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1.
Acta Virol ; 65(4): 350-364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607905

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic transmission of highly pathogenic viruses, are a cause of deadly epidemics around the globe. These are of particular concern as evident from the recent global pandemic due to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The genus Ebolavirus belongs to the Filoviridae family and its members are known to cause the Ebola virus disease (EVD), a highly contagious disease with a mortality rate of approximately 90%. The similarity of the clinical symptoms to those of various tropical ailments poses a high risk of misdiagnosis. Diagnostic strategies currently utilized include real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, amongst others. No specific treatment exists at present, and the management of patients is aimed at the treatment of complications augmented with supportive clinical care. The recent outbreak of EVD in West Africa, which began in 2014, led to accelerated development of vaccines and treatment. In this review, we contemplate the origin of the ebolaviruses, discuss the clinical aspects and treatment of the disease, depict the current diagnostic strategies of the virus, as well discuss its pathogenesis. Keywords: Ebolavirus; viral origin; treatment; pathogenicity of Ebola; Ebola virus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Disease Outbreaks , Ebolavirus/genetics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/therapy , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(3)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501522

ABSTRACT

Public health laboratories (PHLs) continue to face internal and external challenges to their abilities to provide successful, timely responses to public health crises and emerging threats. These laboratories are mandated to maintain the health of their communities by identifying, diagnosing, and warning constituents of potential and real health emergencies. Due to the changing characteristics of public health threats and their cross-jurisdictional nature, laboratories are facing increased pressure to ensure that they respond in a consistent and coordinated manner. Here, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) Emerging Leader Program Cohort 11 members have compiled stories from subject matter experts (SMEs) at PHLs with direct involvement in crises to determine the characteristics of a successful response. Experts examined a diverse selection of emerging threats from across PHLs, including infectious diseases, opioids, natural disasters, and government shutdowns. While no public health crisis will be identical to another, overarching themes were consistent across subjects. Experiences from SMEs that could improve future responses to emerging threats are highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Measles/diagnosis , Opioid-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Laboratories , Measles/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology
3.
STAR Protoc ; 2(4): 100818, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373302

ABSTRACT

Experimental work on highly pathogenic viruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 requires high-level biosafety facilities. Here, we provide a detailed step-by-step protocol which details the production and application of replication-incompetent murine leukemia virus-based pseudotyped particles to monitor and quantify the viral entry efficiency in human cell lines under biosafety level-2 conditions. We describe the use of viral particles encoding luciferase gene and the quantification of transduction efficiency by measuring luciferase activity. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Imre et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Ebolavirus/physiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/virology , Humans , Virion
4.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(3): 453-465, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263258

ABSTRACT

The role of the emergency provider lies at the forefront of recognition and treatment of novel and re-emerging infectious diseases in children. Familiarity with disease presentations that might be considered rare, such as vaccine-preventable and non-endemic illnesses, is essential in identifying and controlling outbreaks. As we have seen thus far in the novel coronavirus pandemic, susceptibility, severity, transmission, and disease presentation can all have unique patterns in children. Emergency providers also have the potential to play a public health role by using lessons learned from the phenomena of vaccine hesitancy and refusal.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Pediatrics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Chickenpox/diagnosis , Chickenpox/therapy , Chickenpox/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/therapy , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Child , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Decision Trees , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/therapy , Dengue/transmission , Emergency Medicine , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/therapy , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/therapy , Malaria/transmission , Measles/diagnosis , Measles/therapy , Measles/transmission , Physician's Role , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Travel-Related Illness , Vaccination , Vaccination Refusal , Whooping Cough/diagnosis , Whooping Cough/therapy , Whooping Cough/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/therapy , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
5.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(3)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226708

