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1.
Tomography ; 8(3): 1228-1240, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820401

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematomas are a relatively common occurrence in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 related pneumonia, and endovascular treatment of trans-arterial embolization (TAE) may be a life-saving procedure after failure of medical and supportive therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate spontaneous retroperitoneal hematomas in the COVID-19 era, focusing on their imaging features at CTA and DSA and on the safety, as well as technical and clinical success, of TAE, comparing patients affected by COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. (2) Materials and Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 24 patients with spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma who underwent TAE; of these, 10 were hospitalized for COVID-19-related pneumonia, while the other 14 were without COVID-19 infection. We evaluated the demographic data, hemoglobin values before and after the procedure, preprocedural aPTT, preprocedural INR, diagnostic and interventional imaging findings, procedural outcome (technical success) and survival periprocedural (clinical success), and major and minor complications. (3) Results: The mean age of the study population was 72.7 ± 11.2 years. CTA revealed signs of active bleeding in 20 patients (83%). DSA showed signs of active bleeding in 20 patients (83%). In four patients (17%), blind embolization was performed. The overall technical success rate was 100%. Clinical success was achieved in 17 patients (71%), while seven patients (29%) rebled within 96 h, and all of them were retreated. No major periprocedural complication was reported. The comparison between the two groups did not show statistically significant differences for gender, mean age, mean pre- and postprocedural hemoglobin, aPTT and INR, mean hematoma volume (cm3), or mean delay between CT and DSA. Active bleeding at CTA was detected in 90% of COVID-19 patients and 79% of non-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.61). At DSA, active bleeding was assessed in eight out of 10 (80%) patients in the COVID-19 group and 12 out of 14 (86%) patients in the non-COVID-19 group (p = 1). Technical success was obtained in 100% of patients in both groups. Clinical success rates were 70% for COVID-19 group and 71% for the non-COVID-19 group. We found no statistical significance between the clinical success rates of retroperitoneal spontaneous hematoma embolization in patients with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection. (4) Conclusions: We suggest that, similar to what has been reported in other studies in non-COVID-19 patients, TAE should be considered an important safe, effective, and potentially life-saving option for the management and the treatment of patients affected by COVID-19 who present with spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma and who could not benefit from conservative treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/etiology , Hematoma/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 116(6): 725-736, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650583

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The study is presenting a personal experience of a Trauma Centre Level I and is try to conclude on optimal medical attitude for patients with retroperitoneal hematoma, still a controversial topic for traumatologists. Material and Method: A retrospective analysis of 22 cases of post-traumatic retroperitoneal hematoma admitted on Bucharest Emergency Hospital between September 2018 August 2021 (including time of Covid-19 pandemic), is presented Results: The patients (males predominance, mean age 43, mean ISS of 23), benefited of nonoperative management on admission for 10 cases (45%) with a failure rate of 4/10 due to recurrent bleeding from spleen injuries and continuous bleeding from mesenteric vessels lesions. CT scan (73% - 16 cases) within 1 hour from the admission and emergency surgery were necessary for 12 cases (55%). 2 patients benefited of angioembolization on admission. Conservative attitude for retroperitoneal hematoma was adopted for 72% cases. Over-all mortality: 18% (4 patients, mean ISS of 36), among 82% polytrauma cases. Conclusions: Algorithm of treatment is adapted to every case of retroperitoneal hematoma but the following sequences are mandatory: rapid transportation to Trauma Centre Level I with medical help, correct resuscitation, immediate relevant imagistic (CT scan), emergency surgery prior to angioembolization (for hemodynamic instable patients) or after it, ICU stabilization of the patient and then definitive repair of the injuries. Despite all, mortality remains high.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Injuries , COVID-19 , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Abdominal Injuries/complications , Abdominal Injuries/therapy , Adult , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/etiology , Hematoma/surgery , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/complications , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/diagnostic imaging , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/therapy
6.
Neuroradiology ; 64(7): 1367-1372, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an uncommon but deadly event in patients with COVID-19 and its imaging features remain poorly characterized. We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of COVID-19-associated ICH. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, case-control analysis comparing ICH in COVID-19 patients (COV19 +) versus controls without COVID-19 (COV19 -). Clinical presentation, laboratory markers, and severity of COVID-19 disease were recorded. Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) markers (intrahematoma hypodensity, heterogeneous density, blend sign, irregular shape fluid level), ICH location, and hematoma volume (ABC/2 method) were analyzed. The outcome of interest was ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) (defined as NCCT baseline ICH volume/onset-to-imaging time), whose predictors were explored with multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 33 COV19 + patients and 321 COV19 - controls with ICH were included. Demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors were similar in the two groups. Multifocal ICH and NCCT markers were significantly more common in the COV19 + population. uHG was significantly higher among COV19 + patients (median 6.2 mL/h vs 3.1 mL/h, p = 0.027), and this finding remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (systolic blood pressure, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy), in linear regression (B(SE) = 0.31 (0.11), p = 0.005). This association remained consistent also after the exclusion of patients under anticoagulant treatment (B(SE) = 0.29 (0.13), p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: ICH in COV19 + patients has distinct NCCT imaging features and a higher speed of bleeding. This association is not mediated by antithrombotic therapy and deserves further research to characterize the underlying biological mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Retrospective Studies
7.
Prague Med Rep ; 122(4): 300-307, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591044

