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1.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 23(3): 201-205, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322567

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The study tests the hypothesis that a higher acute systemic inflammatory response was associated with a larger decrease in blood hemoglobin levels in patients with Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: All patients with either suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to a busy UK hospital from February 2020 to December 2021 provided data for analysis. The exposure of interest was maximal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level after COVID-19 during the same admission. RESULTS: A maximal serum CRP >175mg/L was associated with a decrease in blood haemoglobin (-5.0 g/L, 95% confidence interval: -5.9 to -4.2) after adjustment for covariates, including the number of times blood was drawn for analysis.Clinically, for a 55-year-old male patient with a maximum haemoglobin of 150 g/L who was admitted for a 28-day admission, a peak CRP >175 mg/L would be associated with an 11 g/L decrease in blood haemoglobin, compared with only 6 g/L if the maximal CRP was <4 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS: A higher acute systemic inflammatory response is associated with larger decreases in blood haemoglobin levels in patients with COVID-19. This represents an example of anaemia of acute inflammation, and a potential mechanism by which severe disease can increase morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Anemia , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Inflammation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
2.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 80(6): 151, 2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325328

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are major components of the innate immune defense. Accumulating evidence suggests that the antibacterial activity of many AMPs is dependent on the formation of amyloid-like fibrils. To identify novel fibril forming AMPs, we generated a spleen-derived peptide library and screened it for the presence of amyloidogenic peptides. This approach led to the identification of a C-terminal 32-mer fragment of alpha-hemoglobin, termed HBA(111-142). The non-fibrillar peptide has membranolytic activity against various bacterial species, while the HBA(111-142) fibrils aggregated bacteria to promote their phagocytotic clearance. Further, HBA(111-142) fibrils selectively inhibited measles and herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV), but not SARS-CoV-2, ZIKV and IAV. HBA(111-142) is released from its precursor by ubiquitous aspartic proteases under acidic conditions characteristic at sites of infection and inflammation. Thus, HBA(111-142) is an amyloidogenic AMP that may specifically be generated from a highly abundant precursor during bacterial or viral infection and may play an important role in innate antimicrobial immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , Peptides , Amyloid/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Hemoglobins
3.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 33(2): 020701, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317187

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 and vaccination may affect some parameters of the complete blood count (CBC). The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals (RI) of CBC in healthy population with different COVID-19 and vaccination backgrounds and compare them with those established previously. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in donors who attended the Traumatology Hospital "Dr. Victorio de la Fuente Narváez" (HTVFN) from June to September 2021. Reference intervals were established using the non-parametric method on Sysmex XN-1000. For differences between groups with different COVID-19 and vaccination backgrounds, non-parametric tests were used. Results: The RI were established in 156 men and 128 women. Haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), platelets (Plt), mean platelets volume (MPV), monocytes and relative neutrophils were higher in men than women (P < 0.001). The percentiles of Hb, Hct, RBC, MPV and relative monocytes showed higher values; Plt, white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and absolute basophils, the 2.5th was higher and the 97.5th was lower; for lymphocytes and relative neutrophils, both percentiles had a trend toward lower values, compared to previous RI. Differences between groups with different COVID-19 and vaccination backgrounds, in lymphocytes (P = 0.038), neutrophils (P = 0.017) and eosinophils (P = 0.018) in men; Hct (P = 0.014), RDW (P = 0.023) in women and MPV (P = 0.001) in both, were not considered pathological. Conclusions: The RI for the CBC were established in a Mestizo-Mexican population with different COVID-19 and vaccination backgrounds, so should be updated and validated in different hospitals close to the HTVFN that use the same analyser.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reference Values , COVID-19/prevention & control , Blood Cell Count , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins/analysis
4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 20(1): 2206802, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation, sunlight radiationradiation, and home isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic on the seasonal changes in 25(OH)D concentration and selected biomarkers in young soccer players along a one-year training cycle. METHOD: Forty elite young soccer players (age: 17.2 ± 1.16 years, body mass: 70.2 ± 5.84, and body height: 179.1 ± 4.26 cm) participated in the research. Only 24 players completed the measurements during all four time- points (T1-: September 2019, T2-: December 2019, T3-: May 2020, and T4-: August 2020) and were divided into two subgroups: supplemented group (GS) and placebo group (GP). Players from GS received 5,000 IU of vitamin D for 8 weeks (January-MarchJanuary-March 2020). Several biomarkers such as 25(OH)D, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), muscle damage markersmarkers, and lipid profile were measured. RESULTS: AnalysisThe analysis of the total group demonstrated significant seasonal changes in 25(OH)D, HGB, asparagine aminotransferaseaminotransferase, and creatine kinase along the one1-year training cycle. The level of 25(OH)D concentrationinconcentration in T4 was significantly (p < 0.001, pη [ = 0.82) higher in both subgroups in comparison to T2 and T3. Moreover, the significant (p = 0.023) but poor (r = -0.23) correlation between 25(OH)D and WBC was calculated. CONCLUSION: Current research confirmed the significant seasonal changes in 25(OH)D concentration during four seasons. 8-weekEight-week vitamin D supplementation had no extended effect on the level of 25(OH)D concentration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Soccer , Adolescent , Humans , Biomarkers , Dietary Supplements , Hemoglobins , Pandemics , Seasons , Soccer/physiology , Sunlight , Vitamin D , Vitamins
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(9)2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312841

