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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580687

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is associated with a broad spectrum of presentations, but alveolar capillary microthrombi have been described as a common finding in COVID-19 patients, appearing as a consequence of a severe endothelial injury with endothelial cell membrane disruption. These observations clearly point to the identification of a COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, which may contribute to thrombosis, multi-organ damage, and cause of severity and fatality. One significant finding that emerges in prothrombotic abnormalities observed in COVID-19 patients is that the coagulation alterations are mainly mediated by the activation of platelets and intrinsically related to viral-mediated endothelial inflammation. Beyond the well-known role in hemostasis, the ability of platelets to also release various potent cytokines and chemokines has elevated these small cells from simple cell fragments to crucial modulators in the blood, including their inflammatory functions, that have a large influence on the immune response during infectious disease. Indeed, platelets are involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury also by promoting NET formation and affecting vascular permeability. Specifically, the deposition by activated platelets of the chemokine platelet factor 4 at sites of inflammation promotes adhesion of neutrophils on endothelial cells and thrombogenesis, and it seems deeply involved in the phenomenon of vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Importantly, the hyperactivated platelet phenotype along with evidence of cytokine storm, high levels of P-selectin, D-dimer, and, on the other hand, decreased levels of fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and thrombocytopenia may be considered suitable biomarkers that distinguish the late stage of COVID-19 progression in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/physiology , COVID-19/blood , Thrombosis/pathology , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hemostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Phenotype , Platelet Activation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombocytopenia/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/virology
2.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211010973, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582642

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 triggers abnormalities in coagulation parameters that can contribute to thrombosis. The goals of this research were to determine the levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer and FDP in COVID-19 patients. Following a systematic study, among 1198 articles, 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis of fibrinogen levels in both severe and non-severe groups. The funnel plot, Egger's regression asymmetry test, and Begg's test used to measure the bias of publications. All meta-analysis performed by comprehensive meta-analysis version 2 (CMA2). The pooled findings of fibrinogen levels revealed a significant rise in fibrinogen levels in severe COVID-19 than non-severe patients with COVID-19. The D-dimer and FDP levels were significantly higher in severe patients than non-severe patients with COVID-19 were. The levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FDP have increased significantly in ICU patients compared to non-ICU patients. Although, levels of clotting parameters do not always correlate with the severity of disease, these findings showed the diagnostic importance for fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FDP in COVID-19. The presence of a continuous rise in serial measurements of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FDP may predict that patients with COVID-19 may become critically ill.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hemostasis , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology
3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(6): 1385, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511361
4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(13-14): 899-903, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493267

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 has a profound influence on the hematopoetic system that mediates clinical symptoms and mortality. Several studies have shown that treatment of the cytokine storm (CRS) with anti-inflammatory drugs like dexamethasone and tocilizumab can significantly improve survival. Systematic reviews confirm the safety of convalescent plasma administration and offer initial indications of its effectiveness in certain groups. COVID-associated coagulopathy (CAC) and vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) represent severe infection- or vaccination associated complications that require a specific diagnostic and therapeutic workup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hematology , Hematopoiesis , Hemostasis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14186, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434143

