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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 176, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains uncertain if prior use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in COVID-19 outpatients with multimorbidity impacts prognosis, especially if cardiometabolic diseases are present. Clinical outcomes 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis were compared between outpatients with cardiometabolic disease receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or direct-acting OAC (DOAC) therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: A study was conducted using TriNetX, a global federated health research network. Adult outpatients with cardiometabolic disease (i.e. diabetes mellitus and any disease of the circulatory system) treated with VKAs or DOACs at time of COVID-19 diagnosis between 20-Jan-2020 and 15-Feb-2021 were included. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance cohorts receiving VKAs and DOACs. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation (MV) necessity, intracranial haemorrhage (ICH)/gastrointestinal bleeding, and the composite of any arterial or venous thrombotic event(s) at 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: 2275 patients were included. After PSM, 1270 patients remained in the study (635 on VKAs; 635 on DOACs). VKA-treated patients had similar risks and 30-day event-free survival than patients on DOACs regarding all-cause mortality, ICU admission/MV necessity, and ICH/gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of any arterial or venous thrombotic event was 43% higher in the VKA cohort (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.98; Log-Rank test p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 outpatients with cardiometabolic diseases, prior use of DOAC therapy compared to VKA therapy at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis demonstrated lower risk of arterial or venous thrombotic outcomes, without increasing the risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Administration, Oral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Treatment Outcome
2.
Crit Care Med ; 49(6): e624-e633, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: No standard therapy, including anticoagulation regimens, is currently recommended for coronavirus disease 2019. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anticoagulation in coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized patients and its impact on survival. DESIGN: Multicenter international prospective registry (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for Corona Virus Disease 2019). SETTING: Hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019. PATIENTS: Five thousand eight hundred thirty-eight consecutive coronavirus disease 2019 patients. INTERVENTIONS: Anticoagulation therapy, including prophylactic and therapeutic regimens, was obtained for each patient. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Five thousand four hundred eighty patients (94%) did not receive any anticoagulation before hospitalization. Two-thousand six-hundred one patients (44%) during hospitalization received anticoagulation therapy and it was not associated with better survival rate (81% vs 81%; p = 0.94) but with higher risk of bleeding (2.7% vs 1.8%; p = 0.03). Among patients admitted with respiratory failure (49%, n = 2,859, including 391 and 583 patients requiring invasive and noninvasive ventilation, respectively), anticoagulation started during hospitalization was associated with lower mortality rates (32% vs 42%; p < 0.01) and nonsignificant higher risk of bleeding (3.4% vs 2.7%; p = 0.3). Anticoagulation therapy was associated with lower mortality rates in patients treated with invasive ventilation (53% vs 64%; p = 0.05) without increased rates of bleeding (9% vs 8%; p = 0.88) but not in those with noninvasive ventilation (35% vs 38%; p = 0.40). At multivariate Cox' analysis mortality relative risk with anticoagulation was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.49-0.67) in patients admitted with respiratory failure, 0.50 (95% CI, 0.49-0.67) in those requiring invasive ventilation, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.51-1.01) in noninvasive ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Anticoagulation therapy in general population with coronavirus disease 2019 was not associated with better survival rates but with higher bleeding risk. Better results were observed in patients admitted with respiratory failure and requiring invasive ventilation.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Registries , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Correlation of Data , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Risk , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
3.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 372-391, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182900

ABSTRACT

We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis to assess the association of anticoagulants and their dosage with in-hospital all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients. Articles were retrieved until January 8, 2021, by searching in seven electronic databases. The main outcome was all-cause mortality occurred during hospitalization. Data were combined using the general variance-based method on the effect estimate for each study. Separate meta-analyses according to type of COVID-19 patients (hospitalized or intensive care unit [ICU] patients), anticoagulants (mainly heparin), and regimens (therapeutic or prophylactic) were conducted. A total of 29 articles were selected, but 23 retrospective studies were eligible for quantitative meta-analyses. No clinical trial was retrieved. The majority of studies were of good quality; however, 34% did not distinguish heparin from other anticoagulants. Meta-analysis on 25,719 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showed that anticoagulant use was associated with 50% reduced in-hospital mortality risk (pooled risk ratio [RR]: 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.62; I 2: 87%). Both anticoagulant regimens (therapeutic and prophylactic) reduced in-hospital all-cause mortality, compared with no anticoagulation. Particularly in ICU patients, the anticoagulant therapeutic regimen was associated with a reduced in-hospital mortality risk (RR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.15-0.60; I 2: 58%) compared with the prophylactic one. However, the former was also associated with a higher risk of bleeding (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.60-4.00; I 2: 65%). Anticoagulant use, mainly heparin, reduced all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients during hospitalization. Due to the higher risk of bleeding at therapeutic doses, the use of prophylactic dosages of anticoagulant is probably to be preferred in noncritically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hemorrhage , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Survival Rate
4.
Vasc Med ; 26(4): 426-433, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166685