ABSTRACT

Self-report measures partially explain consumers' purchasing choices, which are inextricably linked to cognitive, affective processes and implicit drives. These aspects, which occur outside of awareness and tacitly affect the way consumers make decisions, could be explored by exploiting neuroscientific technology. The study investigates implicit behavioural and neurovascular responses to emotionally arousing and high-engagement advertisements (COVID-19 content). High-engagement advertisements and control stimuli were shown in two experimental sessions that were counterbalanced across participants. During each session, hemodynamic variations were recorded with functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a neurophysiological marker for emotional processing. The implicit association task (IAT) was administered to investigate the implicit attitude. An increase in the concentration of oxygenated haemoglobin (O2Hb) was found for the high-engagement advertising when this category of stimuli was seen first. Specular results were found for deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) data. The IAT reported higher values for highly engaging stimuli. Increased activity within the PFC suggests that highly engaging content may be effective in generating emotional arousal and increasing attention when presented before other stimuli, which is consistent with the higher IAT scores, indicating more favourable implicit attitudes. This evidence suggests that the effectiveness of highly engaging advertising-related messages may be constrained by the order of advertisement administration.


Subject(s)
Advertising , COVID-19 , Humans , Attitude , Emotions/physiology , Hemoglobins
6.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 45(4): 174-180, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301616

ABSTRACT

The sickle cell mutation increases morbidity in those with sickle cell disease (SCD) and potentially sickle cell trait, impacting pulmonary, coagulation, renal, and other systems that are implicated in COVID-19 severity. There are no population-based registries for hemoglobinopathies, and they are not tracked in COVID-19 testing. We used COVID-19 test data from 2 states linked to newborn screening data to estimate COVID outcomes in people with SCD or trait compared with normal hemoglobin. We linked historical newborn screening data to COVID-19 tests, hospitalization, and mortality data and modeled the odds of hospitalization and mortality. Georgia's cohort aged 0 to 12 years; Michigan's, 0 to 33 years. Over 8% of those in Michigan were linked to positive COVID-19 results, and 4% in Georgia. Those with SCD showed significantly higher rates of COVID-19 hospitalization than the normal hemoglobin Black cohort, and Michigan had higher rates of mortality as well. Outcomes among those with the trait did not differ significantly from the normal hemoglobin Black group. People with SCD are at increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality and are encouraged to be vaccinated and avoid infection. Persons with the trait were not at higher risk of COVID-related severe outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Sickle Cell Trait , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Sickle Cell Trait/diagnosis , Sickle Cell Trait/epidemiology , Sickle Cell Trait/genetics , Neonatal Screening/methods , Georgia/epidemiology , Michigan/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics , Hemoglobins
8.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 35(1): 80-83, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2019 novel coronavirus was discovered in Wuhan, China and declared pandemic by world health organization. The disease caused by this virus called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Among the corona family the actual virus responsible for COVID-19 is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objective of the study was to determine the pattern of blood parameters in corona virus disease (COVID-19) positive cases and the association of these parameters with severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 105 participants who were confirmed positive by SARS-CoV-2 through real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, both genders, and Pakistani nationals. The participants who were below 18 years age and missing data were excluded. Haemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil and eosinophil counts were calculated. Comparison of blood parameters was done among various severity classes of COVID-19 by running one way ANOVA. The level of significance was p≤0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 50.6±6.26 years. Males were 78 (74.29%) and females were 27 (25.71%). In critical type COVID-19 the mean haemoglobin was least (10.21±1.07 g/dl) and highest in mild cases (15.76±1.16 g/dl) and these differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). TLC was highest in critical COVID cases (15.90±0.51x103 /µl) followed by moderate (12.44±0.65x103/µl). Similarly, neutrophil count was highest in critical (89±2.1) followed by severe (86±1.12). CONCLUSIONS: There is significant decrease in mean haemoglobin level and platelet count but increase in TLC in patients infected from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Teaching , Leukocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2 , Hemoglobins
9.
Physiol Rep ; 11(4): e15602, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282398