ABSTRACT

Infections cause varying degrees of haemostatic dysfunction which can be detected by clot waveform analysis (CWA), a global haemostatic marker. CWA has been shown to predict poor outcomes in severe infections with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The effect of less severe bacterial and viral infections on CWA has not been established. We hypothesized that different infections influence CWA distinctively. Patients admitted with bacterial infections, dengue and upper respiratory tract viral infections were recruited if they had an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measured on admission. APTT-based CWA was performed on Sysmex CS2100i automated analyser using Dade Actin FSL reagent. CWA parameters [(maximum velocity (min1), maximum acceleration (min2) and maximum deceleration (max2)] were compared against control patients. Infected patients (n = 101) had longer aPTT than controls (n = 112) (34.37 ± 7.72 s vs 27.80 ± 1.59 s, p < 0.001), with the mean (± SD) aPTT longest in dengue infection (n = 36) (37.99 ± 7.93 s), followed by bacterial infection (n = 52) (33.96 ± 7.33 s) and respiratory viral infection (n = 13) (29.98 ± 3.92 s). Compared to controls (min1; min2; max2) (5.53 ± 1.16%/s; 0.89 ± 0.19%/s2; 0.74 ± 0.16%/s2), bacterial infection has higher CWA results (6.92 ± 1.60%/s; 1.04 ± 0.28%/s2; 0.82 ± 0.24%/s2, all p < 0.05); dengue infection has significantly lower CWA values (3.93 ± 1.32%/s; 0.57 ± 0.17%/s2; 0.43 ± 0.14%/s2, all p < 0.001) whilst respiratory virus infection has similar results (6.19 ± 1.32%/s; 0.95 ± 0.21%/s2; 0.73 ± 0.18%/s2, all p > 0.05). CWA parameters demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein levels (min1: r = 0.54, min2: r = 0.44, max2: r = 0.34; all p < 0.01). Different infections affect CWA distinctively. CWA could provide information on the haemostatic milieu triggered by infection and further studies are needed to better define its application in this area.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/blood , Hemostasis , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Virus Diseases/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Dengue/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood
7.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(7): 411-416, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320655

ABSTRACT

The lung tissue contains various hemostatic system elements, which can be released from the lungs, both under physiological and pathological conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in the number of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in intensive care units worldwide. When the lungs are damaged, coagulation disorders are mediated by tissue factor (TF) - factor VIIa (F VIIa), and inhibition of this pathway completely eliminates intrapulmonary fibrin deposition. A tissue factor pathway inhibitor TFPI also contributes to pulmonary coagulationdisturbance in ARDS. Pulmonary coagulationdisturbance caused by pneumonia can worsen the damage to the lungs and thus contribute to the progression of the disease. Cytokines are the main linking factors between inflammation and changes in blood clotting and fibrinolysis. The sources of proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs are probably alveolar macrophages. The activation of alveolar macrophages occurs through the nuclear factor kappa-bi (NF-κB), which controls thetranscription of the expression of immune response genes, cell apoptosis, which leads to the development of inflammation and autoimmune diseases as a result of direct stimulation of TF activation. Conversely,coagulation itself can affect bronchoalveolar inflammation. Coagulation leads to the formation of proteases that interact with specific cellular receptors, activating intracellular signaling pathways. The use of anticoagulant therapy, which also has an anti-inflammatory effect, perhaps one of the therapeutic targets for coronavirus infection.The difficulty here is that it seems appropriate to study anticoagulant interventions' influence on clinically significant cardio-respiratory parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Hemostasis , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 2539-2545, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurs following infection with the potentially fatal, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Infection can be complicated by coagulopathy, at times featuring thrombocytopenia and thrombosis alongside other coagulation abnormalities, also termed COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC). Data concerning CAC in pregnancy are limited. Better understanding of physician experiences is essential to identify current practice patterns and knowledge gaps. OBJECTIVES: To determine physician experiences and practice patterns regarding CAC in pregnancy. METHODS: Self-administered survey using the RedCap online platform; supported by the ISTH Subcommittee on Women's Health Issues in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. RESULTS: Seventy-five respondents fully or partially completed the survey. Of 1546 reported cases, disease severity was specified in 1298. Sixty-four percent of COVID-19 infections were mild, whereas 4% were severe. Of all cases, 1% developed CAC, with 65% classified as severe. The most frequent abnormalities included thrombocytopenia, elevated C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and lymphopenia. Low molecular weight heparin was the anticoagulant of choice in CAC and was provided by 77% of respondents, with 60% using standard prophylactic dosing. Thrombosis occurred in seven anticoagulated patients who were receiving standard prophylactic (four) or weight-based (three) dosing. Disease severity and additional thrombosis risk factors dictated anticoagulation duration. CONCLUSION: In the select population reported by our survey, CAC appears to be uncommon in pregnancy. Anticoagulation practices vary and may not reflect current guidelines. Venous thromboembolism was observed in some CAC patients despite prophylactic anticoagulation (including standard and weight-adjusted dosing). Urgent research is required to determine appropriate anticoagulant dosing and duration in pregnant women with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Communication , Female , Hemostasis , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Women's Health
10.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 28(5): 339-344, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294830

