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1.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686893

ABSTRACT

Hypercytokinemia, or cytokine storm, is one of the severe complications of viral and bacterial infections, involving the release of abnormal amounts of cytokines, resulting in a massive inflammatory response. Cytokine storm is associated with COVID-19 and sepsis high mortality rate by developing epithelial dysfunction and coagulopathy, leading to thromboembolism and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Anticoagulant therapy is an important tactic to prevent thrombosis in sepsis and COVID-19, but recent data show the incompatibility of modern direct oral anticoagulants and antiviral agents. It seems relevant to develop dual-action drugs with antiviral and anticoagulant properties. At the same time, it was shown that azolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines are heterocycles with a broad spectrum of antiviral activity. We have synthesized a new family of azolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and their condensed polycyclic analogs by cyclocondensation reactions and direct CH-functionalization and studied their anticoagulant properties. Five compounds among 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-ones and 5-alkyl-1,3,4-thiadiazolo[3,2-a]purin-8-ones demonstrated higher anticoagulant activity than the reference drug, dabigatran etexilate. Antithrombin activity of most active compounds was confirmed using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated blood to mimic the conditions of cytokine release syndrome. The studied compounds affected only the thrombin time value, reliably increasing it 6.5-15.2 times as compared to LPS-treated blood.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Azo Compounds/chemistry , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Animals , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Male , Rabbits , Rats
2.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 254, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of developing a stroke by 20%. AF related strokes are associated with greater morbidity. Historically, warfarin was the anticoagulant of choice for stroke prevention in patients with AF but lately patients are being switched or started on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). DOACs are promoted as safer alternatives to warfarin and it is expected that they will be associated with fewer challenges both for patients and healthcare professionals. This systematic narrative review aimed to explore perspectives of patients and professionals on medicines optimisation of oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists and DOACs in atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Prospero registration CRD42018091591. Systematic searches undertaken of research studies (qualitative and quantitative), published February 2018 to November 2020 from several databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Medline Via Ovid, CINHAL via Ebsco, and PubMED via NCBI) following PRISMA methodology. Data were organised using Covidence software. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies and synthesized the findings (thematic analysis approach). RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Studies were critically appraised using established critical appraisal tools (Qualsyst) and a risk of bias was assigned. Clinicians considered old age and the associated complexities such as co-morbidities and the increased potential for bleeding as potential barriers to optimising anticoagulation. Whereas patients' health and medication beliefs influenced adherence. Notably, structured patient support was important in enhancing safety and effective anticoagulation. For both patients and clinicians, confidence and experience of safe anticoagulation was influenced by the presence of co-morbidities,  poor knowledge and understanding of AF and the purpose of anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Age, complex multimorbidity and polypharmacy influence prescribing, with DOACs being perceived to be safer than warfarin. This systematic narrative review suggests that interventions are needed to support patient self-management. There are residual anxieties associated with long term anticoagulation in the context of complexities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Humans , Stroke/prevention & control , Warfarin/therapeutic use
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28094, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598055

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The many deaths from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) since 2019 have caused global concern. Effective treatment has not yet been established; supportive care is the main treatment. It has been suggested that veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) may be effective in severe cases that do not respond to ventilator management. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: We report the case of a 68-year-old woman with severe respiratory failure due to COVID-19 who was treated with VV-ECMO but suffered from bleeding complications. She presented with multiple café-au-lait lesions and neurofibromas on her skin and was diagnosed pathologically as having neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1). INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: Although she received appropriate anticoagulation therapy with heparin at the initiation of VV-ECMO, she had 5 episodes of severe bleeding, each requiring transcatheter arterial embolization and massive transfusion. In patients with NF1, vascular fragility has been noted due to vascular infiltration of neurofibromas and degeneration of vascular structures. Therefore, the causes of frequent bleeding complications may be related to the fragility of blood vessels in patients with NF1. VV-ECMO in patients with NF1 is likely to result in frequent bleeding complications and the need for massive transfusion. LESSON: We propose non-anticoagulation treatment strategy for the management of VV-ECMO in patients with NF1. Especially under the COVID-19 pandemic, more careful consideration should be given to the indications for VV-ECMO in patients with NF1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hemorrhage/complications , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Humans , Neurofibromatosis 1/complications , Neurofibromatosis 1/therapy , Pandemics
5.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931080, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), often manifests a coagulopathy in severely ill patients, which may cause hemorrhage and/or thrombosis of varying severity. This report comprises the cases of 3 patients with COVID-19-associated coagulopathy who were evaluated with thromboelastography (TEG) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) to enable personalized anticoagulant therapy. CASE REPORT Three patients presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, who developed thrombohemorrhagic coagulopathy.Case 1: A 72-year-old woman on long-term warfarin therapy for a history of venous thromboembolism developed a right upper lobe pulmonary embolus, despite an international normalized ratio of 6.4 and aPTT of 120.7 s. TEG enabled successful anticoagulation with heparin, and her pulmonary infarct was no longer present 2 weeks later.Case 2: A 55-year-old woman developed a rectus sheath hematoma while on heparin, and TEG demonstrated increased fibrinolysis despite COVID-19 patients more commonly undergoing fibrinolytic shutdown.Case 3: A 43-year-old woman had significant thrombus burden while severely hypocoagulable according to laboratory testing. As the venous thrombi enlarged in a disseminated intravascular coagulopathic-like state, the heparin dose was escalated to achieve a target aPTT of 70 to 80 s, resulting in a flat line TEG tracing. CONCLUSIONS These 3 cases of COVID-19 pneumonia with complex and varied clinical histories demonstrated the clinical value of TEG combined with the measurement of aPTT to facilitate personalized anticoagulation, resulting in good clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Thrombelastography , Thrombolytic Therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Female , Hemorrhage/virology , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/virology
6.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 35-51, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061059