ABSTRACT

Optimal oxygenation in the intensive care unit requires adequate pulmonary gas exchange, oxygen-carrying capacity in the form of hemoglobin, sufficient delivery of oxygenated hemoglobin to the tissue, and an appropriate tissue oxygen demand. In this Case Study in Physiology, we describe a patient with COVID-19 whose pulmonary gas exchange and oxygen delivery were severely compromised by COVID-19 pneumonia requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. His clinical course was complicated by a secondary superinfection with staphylococcus aureus and sepsis. This case study is provided with two goals in mind (1) We outline how basic physiology was used to address life-threatening consequences of a novel infection-COVID-19. (2) We describe a strategy of whole-body cooling to lower the cardiac output and oxygen consumption, use of the shunt equation to optimize flow to the ECMO circuit, and transfusion to improve oxygen-carrying capacity when ECMO alone failed to provide sufficient oxygenation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Superinfection , Humans , Superinfection/therapy , Cardiac Output , Oxygen , Hemoglobins
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 19(1): e1010818, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280349

ABSTRACT

Neurons regulate the activity of blood vessels through the neurovascular coupling (NVC). A detailed understanding of the NVC is critical for understanding data from functional imaging techniques of the brain. Many aspects of the NVC have been studied both experimentally and using mathematical models; various combinations of blood volume and flow, local field potential (LFP), hemoglobin level, blood oxygenation level-dependent response (BOLD), and optogenetics have been measured and modeled in rodents, primates, or humans. However, these data have not been brought together into a unified quantitative model. We now present a mathematical model that describes all such data types and that preserves mechanistic behaviors between experiments. For instance, from modeling of optogenetics and microscopy data in mice, we learn cell-specific contributions; the first rapid dilation in the vascular response is caused by NO-interneurons, the main part of the dilation during longer stimuli is caused by pyramidal neurons, and the post-peak undershoot is caused by NPY-interneurons. These insights are translated and preserved in all subsequent analyses, together with other insights regarding hemoglobin dynamics and the LFP/BOLD-interplay, obtained from other experiments on rodents and primates. The model can predict independent validation-data not used for training. By bringing together data with complementary information from different species, we both understand each dataset better, and have a basis for a new type of integrative analysis of human data.