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Protein S (PS) is an essential natural anticoagulant. PS deficiency is a major contributor to acquired hypercoagulability. Acquired hypercoagulability causes myocardial infarction, stroke, and deep vein thrombosis in millions of individuals. Yet, despite its importance in hemostasis, PS is the least understood anticoagulant. Even after 40 years since PS was first described, we are still uncovering information about how PS functions. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent findings that advance our understanding of the functions of PS and explain hypercoagulability caused by severe PS deficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: PS has long been described as a cofactor for Activated Protein C (APC) and Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI). However, a recent report describes direct inhibition of Factor IXa (FIXa) by PS, an activity of PS that had been completely overlooked. Thrombophilia is becoming a more frequently reported disorder. Hereditary PS deficiency is an anticoagulant deficiency that results eventually in thrombophilia. In addition, PS deficiency is a predisposing factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), but an effect of PS deficiency in arterial thrombosis, such as arterial ischemic stroke, is uncertain. Plasma PS concentration decreases in pregnant women. Inherited thrombophilias are important etiologies for recurrent pregnancy loss, and anticoagulation therapy is of benefit to women with recurrent pregnancy loss who had documented only PS deficiency.Hypoxia is a risk factor for VTE, and hypoxia downregulates plasma PS level. Importantly, COVID-19 can lead to hypoxemia because of lung damage from IL6-driven inflammatory responses to the viral infection. Because hypoxia decreases the abundance of the key anticoagulant PS, we surmise that the IL6-induced cytokine explosion combined with hypoxemia causes a drop in PS level that exacerbates the thrombotic risk in COVID-19 patients. SUMMARY: This review is intended to advance understanding of the anticoagulant function of an important plasma protein, PS. Despite 40+ years of research, we have not had a complete description of PS biology as it pertains to control of blood coagulation. However, the picture of PS function has become sharper with the recent discovery of FIXa inhibition by PS. Hemostasis mediated by PS now includes regulation of FIXa activity alongside the cofactor activities of PS in the TFPI/APC pathways. In addition, the direct inhibition of FIXa by PS suggests that PS, particularly a small derivative of PS, could be used to treat individuals with PS deficiencies or abnormalities that cause thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemostasis , Protein S/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombophilia/pathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/metabolism
11.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(7): 1599-1601, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292077
14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 746-753, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263169

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) have haemostatic dysfunction and are at higher risk of thrombotic complications. Although age is a major risk factor for outcome impairment in COVID-19, its impact on coagulative patterns here is still unclear. We investigated the association of Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) with thrombotic and haemorrhagic events according to different ages in patients admitted for COVID-19. A total of 27 patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia, without need for intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation at hospital presentation, and 24 controls with non-COVID-19 pneumonia were prospectively included. ETP levels were measured on admission. Patients were evaluated for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, venous thromboembolism) and bleeding complications [according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) definition] during in-hospital stay. COVID-19 patients had similar ETP levels compared to controls (AUC 93 ± 24% vs 99 ± 21%, p = 0.339). In the COVID-19 cohort, patients with in-hospital MACE showed lower ETP levels on admission vs those without (AUC 86 ± 14% vs 95 ± 27%, p = 0.041), whereas ETP values were comparable in patients with or without bleeding (AUC 82 ± 16% vs 95 ± 26%, p = 0.337). An interaction between age and ETP levels for both MACE and bleeding complications was observed, where a younger age was associated with an inverse relationship between ETP values and adverse event risk (pint 0.018 for MACE and 0.050 for bleeding). Patients with COVID-19 have similar thrombin potential on admission compared to those with non-COVID-19 pneumonia. In younger COVID-19 patients, lower ETP levels were associated with a higher risk of both MACE and bleeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemostasis , Hospitalization , Thrombin/metabolism , Thrombosis/etiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/therapy , Time Factors
15.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 273-298, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262578