ABSTRACT

Public health laboratories (PHLs) continue to face internal and external challenges to their abilities to provide successful, timely responses to public health crises and emerging threats. These laboratories are mandated to maintain the health of their communities by identifying, diagnosing, and warning constituents of potential and real health emergencies. Due to the changing characteristics of public health threats and their cross-jurisdictional nature, laboratories are facing increased pressure to ensure that they respond in a consistent and coordinated manner. Here, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) Emerging Leader Program Cohort 11 members have compiled stories from subject matter experts (SMEs) at PHLs with direct involvement in crises to determine the characteristics of a successful response. Experts examined a diverse selection of emerging threats from across PHLs, including infectious diseases, opioids, natural disasters, and government shutdowns. While no public health crisis will be identical to another, overarching themes were consistent across subjects. Experiences from SMEs that could improve future responses to emerging threats are highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Measles/diagnosis , Opioid-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Laboratories , Measles/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology
7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 179: 113074, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064881

ABSTRACT

On global scale, the current situation of pandemic is symptomatic of increased incidences of contagious diseases caused by pathogens. The faster spread of these diseases, in a moderately short timeframe, is threatening the overall population wellbeing and conceivably the economy. The inadequacy of conventional diagnostic tools in terms of time consuming and complex laboratory-based diagnosis process is a major challenge to medical care. In present era, the development of point-of-care testing (POCT) is in demand for fast detection of infectious diseases along with "on-site" results that are helpful in timely and early action for better treatment. In addition, POCT devices also play a crucial role in preventing the transmission of infectious diseases by offering real-time testing and lab quality microbial diagnosis within minutes. Timely diagnosis and further treatment optimization facilitate the containment of outbreaks of infectious diseases. Presently, efforts are being made to support such POCT by the technological development in the field of internet of medical things (IoMT). The IoMT offers wireless-based operation and connectivity of POCT devices with health expert and medical centre. In this review, the recently developed POC diagnostics integrated or future possibilities of integration with IoMT are discussed with focus on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases like malaria, dengue fever, influenza A (H1N1), human papilloma virus (HPV), Ebola virus disease (EVD), Zika virus (ZIKV), and coronavirus (COVID-19). The IoMT-assisted POCT systems are capable enough to fill the gap between bioinformatics generation, big rapid analytics, and clinical validation. An optimized IoMT-assisted POCT will be useful in understanding the diseases progression, treatment decision, and evaluation of efficacy of prescribed therapy.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Internet of Things , Point-of-Care Testing , Animals , Artificial Intelligence , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Equipment Design , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Malaria/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
8.
Adv Mater ; 33(1): e2005448, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959069

ABSTRACT

The spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has changed the lives of people around the world with a huge impact on economies and societies. The development of wearable sensors that can continuously monitor the environment for viruses may become an important research area. Here, the state of the art of research on biosensor materials for virus detection is reviewed. A general description of the principles for virus detection is included, along with a critique of the experimental work dedicated to various virus sensors, and a summary of their detection limitations. The piezoelectric sensors used for the detection of human papilloma, vaccinia, dengue, Ebola, influenza A, human immunodeficiency, and hepatitis B viruses are examined in the first section; then the second part deals with magnetostrictive sensors for the detection of bacterial spores, proteins, and classical swine fever. In addition, progress related to early detection of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is discussed in the final section, where remaining challenges in the field are also identified. It is believed that this review will guide material researchers in their future work of developing smart biosensors, which can further improve detection sensitivity in monitoring currently known and future virus threats.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Magnetics , Animals , Artificial Intelligence , Electric Conductivity , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Severe Dengue/diagnosis , Vaccinia/diagnosis
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 597-602, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610554

ABSTRACT

As of June 11, 2020, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has reported 4,258 COVID-19 cases with 90 deaths. With other African countries, the DRC faces the challenge of striking a balance between easing public health lockdown measures to curtail the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and minimizing both economic hardships for large sectors of the population and negative impacts on health services for other infectious and noninfectious diseases. The DRC recently controlled its tenth Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, but COVID-19 and a new EVD outbreak beginning on June 1, 2020 in the northwest Équateur Province have added an additional burden to health services. Although the epidemiology and transmission of EVD and COVID-19 differ, leveraging the public health infrastructures and experiences from coordinating the EVD response to guide the public health response to COVID-19 is critical. Building on the DRC's 40 years of experience with 10 previous EVD outbreaks, we highlight the DRC's multi-sectoral public health approach to COVID-19, which includes community-based screening, testing, contact-tracing, risk communication, community engagement, and case management. We also highlight remaining challenges and discuss the way forward for achieving control of both COVID-19 and EVD in the DRC.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case Management , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Health Communication , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(3): 526-531, 2020 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72829