Subject(s)
Neurovascular Coupling , Humans , Mice , Animals , Neurovascular Coupling/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Brain/physiology , Pyramidal Cells , Hemoglobins , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
12.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 28(4): 531-542, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying lung cancer patients at an increased risk of getting SARS-CoV-2-related complications will facilitate tailored therapy to maximize the benefit of anti-cancer therapy, while decreasing the likelihood of COVID-19 complications. This analysis aimed to identify the characteristics of lung cancer patients that predict for increased risk of death or serious SARS-CoV-2 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with lung cancer diagnosed October 1, 2015, and December 1, 2020, and a diagnosis of COVID-19 between February 2, 2020, and December 1, 2020, within the Veterans Health Administration. Serious SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as hospitalization, ICU admission, or mechanical ventilation or intubation within 2 weeks of COVID-19 diagnosis. For categorical variables, differences were assessed using Χ2 tests, while Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum test was used for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit relative to onset of serious SARS-CoV-2 infection and death from SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: COVID-19 infection was diagnosed in 352 lung cancer patients. Of these, 61 patients (17.3%) died within four weeks of diagnosis with COVID-19, and 42 others (11.9%) experienced a severe infection. Patients who had fatal or severe infection were older and had lower hemoglobin levels than those with mild or moderate infection. Factors associated with death from SARS-CoV-2 infection included increasing age, immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and low hemoglobin level. CONCLUSIONS:  The mortality of lung cancer patients from COVID-19 disease in the present cohort was less than previously reported in the literature. The identification of risk factors associated with severe or fatal outcomes informs management of patients with lung cancer who develop COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Testing , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Risk Factors , Hemoglobins
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(6)2023 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257834

ABSTRACT

One of the first clinical observations related to COVID-19 identified hematological dysfunctions. These were explained by theoretical modeling, which predicted that motifs from SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins could bind to porphyrin. At present, there is very little experimental data that could provide reliable information about possible interactions. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method and double resonance long period grating (DR LPG) were used to identify the binding of S/N protein and the receptor bind domain (RBD) to hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb). SPR transducers were functionalized with Hb and Mb, while LPG transducers, were only with Hb. Ligands were deposited by the matrix-assisted laser evaporation (MAPLE) method, which guarantees maximum interaction specificity. The experiments carried out showed S/N protein binding to Hb and Mb and RBD binding to Hb. Apart from that, they demonstrated that chemically-inactivated virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with Hb. The binding activity of S/N- and RBD proteins was assessed. It was found that protein binding fully inhibited heme functionality. The registered N protein binding to Hb/Mb is the first experimental fact that supports theoretical predictions. This fact suggests another function of this protein, not only binding RNA. The lower RBD binding activity reveals that other functional groups of S protein participate in the interaction. The high-affinity binding of these proteins to Hb provides an excellent opportunity for assessing the effectiveness of inhibitors targeting S/N proteins.


Subject(s)
Hemoglobins , Myoglobin , Viral Structural Proteins , Humans , COVID-19 , Hemoglobins/chemistry , Myoglobin/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry
14.
Analyst ; 148(9): 2021-2034, 2023 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254524