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 sepsis is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a consequence of pulmonary tropism of the virus and endothelial heterogeneity of the host. ARDS is a phenotype among patients with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to disseminated vascular microthrombotic disease (VMTD). In response to the viral septicemia, the host activates the complement system which produces terminal complement complex C5b-9 to neutralize pathogen. C5b-9 causes pore formation on the membrane of host endothelial cells (ECs) if CD59 is underexpressed. Also, viral S protein attraction to endothelial ACE2 receptor damages ECs. Both affect ECs and provoke endotheliopathy. Disseminated endotheliopathy activates two molecular pathways: inflammatory and microthrombotic. The former releases inflammatory cytokines from ECs, which lead to inflammation. The latter initiates endothelial exocytosis of unusually large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers and FVIII from Weibel-Palade bodies. If ADAMTS13 is insufficient, ULVWF multimers activate intravascular hemostasis of ULVWF path. In activated ULVWF path, ULVWF multimers anchored to damaged endothelial cells recruit circulating platelets and trigger microthrombogenesis. This process produces "microthrombi strings" composed of platelet-ULVWF complexes, leading to endotheliopathy-associated VMTD (EA-VMTD). In COVID-19, microthrombosis initially affects the lungs per tropism causing ARDS, but EA-VMTD may orchestrate more complex clinical phenotypes, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)-like syndrome, hepatic coagulopathy, MODS and combined micro-macrothrombotic syndrome. In this pandemic, ARDS and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) have often coexisted. The analysis based on two hemostatic theories supports ARDS caused by activated ULVWF path is EA-VMTD and PTE caused by activated ULVWF and TF paths is macrothrombosis. The thrombotic disorder of COVID-19 sepsis is consistent with the notion that ARDS is virus-induced disseminated EA-VMTD and PTE is in-hospital vascular injury-related macrothrombosis which is not directly  related to viral pathogenesis. The pathogenesis-based therapeutic approach is discussed for the treatment of EA-VMTD with antimicrothrombotic regimen and the potential need of anticoagulation therapy for coinciding macrothrombosis in comprehensive COVID-19 care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hemostasis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Phenotype , Sepsis/metabolism , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/metabolism
16.
Mol Metab ; 53: 101262, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Obesity, in particular visceral obesity, and insulin resistance emerged as major risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is strongly associated with hemostatic alterations. Because obesity and insulin resistance predispose to thrombotic diseases, we investigated the relationship between hemostatic alterations and body fat distribution in participants at risk for type 2 diabetes. SUBJECTS: Body fat distribution (visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue) and liver fat content of 150 participants - with impaired glucose tolerance and/or impaired fasting glucose - were determined using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Participants underwent precise metabolic characterization and major hemostasis parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: Procoagulant factors (FII, FVII, FVIII, and FIX) and anticoagulant proteins (antithrombin, protein C, and protein S) were significantly associated with body fat distribution. In patients with fatty liver, fibrinogen (298 mg/dl vs. 264 mg/dl, p = 0.0182), FVII (99% vs. 90%, p = 0.0049), FVIII (114% vs. 90%, p = 0.0098), protein C (124% vs. 111%, p = 0.0006), and protein S (109% vs. 89%, p < 0.0001) were higher than in controls. In contrast, antithrombin (97% vs. 102%, p = 0.0025) was higher in control patients. In multivariate analyses controlling for insulin sensitivity, body fat compartments, and genotype variants (PNPLA3I148MM/MI/TM6SF2E167kK/kE), only protein C and protein S remained significantly increased in fatty liver. CONCLUSIONS: Body fat distribution is significantly associated with alterations of procoagulant and anticoagulant parameters. Liver fat plays a key role in the regulation of protein C and protein S, suggesting a potential counteracting mechanism to the prothrombotic state in subjects with prediabetes and fatty liver.


