como la trombocitopenia trombótica inmune inducida por las vacunas contra el SARS-CoV-2


The SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to infect millions of individuals around the world. Although the most frequent symptoms observed in patients with COVID-19 are fever, fatigue and cough, in severe cases hypercoagulability and inflammation are two conditions that can cause complications and organ failure, putting the patient's life at risk. In order to classify patients during triage, different hematological markers have been explored, including platelet, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts, and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, among others. Furthermore, for the evaluation of coagulopathies, markers such as D-dimer and fibrinogen are being evaluated. This review addresses the coagulopathies and hematological parameters in patients with COVID-19, as well as coagulation abnormalities such as immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Prognosis , Reference Standards , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Blood Platelets , Vaccines , Antigens, Differentiation , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematology
2.
Med. lab ; 26(3): 213-214, 2022.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20235771

ABSTRACT

La infección viral respiratoria causada por el SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) produce la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 o COVID-19. Hasta el 20% al 50% de los pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 tienen alteraciones de la coagulación (dímero D elevado, tiempo de protrombina prolongado, trombocitopenia y fibrinógeno bajo). Esta condición se caracteriza por eventos trombóticos más que hemorrágicos. De otro lado, se presenta disfunción endotelial, lo cual explica los niveles elevados de trombina, de dímero D y de otros productos de degradación de fibrina, la trombocitopenia y la prolongación de los tiempos de coagulación; estos cambios terminan por originar hipoxia, oclusión microvascular y congestión pulmonar mediada por trombosis [1]. Se ha demostrado que el tratamiento anticoagulante inicial con heparinas de bajo peso molecular reduce la mortalidad un 48% a los 7 días y un 37% a los 28 días, y logra una mejoría significativa del cociente presión arterial de oxígeno/fracción inspirada de O2 (PaO2/FiO2), al mitigar la formación de microtrombos y la coagulopatía pulmonar asociada, disminuyendo además la inflamación [2]. En el artículo titulado "Alteraciones hematológicas como consecuencia de COVID-19 y sus vacunas", se abordan las anormalidades en la coagulación como la trombocitopenia trombótica inmune inducida por las vacunas contra el SARS-CoV-2. Es importante anotar, que hoy en día la comunidad científica está de acuerdo en que sin la vacunación hubiera sido imposible lograr el control actual que se tiene de la pandemia, pero a la vez se debe tener en cuenta que cualquier inmunización tiene también efectos adversos que por lo general son leves, pero que en raras ocasiones se pueden presentar complicaciones de mayor magnitud


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus , COVID-19 , Hematology
3.
Br J Haematol ; 201 Suppl 1: 4-185, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242030
4.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 58(8): 2389-2390, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325576
5.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309156

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies have documented the role of the "neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio" (NLR) in influenza virus infection. In addition, morphometric parameters derived from automated analyzers on the volume, scatter and conductivity of monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes in many viral etiologies have helped with their early differentiation. With this background, we aimed to characterize the hematological changes of coronavirus-positive cases and also compare them with the healthy controls and patients affected by non-COVID Influenza-like illnesses so that early isolation could be considered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytical study carried out in the years 2020-2022. All cases with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 Influenza-like illnesses and healthy controls above 18 years were included. Cases were diagnosed according to the WHO guidelines. All samples were processed on a Unicel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter, California, USA) automated hematology analyzer. The demographic, clinical and regular hematological parameters along with additional parameters such as volume, conductivity and scatter (VCS) of the three groups were compared. RESULTS: The 169 COVID-19 cases were in the moderate to severe category. Compared with 140 healthy controls, the majority of the routine hematological values including the NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) and PLR (platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio) showed statistically significant differences. A cutoff of an absolute neutrophil count of 4350 cell/cumm was found to have a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 70% in differentiating moderate and severe COVID-19 cases from healthy controls. COVID-19 and the non-COVID-19 Influenza-like illnesses were similar statistically in all parameters except the PLR, mean neutrophilic and monocytic volume, scatter parameters in neutrophils, axial light loss in monocytes and NLR. Interestingly, there was a trend of higher mean volumes and scatter in neutrophils and monocytes in COVID-19 cases as compared to non-COVID-19 Influenza-like illnesses. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated morphological changes in neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes in COVID-19 infection and also non-COVID-19 Influenza-like illnesses with the help of VCS parameters. A cutoff for the absolute neutrophils count was able to differentiate COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization from healthy controls and eosinopenia was a characteristic finding in cases with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies
7.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279958, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV testing among patients with malignant lymphoma (PWML) is variably implemented. We evaluated HIV testing among PWML, and mapped factors influencing hematologists' testing behavior. MATERIALS: We conducted a mixed-methods study assessing HIV testing among PWML, factors influencing HIV testing and opportunities for improvement in five hospitals in the region of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The proportion of PWML tested for HIV within 3 months before or after lymphoma diagnosis and percentage positive were assessed from January 2015 through June 2020. Questionnaires on intention, behavior and psychosocial determinants for HIV testing were conducted among hematologists. Through twelve semi-structured interviews among hematologists and authors of hematology guidelines, we further explored influencing factors and opportunities for improvement. FINDINGS: Overall, 1,612 PWML were included for analysis, including 976 patients newly diagnosed and 636 patients who were referred or with progressive/relapsed lymphoma. Seventy percent (678/976) of patients newly diagnosed and 54% (343/636) of patients with known lymphoma were tested for HIV. Overall, 7/1,021 (0.7%) PWML tested HIV positive, exceeding the 0.1% cost-effectiveness threshold. Questionnaires were completed by 40/77 invited hematologists, and 85% reported intention to test PWML for HIV. In the interviews, hematologists reported varying HIV testing strategies, including testing all PWML or only when lymphoma treatment is required. Recommendations for improved HIV testing included guideline adaptations, providing electronic reminders and monitoring and increasing awareness. CONCLUSIONS: Missed opportunities for HIV testing among PWML occurred and HIV test strategies varied among hematologists. Efforts to improve HIV testing among PWML should include a combination of approaches.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hematology , Lymphoma , Humans , Lymphoma/diagnosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Testing , Netherlands
8.
Cancer Med ; 12(10): 11248-11253, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291166