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019, it is gaining worldwide attention at the moment. Apart from respiratory manifestations, neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, especially the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), has been intensively investigated. In this review, the effects of COVID-19 infection on CVD were summarized as follows: (I) angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may be involved in the attack on vascular endothelial cells by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading to endothelial damage and increased subintimal inflammation, which are followed by hemorrhage or thrombosis; (II) SARS-CoV-2 could alter the expression/activity of ACE2, consequently resulting in the disruption of renin-angiotensin system which is associated with the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis; (III) upregulation of neutrophil extracellular traps has been detected in COVID-19 patients, which is closely associated with immunothrombosis; (IV) the inflammatory cascade induced by SARS-CoV-2 often leads to hypercoagulability and promotes the formation and progress of atherosclerosis; (V) antiphospholipid antibodies are also detected in plasma of some severe cases, which aggravate the thrombosis through the formation of immune complexes; (VI) hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients may trigger CVD by increasing oxidative stress and blood viscosity; (VII) the COVID-19 outbreak is a global emergency and causes psychological stress, which could be a potential risk factor of CVD as coagulation, and fibrinolysis may be affected. In this review, we aimed to further our understanding of CVD-associated COVID-19 infection, which could improve the therapeutic outcomes of patients. Personalized treatments should be offered to COVID-19 patients at greater risk for stroke in future clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Hemorrhage/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Stroke/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/virology , Inflammation , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/virology
8.
Eur J Haematol ; 106(2): 165-174, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability may contribute to COVID-19 pathogenicity. The role of anticoagulation (AC) at therapeutic (tAC) or prophylactic doses (pAC) is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact on survival of different AC doses in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Retrospective, multi-center cohort study of consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized between March 13 and May 5, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 3480 patients were included (mean age, 64.5 years [17.0]; 51.5% female; 52.1% black and 40.6% white). 18.5% (n = 642) required intensive care unit (ICU) stay. 60.9% received pAC (n = 2121), 28.7% received ≥3 days of tAC (n = 998), and 10.4% (n = 361) received no AC. Propensity score (PS) weighted Kaplan-Meier plot demonstrated different 25-day survival probability in the tAC and pAC groups (57.5% vs 50.7%). In a PS-weighted multivariate proportional hazards model, AC was associated with reduced risk of death at prophylactic (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.22-0.54]) and therapeutic doses (HR 0.14 [95% CI 0.05-0.23]) compared to no AC. Major bleeding occurred more frequently in tAC patients (81 [8.1%]) compared to no AC (20 [5.5%]) or pAC (46 [2.2%]) subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Higher doses of AC were associated with lower mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Prospective evaluation of efficacy and risk of AC in COVID-19 is warranted.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Hemorrhage , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Hemorrhage/blood , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
9.
Thromb Res ; 194: 240-245, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-776618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as safe and effective alternatives to Vitamin-K antagonists for treatment and prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Due to their novelty, pharmacokinetic DOAC drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that result in clinical adverse events have not been well-documented. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to systematically review reported pharmacokinetic DDIs resulting in clinical adverse events through documented observational evidence to better inform clinicians in clinical practice. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Ovid HealthStar was conducted through March 10th, 2020. Two independent reviewers screened and extracted data from eligible articles according to pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles reporting bleeding or thrombotic outcomes in non-controlled (observational) settings resulting from suggested pharmacokinetic DOAC DDIs were included. RESULTS: A total of 5567 citations were reviewed, of which 24 were included following data extraction. The majority were case reports (n = 21) documenting a single adverse event resulting from a suspected DOAC DDI, while the remaining papers were a case series (n = 1) and cohort studies (n = 2). The most commonly reported interacting drugs were amiodarone and ritonavir (bleeding), and phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine (thrombosis). Bleeding events more often resulted from a combined mechanism (P-glycoprotein AND CYP3A4 inhibition), whereas thrombotic events resulted from either combined OR single P-glycoprotein/CYP3A4 induction. CONCLUSION: Current literature evaluating the real-world risk of DOAC DDIs is limited to few case reports and retrospective observational analyses. Clinicians are encouraged to continue to report suspected drug interactions resulting in adverse events.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Retrospective Studies
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