ABSTRACT

Blood analysis through complete blood count is the most basic medical test for disease diagnosis. Conventional blood analysis requires bulky and expensive laboratory facilities and skilled technicians, limiting the universal medical use of blood analysis outside well-equipped laboratory environments. Here, we propose a multiparameter mobile blood analyzer combined with label-free contrast-enhanced defocusing imaging (CEDI) and machine vision for instant and on-site diagnostic applications. We designed a low-cost and high-resolution miniature microscope (size: 105 mm × 77 mm × 64 mm, weight: 314 g) that comprises a pair of miniature aspheric lenses and a 415 nm LED for blood image acquisition. The analyzer, adopting CEDI, can obtain both the refractive index distributions of the white blood cell (WBC) and hemoglobin spectrophotometric information, enabling the analyzer to supply rich blood parameters, including the five-part WBC differential count, red blood cell (RBC) count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) quantification with machine vision algorithms and the Lambert-Beer law. We have shown that our assay can analyze a blood sample within 10 minutes without complex staining, and measurements (30 samples) from the analyzer have a strong linear correlation with clinical reference values (significance level of 0.0001). This study provides a miniature, light weight, low-cost, and easy-to-use blood analysis technique that overcomes the challenge of simultaneously realizing FWD count, RBC count, and MCH analysis using a mobile device and has great potential for integrated surveillance of various epidemic diseases, including coronavirus infection, invermination, and anemia, especially in low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
Hematologic Tests , Hemoglobins , Blood Cell Count/methods , Hematologic Tests/methods , Erythrocyte Count/methods , Leukocyte Count , Hemoglobins/analysis
15.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 70, 2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal bleed (GIB) has high incidence in traumatic spinal cord injured (tSCI) patients and can frequently be life-threatening, especially early post-injury. Several risk factors often compound bleeding risk, some are unique to this patient population. Normally, clinical suspicion for GIB arises from symptoms like coffee-ground emesis, hematemesis, melena or even hematochezia. A hemoglobin drop may be a late sign. Due to tSCI, however, patients often experience neurogenic bowels and dysautonomia, which may delay symptom presentation and complicate timely diagnosis of GIB. We report a case of an almost clinically silent GI bleed in the context of acute cervical tSCI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old female presented with cervical cord transection at C-7 in the setting of motor vehicle rollover, for which surgical decompression was performed. During the acute injury phase, she also received a 10-day course of dexamethasone for symptomatic COVID-19 pneumonia. Two weeks after injury, she underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement which demonstrated normal gastric and duodenal anatomy. One week later, a large spike (10x) in blood urea nitrogen: creatinine (BUN: Cr) ratio raised concern for GIB, but hemoglobin remained stable, and stool color remained unchanged. The following day, a gastroenterology consult was requested under increased suspicion of GIB from a sudden 3.5 g/dL hemoglobin drop. The patient received blood transfusion and pantoprazole. An upper endoscopy was performed, revealing three small duodenal ulcers. Melanotic stool ensued afterwards. CONCLUSIONS: Due to dysautonomia, clinical presentation of GIB can be significantly delayed in the tSCI patient population, leaving them vulnerable to succumb to illness. This case illustrates the possibility of an interval in which the patient was bleeding, with the sole indicator being an elevated BUN. Our case calls for closer monitoring of and vigilance for tSCI patients, and possibly employment of different strategies to reduce the incidence and enhance early detection of GIB in tSCI patients to subsequently decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Spinal Cord Injuries , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Hemoglobins , Retrospective Studies
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230678

ABSTRACT

The established blood donation and transfusion system has contributed a lot to human health and welfare, but for this system to function properly, it requires a sufficient number of healthy donors, which is not always possible. Pakistan was a country hit hardest by COVID-19 which additionally reduced the blood donation rates. In order to address such challenges, the present study focused on the development of RBC substitutes that can be transfused to all blood types. This paper reports the development and characterization of RBC substitutes by combining the strategies of conjugated and encapsulated hemoglobin where magnetite nanoparticles would act as the carrier of hemoglobin, and liposomes would separate internal and external environments. The interactions of hemoglobin variants with bare magnetite nanoparticles were studied through molecular docking studies. Moreover, nanoparticles were synthesized, and hemoglobin was purified from blood. These components were then used to make conjugates, and it was observed that only the hemoglobin HbA1 variant was making protein corona. These conjugates were then encapsulated in liposomes to make negatively charged RBC substitutes with a size range of 1-2 µm. Results suggest that these RBC substitutes work potentially in a similar way as natural RBCs work and can be used in the time of emergency.


Subject(s)
Blood Substitutes , COVID-19 , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Humans , Liposomes , Oxygen/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism
17.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115975

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in numerous physiological processes, including vascular homeostasis. Reduced NO bioavailability is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, a prequel to many cardiovascular diseases. Biomarkers of an early NO-dependent endothelial dysfunction obtained from routine venous blood sampling would be of great interest but are currently lacking. The direct measurement of circulating NO remains a challenge due by its high reactivity and short half-life. The current techniques measure stable products from the NO signaling pathway or metabolic end products of NO that do not accurately represent its bioavailability and, therefore, endothelial function per se. In this review, we will concentrate on an original technique of low temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy capable to directly measure the 5-α-coordinated heme nitrosyl-hemoglobin in the T (tense) state (5-α-nitrosyl-hemoglobin or HbNO) obtained from fresh venous human erythrocytes. In humans, HbNO reflects the bioavailability of NO formed in the vasculature from vascular endothelial NOS or exogenous NO donors with minor contribution from erythrocyte NOS. The HbNO signal is directly correlated with the vascular endothelial function and inversely correlated with vascular oxidative stress. Pilot studies support the validity of HbNO measurements both for the detection of endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects and for the monitoring of such dysfunction in patients with known cardiovascular disease. The impact of therapies or the severity of diseases such as COVID-19 infection involving the endothelium could also be monitored and their incumbent risk of complications better predicted through serial measurements of HbNO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nitric Oxide , Humans , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism
18.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(5): 2001-2006, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114980