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In November 2020, the FDA issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 at high risk for disease progression. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 38 adult hematology patients who received mAbs from 11/2020 to 2/2021. RESULTS: Thirty (79%) patients received bamlanivimab and 8 (21%) casirivimab-imdevimab. Four (11%) patients were hospitalized due to COVID-19, two (5%) progressed to severe disease and one patient (3%) died within 30 days from COVID-19 disease. Most patients (n = 34, 89%) ultimately tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, with 34% (n = 13) clearing the virus within 14 days after mAb infusion. The median time to clearance of viral shedding was 25.5 days (range: 7-138). After mAb infusion, most patients with hematological malignancies (HM) (n = 10/15; 67%) resumed therapy for underlying disease with a median delay of 21.5 days (range: 12-42). We observed a significant difference in hospitalization among patients who received a HCT versus non-HCT (0% n = 0/26 and 36% n = 4/11, respectively; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 specific mAb was safe and may reduce hospitalization compared to what is reported in malignant hematology patients at high risk for disease progression. Our HCT cohort patients had less hospitalization rate compared with HM cohort patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hematology , Adult , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral , Disease Progression , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy
9.
J Pediatr Oncol Nurs ; 38(5): 331-341, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280271

ABSTRACT

Background: Burnout, moral distress, compassion fatigue, and posttraumatic stress disorder are concerns for health-care staff. Due to the high mental, physical, and emotional demands of the pediatric hematology/oncology profession, workplace supports should be in place to address the needs of the staff. A nurse-led support program is one strategy to enhance staff well-being. Methods: The Hematology/Oncology/Stem Cell Transplant Advancing Resiliency Team (HART) is a nurse-led peer-to-peer on-site support program for multidisciplinary staff caring for hematology/oncology patients. HART coaches, working 8-hour shifts, covering both day and night shift hours, are present 3 days a week on the unit. HART offers a confidential space for one on one or group interactions, educational sessions, assistance with work related, patient-care based, or personal concerns, and various forms of integrative therapies. Results: There have been over 1,100 coach consults and 98 HART shifts worked. The most commonly reported changes since HART began include staff feeling more supported by leadership and staff making time for breaks during the work shift. A 25.6% increase in staff reporting to be extremely satisfied with unit support was found. Discussion: Cultivating a culture of staff support is important. Due to COVID-19, physical HART coach presence was put on hold for 4 weeks and virtual interventions were trialed. Since its return, coach consult numbers have been steadily rising. Having a support program led by coaches with direct experience understanding the emotional toll of caring for the pediatric hematology/oncology patient population was found to be well utilized, feasible through donor funding, and measurable via staff report.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Hematology , Neoplasms , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Humans , Nurse's Role , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cell Transplantation
10.
Intern Med ; 62(9): 1265-1271, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274714