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may predispose patients to venous thromboembolism (VTE). Limited data are available on the utilization of the Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) in the setting of the COVID-19 global pandemic. We performed a single-center study to evaluate treatment, mortality, and bleeding outcomes in patients who received PERT consultations in March and April 2020, compared to historical controls from the same period in 2019. Clinical data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. The primary study endpoints were inpatient mortality and GUSTO moderate-to-severe bleeding. The frequency of PERT utilization was nearly threefold higher during March and April 2020 (n = 74) compared to the same period in 2019 (n = 26). During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was significantly less PERT-guided invasive treatment (5.5% vs 23.1%, p = 0.02) with a numerical but not statistically significant trend toward an increase in the use of systemic fibrinolytic therapy (13.5% vs 3.9%, p = 0.3). There were nonsignificant trends toward higher in-hospital mortality or moderate-to-severe bleeding in patients receiving PERT consultations during the COVID-19 period compared to historical controls (mortality 14.9% vs 3.9%, p = 0.18 and moderate-to-severe bleeding 35.1% vs 19.2%, p = 0.13). In conclusion, PERT utilization was nearly threefold higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than during the historical control period. Among patients evaluated by PERT, in-hospital mortality or moderate-to-severe bleeding were not significantly different, despite being numerically higher, while invasive therapy was utilized less frequently during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Resources/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Patient Care Team/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality
5.
Eur J Haematol ; 106(5): 716-723, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091053

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 predisposes patients to a higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), although the extent of these implications is unclear and the risk of bleeding has been poorly evaluated. To date, no studies have reported long-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and VTE. METHOD: Prospective observational study to evaluate long-term (90 days or more) outcomes of patients diagnosed with VTE (PE, DVT of the extremities, or both) in the setting of COVID-19. The main outcome of the study was a compound of major bleeding and death. RESULTS: The study comprised 100 patients (mean age 65 ± 13.9 years). At the time of VTE diagnosis, 66% patients were hospitalized, 34.8% of them in the ICU. Mean follow-up was 97.9 ± 23.3 days. During the study period, 24% patients died and median time to death was 12 (IQR: 2.25-20.75) days, 11% patients had major bleeding and median time to event was 12 (IQR: 5-16) days. The cause of death was PE in 5% and bleeding in 2% of patients. There were no VTE recurrences. The main study outcome occurred in 29% patients. Risk of death or major bleeding was independently associated with ICU admission (HR 12.2; 95% CI 3.0-48.3), thrombocytopenia (HR 4.5; 95% CI 1.2-16.5), and cancer (HR 21.6; 95% CI 1.8-259). CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19 and VTE, mortality and major bleeding were high and almost a third of deaths were VTE-related. The majority of complications occurred in the first 30 days. ICU admission, thrombocytopenia, and cancer are risk factors for poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
6.
Am Heart J ; 235: 12-23, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with both venous and arterial thrombotic complications. While prophylactic anticoagulation is now widely recommended for hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis in outpatients with COVID-19 has not been established. STUDY DESIGN: PREVENT-HD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pragmatic, event-driven phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in symptomatic outpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at risk for thrombotic events, hospitalization, and death. Several challenges posed by the pandemic have necessitated innovative approaches to clinical trial design, start-up, and conduct. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by time from COVID-19 confirmation, to either rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily or placebo for 35 days. The primary efficacy end point is a composite of symptomatic venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute limb ischemia, non-central nervous system systemic embolization, all-cause hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. The primary safety end point is fatal and critical site bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis definition. Enrollment began in August 2020 and is expected to enroll approximately 4,000 participants to yield the required number of end point events. CONCLUSIONS: PREVENT-HD is a pragmatic trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of the direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban in the outpatient setting to reduce major venous and arterial thrombotic events, hospitalization, and mortality associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Outpatients , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Double-Blind Method , Extremities/blood supply , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Placebos/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 622-632, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability may be a key mechanism of death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and examine the observational effect of early therapeutic anticoagulation on survival. DESIGN: In a multicenter cohort study of 3239 critically ill adults with COVID-19, the incidence of VTE and major bleeding within 14 days after intensive care unit (ICU) admission was evaluated. A target trial emulation in which patients were categorized according to receipt or no receipt of therapeutic anticoagulation in the first 2 days of ICU admission was done to examine the observational effect of early therapeutic anticoagulation on survival. A Cox model with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounding was used. SETTING: 67 hospitals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with COVID-19 admitted to a participating ICU. MEASUREMENTS: Time to death, censored at hospital discharge, or date of last follow-up. RESULTS: Among the 3239 patients included, the median age was 61 years (interquartile range, 53 to 71 years), and 2088 (64.5%) were men. A total of 204 patients (6.3%) developed VTE, and 90 patients (2.8%) developed a major bleeding event. Independent predictors of VTE were male sex and higher D-dimer level on ICU admission. Among the 2809 patients included in the target trial emulation, 384 (11.9%) received early therapeutic anticoagulation. In the primary analysis, during a median follow-up of 27 days, patients who received early therapeutic anticoagulation had a similar risk for death as those who did not (hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.92 to 1.35]). LIMITATION: Observational design. CONCLUSION: Among critically ill adults with COVID-19, early therapeutic anticoagulation did not affect survival in the target trial emulation. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
8.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 351-361, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885548