Subject(s)
Body Fat Distribution , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Fatty Liver/epidemiology , Hemostasis/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Fatty Liver/blood , Fatty Liver/diagnosis , Fatty Liver/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Protein C/analysis , Protein C/metabolism , Protein S/analysis , Protein S/metabolism , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217102

ABSTRACT

Hemostasis disorders play an important role in the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and outcome of COVID-19. First of all, the hemostasis system suffers due to a complicated and severe course of COVID-19. A significant number of COVID-19 patients develop signs of hypercoagulability, thrombocytopenia, and hyperfibrinolysis. Patients with severe COVID-19 have a tendency toward thrombotic complications in the venous and arterial systems, which is the leading cause of death in this disease. Despite the success achieved in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, the search for new effective anticoagulants, thrombolytics, and fibrinolytics, as well as their optimal dose strategies, continues to be relevant. The wide therapeutic potential of seaweed sulfated polysaccharides (PSs), including anticoagulant, thrombolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, opens up new possibilities for their study in experimental and clinical trials. These natural compounds can be important complementary drugs for the recovery from hemostasis disorders due to their natural origin, safety, and low cost compared to synthetic drugs. In this review, the authors analyze possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the hemostasis disorders observed in the pathological progression of COVID-19, and also focus the attention of researchers on seaweed PSs as potential drugs aimed to correction these disorders in COVID-19 patients. Modern literature data on the anticoagulant, antithrombotic, and fibrinolytic activities of seaweed PSs are presented, depending on their structural features (content and position of sulfate groups on the main chain of PSs, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and type of glycosidic bonds, the degree of PS chain branching, etc.). The mechanisms of PS action on the hemostasis system and the issues of oral bioavailability of PSs, important for their clinical use as oral anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents, are considered. The combination of the anticoagulant, thrombolytic, and fibrinolytic properties, along with low toxicity and relative cheapness of production, open up prospects for the clinical use of PSs as alternative sources of new anticoagulant and antithrombotic compounds. However, further investigation and clinical trials are needed to confirm their efficacy.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Hemostasis/drug effects , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Seaweed , Sulfates/pharmacology , Thrombosis/complications , Animals , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/pharmacokinetics , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Humans , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacokinetics , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Seaweed/chemistry , Sulfates/chemistry , Sulfates/pharmacokinetics , Sulfates/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy
18.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194710

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions worldwide, leaving a global burden for long-term care of COVID-19 survivors. It is thus imperative to study post-COVID (i.e., short-term) and long-COVID (i.e., long-term) effects, specifically as local and systemic pathophysiological outcomes of other coronavirus-related diseases (such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)) were well-cataloged. We conducted a comprehensive review of adverse post-COVID health outcomes and potential long-COVID effects. We observed that such adverse outcomes were not localized. Rather, they affected different human systems, including: (i) immune system (e.g., Guillain-Barré syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndromes such as Kawasaki disease), (ii) hematological system (vascular hemostasis, blood coagulation), (iii) pulmonary system (respiratory failure, pulmonary thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, pulmonary vascular damage, pulmonary fibrosis), (iv) cardiovascular system (myocardial hypertrophy, coronary artery atherosclerosis, focal myocardial fibrosis, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy), (v) gastrointestinal, hepatic, and renal systems (diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, anorexia, acid reflux, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, lack of appetite/constipation), (vi) skeletomuscular system (immune-mediated skin diseases, psoriasis, lupus), (vii) nervous system (loss of taste/smell/hearing, headaches, spasms, convulsions, confusion, visual impairment, nerve pain, dizziness, impaired consciousness, nausea/vomiting, hemiplegia, ataxia, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage), (viii) mental health (stress, depression and anxiety). We additionally hypothesized mechanisms of action by investigating possible molecular mechanisms associated with these disease outcomes/symptoms. Overall, the COVID-19 pathology is still characterized by cytokine storm that results to endothelial inflammation, microvascular thrombosis, and multiple organ failures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Cardiovascular System , Diarrhea , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Hemostasis , Humans , Immune System , Inflammation , Mental Health , Nervous System , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Thrombosis
19.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(4): 1008-1013, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174015

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic, resulting in a global suspension of non-emergency medical procedures such as screening endoscopic examinations. There have been several reports of COVID-19 patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting. In this report, we present a case of successful hemostasis of bleeding gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp by endoscopic treatment in a patient with severe COVID-19. The case was under mechanical ventilation with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and the airway was on a closed circuit. This indicates that COVID-19 is associated with not only lung injury but also intestinal damage, and that proper protective protocols are essential in guaranteeing the best outcomes for patients and clinical professionals during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leiomyoma , Hemostasis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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