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As of April 5, 2020, the World Health Organization reported over one million confirmed cases and more than 62,000 confirmed coronavirus (COVID-19) deaths affecting 204 countries/regions. The lack of COVID-19 testing capacity threatens the ability of both the United States (US) and low middle income countries (LMIC) to respond to this growing threat, The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness through participant self-assessment of a rapid response team (RRT) mobile laboratory curriculum METHODS: We conducted a pre and post survey for the purpose of a process improvement assessment in Angola, involving 32 individuals. The survey was performed before and after a 14-day training workshop held in Luanda, Angola, in December 2019. A paired t-test was used to identify any significant change on six 7-point Likert scale questions with α< 0.05 (95% confidence interval). RESULTS: All six of the questions - 1) "I feel confident managing a real laboratory sample test for Ebola or other highly contagious sample;" 2) "I feel safe working in the lab environment during a real scenario;" 3) "I feel as if I can appropriately manage a potentially highly contagious laboratory sample;" 4)"I feel that I can interpret a positive or negative sample during a suspected contagious outbreak;" 5) "I understand basic Biobubble/mobile laboratory concepts and procedures;" and 6) "I understand polymerase chain reaction (PCR) principles" - showed statistical significant change pre and post training. Additionally, the final two questions - "I can more effectively perform my role/position because of the training I received during this course;" and "This training was valuable" - received high scores on the Likert scale. CONCLUSION: This Angolan RRT mobile laboratory training curriculum provides the nation of Angola with the confidence to rapidly respond and test at the national level a highly infectious contagion in the region and perform on-scene diagnostics. This mobile RRT laboratory provides a mobile and rapid diagnostic resource when epidemic/pandemic resource allocation may need to be prioritized based on confirmed disease prevalence.


Subject(s)
Ambulances , Coronavirus Infections , Curriculum , Hospital Rapid Response Team , Medical Laboratory Science , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Angola , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Competence , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disasters , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Medical Laboratory Science/education , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , World Health Organization
13.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(10): 1166-1190, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-77446

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Point-of-care testing (POCT), diagnostic testing at or near the site of patient care, is inherently spatial, that is, performed at points of need, and also intrinsically temporal, because it produces fast actionable results. Outbreaks generate geospatial "hotspots." POC strategies help control hotspots, detect spread, and speed treatment of highly infectious diseases. OBJECTIVES.­: To stop outbreaks, accelerate detection, facilitate emergency response for epidemics, mobilize public health practitioners, enhance community resilience, and improve crisis standards of care. DATA SOURCES.­: PubMed, World-Wide Web, newsprint, and others were searched until Coronavirus infectious disease-19 was declared a pandemic, the United States, a national emergency, and Europe, the epicenter. Coverage comprised interviews in Asia, email to/from Wuhan, papers, articles, chapters, documents, maps, flowcharts, schematics, and geospatial-associated concepts. EndNote X9.1 (Clarivate Analytics) consolidated literature as abstracts, ULRs, and PDFs, recovering 136 hotspot articles. More than 500 geospatial science articles were assessed for relevance to POCT. CONCLUSIONS.­: POCT can interrupt spirals of dysfunction and delay by enhancing disease detection, decision-making, contagion containment, and safe spacing, thereby softening outbreak surges and diminishing risk before human, economic, and cultural losses mount. POCT results identify where infected individuals spread Coronavirus infectious disease-19, when delays cause death, and how to deploy resources. Results in national cloud databases help optimize outbreak control, mitigation, emergency response, and community resilience. The Coronavirus infectious disease-19 pandemic demonstrates unequivocally that governments must support POCT and multidisciplinary healthcare personnel must learn its principles, then adopt POC geospatial strategies, so that onsite diagnostic testing can ramp up to meet needs in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , SARS-CoV-2
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