ABSTRACT

The current study aimed to study the effect of Covid-19 disease on some physiological parameters for assessing the physiological effect of Covid-19. The current study included 100 patients, 50 males, and 50 females, whose ages ranged from 10 - 73 years infected with Covid-19 molecularly diagnosed at AL-Imam Hussein Teaching Hospital in Thi-Qar Province from April to August 2021 and 50 people as a control group. The results illustrated a significant decrease in the level of hemoglobin, lymphocyte, and platelet in the patient's group, whereas a significant increase in the count of total white blood cells (WBC) was recorded in patients compared with the control group. The results showed that the hemoglobin level, WBC, and platelet increased significantly in males compared to females, while the lymphocytes increased significantly in female patients. The results of age groups showed non-significant differences in the hematological parameters. The current results illustrated a significant increase in the level of blood urea, serum creatinine, and random blood sugar in the patient's group. According to the gender of patients, the blood urea increased significantly in the female group, while the blood sugar increased significantly in the male group. On the other hand, the serum creatinine had no significant difference. According to age groups, a significant increase in blood urea was recorded in patients over 70 years, but no differences in both creatinine and random blood sugar level were noted. The current study recorded that the concentration of CRP, ferritin, and D. Dimer was significantly higher in patients; according to gender, the level of CRP and ferritin increased non-significantly compared with a male group of patients, while D. Dimer increased significantly in the female group. According to age group, only CRP increased significantly in the first age group compared with other age groups. The sequencing analysis was performed for 10 isolated Covid-19, and the result indicates that only one isolated sample has a sequencing identity of 99,5% with Covid-19 in Iran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Male , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/epidemiology , Creatinine , Hemoglobins , Iraq/epidemiology , Urea , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged
19.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 157(6): 422-425, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098631

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is one of the leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, several studies suggested that free-hemoglobin and heme derived from hemolysis are important factors which may be associated with severity of septic patients including COVID-19. In other words, hemolysis-derived products enhance the inflammatory responses as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in both intravascular and extravascular space. In addition, hemoglobin has vasoconstrictive activity by depleting nitric oxide, whereas heme or Fe2+ produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) through Fenton reaction leading to tissue injury. At present, we have no therapeutic options against sepsis-related hemolysis in clinical settings, however, there might be two therapeutic strategies in this regard. One is supplemental therapy of depleted scavenging proteins such as haptoglobin and hemopexin, the other is activation of the internal scavenging system including macrophage-CD163 pathway. These novel targets against sepsis are also critical for the next pandemic. In this review, we summarize the current issues regarding sepsis-related hemolysis including COVID-19, as well as for future perspectives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Hemolysis , COVID-19/complications , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Alarmins , Heme/metabolism
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a significant decrease in the number of surgical procedures performed. Therefore, it is important to use surgical methods that carry the lowest possible risk of virus transmission between the patient and the operating theater staff. AIM: Safety evaluation of three-dimensional (3D) versus two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopic hysterectomy during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: 44 patients were assigned to a prospective case-control study. They were divided either to 3D (n = 22) or 2D laparoscopic hysterectomy (n = 22). Fourteen laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomies (LASH) and eight total laparoscopic hysterectomies (TLH) were performed in every group. The demographic data, operating time, change in patients' hemoglobin level and other surgical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: 3D laparoscopy was associated with a significantly shorter operating time than 2D. (3D vs. 2D LASH 70 ± 23 min vs. 90 ± 20 min, p = 0.0086; 3D vs. 2D TLH 72 ± 9 min vs. 85 ± 9 min, p = 0.0089). The 3D and 2D groups were not significantly different in terms of change in serum hemoglobin level and other surgical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Due to a shorter operating time, 3D laparoscopic hysterectomy seems to be a safer method both for both the surgeon and the patient. Regarding terms of possible virus transmission, it may be particularly considered the first-choice method during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Postoperative Complications , Hysterectomy/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Hemoglobins
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