ABSTRACT

Objective Patients with hematological malignancies and solid organ tumors reportedly tend to have a more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) trajectory than do those with other diseases. We studied the clinical features and outcomes of nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during the seventh wave of the pandemic. Methods This study retrospectively described the characteristics of COVID-19 clusters involving patients in the hematology/respirology ward of Kochi Medical School Hospital during the seventh wave of the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2. Patients A total of 40 individuals, including 25 patients and 15 healthcare workers, were studied. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction performed on nasopharyngeal samples. Results Eleven patients had hematological diseases, and 14 had respiratory diseases. Most patients presented with a fever (n=19) and/or sore throat (n=10). Lower respiratory tract symptoms and pneumonia were rather infrequent, occurring in two patients. All patients received antivirals. The maximal severities were mild in 21 patients and moderate in 2. Two asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection did not develop symptoms of COVID-19. Cycle threshold values in nasopharyngeal samples were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 than in those who were asymptomatic at the time of the diagnosis with SARS-CoV-2 infection. All SARS-CoV-2-infected inpatients recovered or did not develop symptoms of COVID-19. Conclusion COVID-19 vaccination, early or preemptive treatment with antivirals, and intrinsic changes in SARS-CoV-2 may have contributed to the more favorable outcomes in our series than in previously reported nosocomial clusters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hematology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Japan/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitals, University , Antiviral Agents
11.
Br J Haematol ; 201(4): 640-644, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286731

ABSTRACT

Haematology patients contracting SARS-CoV-2 were identified at the start of the pandemic to be at higher risk of death or of persistent symptoms (post-COVID-19 syndrome). As variants with altered pathogenicity have emerged, uncertainty remains around how that risk has changed. We prospectively set up a dedicated post-COVID-19 clinic to monitor haematology patients infected with COVID-19 from the start of the pandemic. In total, 128 patients were identified and telephone interviews were conducted with 94 of 95 survivors. Ninety-day mortality attributed to COVID-19 has fallen sequentially from 42% for the Original and Alpha strains to 9% and to 2% for the Delta and Omicron variants respectively. Furthermore, the risk of post-COVID-19 syndrome in survivors has fallen from 46% for the Original or Alpha strains to 35% for Delta and 14% for the Omicron strain. Since vaccine uptake has been nearly universal in haematology patients, it is not possible to determine whether improved outcomes reflect the reduced pathogenicity of the virus, or widespread vaccine deployment. Whilst mortality and morbidity remain higher in haematology patients than in the general population, our data suggest that the absolute risks are now significantly lower. Given this trend, we believe clinicians should initiate conversations about risk with their patients on whether to maintain any self-imposed social isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264477

ABSTRACT

A new virus, SARS-CoV-2, emerged in December 2019, triggering the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 due to the rapid spread and severity of cases worldwide. In Poland, the first case of COVID-19 was reported on 4 March 2020. The aim of the prevention efforts was primarily to stop the spread of the infection to prevent overburdening the health care system. Many illnesses were treated by telemedicine, primarily using teleconsultation. Telemedicine has reduced personal contact between doctors and patients and reduced the risk of exposure to disease for patients and medical personnel. The survey aimed to gather patients' opinions on the quality and availability of specialized medical services during the pandemic. Based on the data collected regarding patients' opinions on services provided via telephone systems, a picture was created of patients' opinions on teleconsultation, and attention was drawn to emerging problems. The study included a 200-person group of patients, realizing their appointments at a multispecialty outpatient clinic in Bytom, aged over 18 years, with various levels of education. The study was conducted among patients of Specialized Hospital No. 1 in Bytom. A proprietary survey questionnaire was developed for the study, which was conducted on paper and used face-to-face interaction with patients. Results: 17.5% of women and 17.5% of men rated the availability of services during the pandemic as good. In contrast, among those aged 60 and over, 14.5% of respondents rated the availability of services during the pandemic as poor. In contrast, among those in the labor force, as many as 20% of respondents rated the accessibility of services provided during the pandemic as being well. The same answer was marked by those on a pension (15%). Overwhelmingly, women in the age group of 60 and over showed a reluctance toward teleconsultation. Conclusions: Patients' attitudes toward the use of teleconsultation services during the COVID-19 pandemic varied, primarily due to attitudes toward the new situation, the age of the patient, or the need to adapt to specific solutions not always understood by the public. Telemedicine cannot completely replace inpatient services, especially among the elderly. It is necessary to refine remote visits to convince the public of this type of service. Remote visits should be refined and adapted to the needs of patients in such a way as to remove any barriers and problems arising from this type of service. This system should also be introduced as a target, providing an alternative method of inpatient services even after the pandemic ends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Remote Consultation , Telemedicine , Male , Aged , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Poland , Telemedicine/methods , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Inpatients
14.
Thromb Haemost ; 123(1): 1-5, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232582
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143247