ABSTRACT

A significant number of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are prone to thromboembolic events including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cerebrovascular accident, and myocardial infarction. However, some COVID-19 patients have a higher risk of bleeding that is associated with an increased risk of mortality. We report a 71-year-old woman who was a confirmed case of COVID-19 admitted for pulmonary involvement and complicated acute renal failure. During hospitalization, she suffered from a sudden onset of severe pain in the lower left abdomen as well as a sudden drop in blood pressure and hemoglobin. Haematomas in the left rectus and obturator internus muscle were observed in abdominal and pelvic computed tomography scan. Signs of haemorrhage were also seen in the anterolateral aspect of the bladder with extension to the paracolic, subdiaphragmatic, perihepatic and, perisplenic spaces. The patient was totally recovered by a conservative approach. Bleeding tendency could be a serious complication, especially, in COVID-19 patients with complicated renal failure that receive heparin prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , Female , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Intern Med ; 60(21): 3503-3506, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572222

ABSTRACT

In hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, anticoagulation therapy is administered to prevent thrombosis. However, anticoagulation sometimes causes bleeding complications. We herein report two Japanese cases of severe COVID-19 in which spontaneous muscle hematomas (SMH) developed under therapeutic anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin. Although the activated partial prothrombin time was within the optimal range, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed SMH in the bilateral iliopsoas muscles in both cases, which required emergent transcatheter embolization. Close monitoring of the coagulation system and the early diagnosis of bleeding complications through CECT are needed in severe COVID-19 patients treated with anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Hematoma/chemically induced , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Japan , Muscles , SARS-CoV-2
11.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2957-2961, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hematoma is the most frequent complication after Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy (VABB) in 13% of cases. A direct communication channel with patients eases the diagnosis of VABB complications and ensures treatment at an early stage, as outpatients, in most cases. In 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we observed a reduction of self-reported postoperative complication leading to delay in the identification of harmful complications, therefore leading to need for more invasive treatment. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old patient was admitted to the Emergency Department for dry cough, fever, chest discomfort, dyspnea, and slight confusion four days after VABB. Due to the reported symptoms, the patient was sent to our COVID-19 Emergency Department. The COVID-19 swab was negative. Ultrasound revealed a large hematoma at the biopsy site, with active bleeding. Open evacuation with accurate hemostasis was planned with rapid and complete resolution of the clinical symptoms. After surgery, the patient reported that she intentionally avoided admittance in the hospital due to the risk of COVID-19 infection. The patient was discharged in the first postoperative day and maintained in quarantine for 14 days. CONCLUSION: In the COVID-19 era due to the risk of hospital cross-infections, reduction of patient-doctor communication could lead to misdiagnosis, delay in recognition of procedural complications thus leading to requirement for invasive treatment, hospitalization, while also further multiplying the risk of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Breast/diagnostic imaging , Breast/surgery , Female , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(1): 100-108, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356593

ABSTRACT

Coagulation abnormalities, thrombosis, and endothelial dysfunction have been described in COVID-19 patients. Spontaneous muscle hematoma (SMH) is a rare complication in COVID-19. The aims of this study are to: (1) perform a systematic review of the literature to better define the clinical SMH characteristics, (2) describe the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of SMH in COVID-19 patients referring to a Department of Internal Medicine (IM) (Federico II University of Naples), a Department of Sub-Intensive Care Medicine (SIM) (Ospedale Del Mare), and a Department of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (Federico II University). The systematic review was performed according to PRISMA criteria. The local prevalence of SMH in COVID-19 was evaluated retrospectively. The medical records of all COVID-19 patients referring to IM and ICU from March 11th, 2020, to February 28th, 2021 were examined for SMH occurrence. In our retrospective analysis, we describe 10 cases of COVID-19 patients with SMH not previously reported in literature, with a prevalence of 2.1%. The literature review, inclusive of our case series, describes a total of 50 SMHs in COVID-19 patients (57.4% males; mean age 68.8 ± 10.0 years). The SMH sites were ileo-psoas, vastus intermedius, gluteus, sternocleidomastoid, and pectoralis major muscles. Males developed SMH earlier than females (9.5 ± 7.8 vs. 17.1 ± 9.7 days). Ileo-psoas hematoma was more frequent in males (69.2 vs. 30.8%), while pectoralis major hematoma occurred only in females. The in-hospital mortality rate of SMH in COVID-19 patients was 32.4%. SMH is a rare but severe complication in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, associated with high mortality. A gender difference seems to be present in the clinical presentation of the disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Animals , Female , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/etiology , Horses , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscles , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(9): 724-729, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant prophylaxis is part of the standard management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Despite adequate thromboprophylaxis, one-third of COVID-19 patients with pneumonia developed pulmonary embolism. This high rate of thrombotic complications has led to higher doses of anticoagulants according to clinical complexity (e.g. intensive care unit (ICU) patients) and D-dimer levels. On the other side of the coin, haemorrhagic complications are being increasingly reported. CASES PRESENTATION: We herein report four cases of spontaneous psoas haematomas (SPH) among 548 patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia between March 2020 and January 2021 (incidence of 7.3 cases per 1000 patients). All patients had pneumonia, with age ranging between 62 and 83 years. All patients received anticoagulant therapy with low weight molecular heparin (100 U.I. anti-Xa/kg 2 times/d) from admission: in two cases, a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was made. In another case, a thrombosis of left axillary and basilic veins was found, and only in one case anticoagulant therapy was started because of elevated levels of D-dimer. In all cases, signs of anaemia were detected and patients experienced low back or abdominal pain. The diagnosis of spontaneous psoas haematoma was made by computed tomography (CT) after a median of 12.5 d (9;16) from admission and 19.5 d (14.75; 24.25) from the beginning of COVID-19 symptoms. Half of these patients died from haemorrhagic shock. CONCLUSIONS: Given the potential life-threatening of SPH and the possible subtle clinical presentation, we believe it is crucial to raise clinicians awareness of this complication among COVID-19 patients undergoing anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Hematoma/chemically induced , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(2_suppl): 148S-151S, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013115