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, limited data exist on patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and short-term outcomes of patients diagnosed with VTE during hospitalization for COVID-19. This is a prospective multinational study of patients with incident VTE during the course of hospitalization for COVID-19. Data were obtained from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry. All-cause mortality, VTE recurrences, and major bleeding during the first 10 days were separately investigated for patients in hospital wards versus those in intensive care units (ICUs). As of May 03, 2020, a total number of 455 patients were diagnosed with VTE (83% pulmonary embolism, 17% isolated deep vein thrombosis) during their hospital stay; 71% were male, the median age was 65 (interquartile range, 55-74) years. Most patients (68%) were hospitalized in medical wards, and 145 in ICUs. Three hundred and seventeen (88%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 84-91%) patients were receiving thromboprophylaxis at the time of VTE diagnosis. Most patients (88%) received therapeutic low-molecular-weight heparin, and 15 (3.6%) received reperfusion therapies. Among 420 patients with complete 10-day follow-up, 51 (12%; 95% CI: 9.3-15%) died, no patient recurred, and 12 (2.9%; 95% CI: 1.6-4.8%) experienced major bleeding. The 10-day mortality rate was 9.1% (95% CI: 6.1-13%) among patients in hospital wards and 19% (95% CI: 13-26%) among those in ICUs. This study provides characteristics and early outcomes of patients diagnosed with acute VTE during hospitalization for COVID-19. Additional studies are needed to identify the optimal strategies to prevent VTE and to mitigate adverse outcomes associated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Hospital Mortality , Registries , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
9.
Eur J Haematol ; 106(2): 165-174, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability may contribute to COVID-19 pathogenicity. The role of anticoagulation (AC) at therapeutic (tAC) or prophylactic doses (pAC) is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact on survival of different AC doses in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Retrospective, multi-center cohort study of consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized between March 13 and May 5, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 3480 patients were included (mean age, 64.5 years [17.0]; 51.5% female; 52.1% black and 40.6% white). 18.5% (n = 642) required intensive care unit (ICU) stay. 60.9% received pAC (n = 2121), 28.7% received ≥3 days of tAC (n = 998), and 10.4% (n = 361) received no AC. Propensity score (PS) weighted Kaplan-Meier plot demonstrated different 25-day survival probability in the tAC and pAC groups (57.5% vs 50.7%). In a PS-weighted multivariate proportional hazards model, AC was associated with reduced risk of death at prophylactic (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.22-0.54]) and therapeutic doses (HR 0.14 [95% CI 0.05-0.23]) compared to no AC. Major bleeding occurred more frequently in tAC patients (81 [8.1%]) compared to no AC (20 [5.5%]) or pAC (46 [2.2%]) subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Higher doses of AC were associated with lower mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Prospective evaluation of efficacy and risk of AC in COVID-19 is warranted.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Hemorrhage , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Hemorrhage/blood , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
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