ABSTRACT

Hematological and hemorheological parameters are known to be altered in COVID-19; however, the value of combined monitoring in order to deduce disease severity is only scarcely examined. A total of 44 acute SARS-CoV-2-infected patients (aCOV) and 44 age-matched healthy controls (Con) were included. Blood of aCOV was sampled at admission (T0), and at day 2 (T2), day 5 (T5), day 10 (T10), and day 30 (T30) while blood of Con was only sampled once. Inter- and intra-group differences were calculated for hematological and hemorheological parameters. Except for mean cellular volume and mean cellular hemoglobin, all blood cell parameters were significantly different between aCOV and Con. During the acute disease state (T0-T5), hematological and hemorheological parameters were highly altered in aCOV; in particular, anemic conditions and increased immune cell response/inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, decreased deformability, as well as increased aggregation, were observed. During treatment and convalescence until T30, almost all abnormal values of aCOV improved towards Con values. During the acute state of the COVID-19 disease, the hematological, as well as the hemorheological system, show fast and potentially pathological changes that might contribute to the progression of the disease, but changes appear to be largely reversible after four weeks. Measuring RBC deformability and aggregation, as well as oxidative stress induction, may be helpful in monitoring critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Humans , Hemorheology , SARS-CoV-2 , Erythrocyte Indices , Critical Illness , Erythrocyte Aggregation
16.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44 Suppl 1: 6-7, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063736
17.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44 Suppl 1: 4-5, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063735
18.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 26(5): 565-568, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039149

ABSTRACT

There is a constant need to educate and upskill nurses who are new to oncology settings. This article describes the outcomes of an education quality improvement (QI) project at an Organisation of European Cancer Institutes.


Subject(s)
Hematology , Neoplasms , Humans , Medical Oncology , Quality Improvement
19.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(5, sept-oct): 464-470, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Determine the proportion of vaccinated patients in a private hematology and internal medicine outpatient clinic and potential factors in adherence in at-risk patients (due to onco-hematological diseases). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of outpatients from a private clinic. We applied a non-validated instrument to all patients attending the outpatient clinic from May to October 2021. According to the primary diagnosis, we classified patients into onco-hematological and non-onco-hematological patients. Since national authorities exclusively executed and planned the rollout of vaccines, the order and eligibility defined by authorities of vaccination was considered when conducting the analysis and patients were classified according to the their corresponding group. RESULTS: 397 participants were accrued, 269 (68%) had an onco-hematological condition. In the whole group, 73 (18.3%) had a history of infection. Vaccination history was present in 286 persons (72%); 82% had two doses. In the subset of 269 persons with an onco-hematological condition, 191 (71%) were vaccinated, whereas 95 participants with non-hematological conditions (73%) had received the vaccine. Vaccination status was associated with age (OR 1.07, 95%CI: 1.03,1.10, p<0.0001) and body mass index (OR 1.11, 95%CI: 1.04,1.17, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: According to our study, vaccination adherence at our center is significantly different from the nationwide proportion of vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e057746, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020034

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing numbers of patients with non-haematological diseases are infected with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), with a high mortality reported which is mainly due to delayed diagnosis. The diagnostic capability of mycological tests for IPA including galactomannan test, (1,3)-ß-D-glucan test, lateral flow assay, lateral flow device and PCR for the non-haematological patients remains unknown. This protocol aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of mycological tests to facilitate the early diagnosis and treatments of IPA in non-haematological diseases. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Database including PubMed, CENTRAL and EMBASE will be searched from 2002 until the publication of results. Cohort or cross-sectional studies that assessing the diagnostic capability of mycological tests for IPA in patients with non-haematological diseases will be included. The true-positive, false-positive, true-negative and false-negative of each test will be extracted and pooled in bivariate random-effects model, by which the sensitivity and specificity will be calculated with 95% CI. The second outcomes will include positive (negative) likelihood ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and diagnostic OR will also be computed in the bivariate model. When applicable, subgroup analysis will be performed with several prespecified covariates to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Factors that may impact the diagnostic effects of mycological tests will be examined by sensitivity analysis. The risk of bias will be appraised by the Quality Assessment tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is not involved with ethics approval, and the results will be peer-reviewed and disseminated on a recognised journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021241820.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , Hematology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Likelihood Functions , Odds Ratio , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Systematic Reviews as Topic/methods
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