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have endothelial inflammation, pseudoaneurysm, and an increasing risk of bleeding, especially during surgical procedures. In this article, we reported 2 cases of COVID-19 patients with neck vascular lesions. The first patient had pseudoaneurysm of the cricothyroid artery, which was treated by percutaneous glue injection through ultrasonography guidance. The second patient presented lateral neck hematoma in front of the left superior thyroid artery, which was managed by coil endovascular embolization. In the context of pandemic, the management of vascular lesions may be performed through interventional radiological procedures that may reduce the risk of virus aerosolization and health care provider contamination.


Subject(s)
Adhesives/therapeutic use , Aneurysm, False/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Hematoma/therapy , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Radiology, Interventional , Tracheotomy , Aged , Aneurysm, False/complications , Aneurysm, False/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Computed Tomography Angiography , Cyanoacrylates/therapeutic use , Endovascular Procedures , Hematoma/complications , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neck , Postoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Gland/blood supply , Ultrasonography
17.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e927011, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in Wuhan, China, and is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Severe respiratory symptoms are a hallmark of the disease, which may also include complications related to a hypercoagulable state and central nervous system involvement. These complications can occur during either the acute or the recovery phase. The cerebral involvement typically manifests as intracranial hypertension, intracerebral hemorrhage, diffuse encephalopathy, or cerebral venous thrombosis. The hemorrhagic form of cerebral venous thrombosis can be a diagnostic challenge and is treated by anticoagulation therapy, despite the existence of an intracerebral hemorrhage. This report describes a case of superficial cerebral venous thrombosis and intracerebral hematoma in a 48-year-old man weeks after recovering from the acute phase of SARSCoV-2 infection. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old man with a past medical history of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction presented with left upper-limb numbness, weakness, and impaired positional sensorium. After initial stabilization, noncontrast computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed an intracerebral hemorrhage with underlying cerebral venous thrombosis. The patient was successfully treated with enoxaparin anticoagulation therapy, and symptoms improved over the following 12 days. CONCLUSIONS Central nervous system venous thrombosis is an atypical presentation of the hypercoagulable state primarily seen in younger patients, and it can occur in a delayed fashion after recovery from mild forms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Cerebral Hemorrhage/virology , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Hematoma/virology , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/virology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/virology
20.
World Neurosurg ; 138: e955-e960, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-274866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a substantial threat to the health of health care personnel on the front line of caring for patients with COVID-19. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have announced that all nonessential planned surgeries and procedures should be postponed until further notice and only urgent procedures should proceed. Neurologic surgeries and procedures should not be delayed under the circumstance in which it is essential at saving a life or preserving functioning of the central nervous system. METHODS: With the intent to advise the neurosurgery team on how to adequately prepare and safely perform neurosurgical procedures on confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19, we discuss considerations and recommendations based on the lessons and experience shared by neurosurgeons in China. RESULTS: Perioperative and intraoperative strategies, considerations, as well as challenges arisen under the specific circumstance have been discussed. In addition, a case of a ruptured aneurysm in a suspected patient with COVID-19 is reported. It is advised that all health care personnel who immediately participate in neurosurgical surgeries and procedures for confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 should take airborne precautions and wear enhanced personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Following the proposed guidance, urgent neurosurgical surgeries and procedures can be safely performed for the benefit of critical patients with or suspected for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Air Filters , Aneurysm, Ruptured/complications , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Craniotomy/methods , Drainage , Emergencies , Hematoma/complications , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Pressure , Intraoperative Care , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Monitoring, Physiologic , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Perioperative Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States
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