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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715769

ABSTRACT

A hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening and treatment program was conducted in Hungarian prisons on a voluntary basis. After HCV-RNA testing and genotyping for anti-HCV positives, treatments with direct-acting antiviral agents were commenced by hepatologists who visited the institutions monthly. Patients were supervised by the prisons' medical staff. Data were retrospectively collected from the Hungarian Hepatitis Treatment Registry, from the Health Registry of Prisons, and from participating hepatologists. Eighty-four percent of Hungarian prisons participated, meaning a total of 5779 individuals (28% of the inmate population) underwent screening. HCV-RNA positivity was confirmed in 317/5779 cases (5.49%); 261/317 (82.3%) started treatment. Ninety-nine percent of them admitted previous intravenous drug use. So far, 220 patients received full treatment and 41 patients are still on treatment. Based on the available end of treatment (EOT) + 24 weeks timepoint data, per protocol sustained virologic response rate was 96.8%. In conclusion, the Hungarian prison screening and treatment program, with the active participation of hepatologists and the prisons' medical staff, is a well-functioning model. Through the Hungarian experience, we emphasize that the "test-and-treat" principle is feasible and effective at micro-eliminating HCV in prisons, where infection rate, as well as history of intravenous drug usage, are high.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C/blood , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Hungary , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Sustained Virologic Response , Young Adult
2.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302500

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a significant strain on hepatitis programs and interventions (screening, diagnosis, and treatment) at a critical moment in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination. We sought to quantify changes in Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) utilization among different countries during the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional time series analysis between 1 September 2018 and 31 August 2020, using the IQVIA MIDAS database, which contains DAA purchase data for 54 countries. We examined the percent change in DAA units dispensed (e.g., pills and capsules) from March to August 2019 to the same period of time in 2020 across the 54 countries. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to examine the impact of COVID-19 on monthly rates of DAA utilization across each of the major developed economies (G7 nations). Overall, 46 of 54 (85%) jurisdictions experienced a decline in DAA utilization during the pandemic, with an average of -43% (range: -1% in Finland to -93% in Brazil). All high HCV prevalence (HCV prevalence > 2%) countries in the database experienced a decline in utilization, average -49% (range: -17% in Kazakhstan to -90% in Egypt). Across the G7 nations, we also observed a decreased trend in DAA utilization during the early months of the pandemic, with significant declines (p < 0.01) for Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The global response to COVID-19 led to a large decrease in DAA utilization globally. Deliberate efforts to counteract the impact of COVID-19 on treatment delivery are needed to support the goal of HCV elimination.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/standards , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Finland/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Kazakhstan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 117-124, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231559

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection large-scale diagnosis and treatment are hampered by lack of a simple, rapid, and reliable point-of-care (POC) test, which poses a challenge for the elimination of hepatitis C as a public health problem. This study aimed to evaluate Cepheid Xpert® HCV Viral Load performance in comparison with the Roche Cobas® TaqMan® HCV Test using serum samples of HCV-infected patients in Indonesia. Viral load quantification was performed on 243 anti-HCV positive patients' samples using both Xpert HCV VL and Roche HCV tests, followed by HCV genotyping by reverse hybridization. Strength of the relationship between the assays was measured by Pearson correlation coefficient, while level of agreement was analyzed by Deming regression and Bland-Altman plot analysis using log10-transformed viral load values. Quantifiable viral load was detected in 180/243 (74.1%), with Xpert HCV VL sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 0.98, 1.00) and specificity of 98.4% (95% CI 0.91, 0.99) based on the Roche HCV test, while HCV genotypes were determined in 172/180 (95.6%) samples. There was a good correlation between both assays (r = 0.97, P < 0.001), overall and per genotype, with good concordance by Deming regression and a mean difference of -0.25 log10 IU/mL (95% CI -0.33, -0.18) by Bland-Altman plot analysis. Xpert HCV VL test was demonstrated as a POC platform with good performance for HCV diagnosis and treatment decision that would be beneficial for decentralized services in resource-limited areas. HCV testing sites, alongside additional GeneXpert modular systems distributed toward the fight against COVID-19, could ensure some continuity, once this pandemic is controlled.


Subject(s)
Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/virology , Point-of-Care Testing , Viral Load , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Genotype , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250833, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223798

ABSTRACT

Despite the availability of highly effective and well-tolerated direct-acting antivirals, not all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection receive treatment. This retrospective, multi-centre, noninterventional, case-control study identified patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection initiating (control) or not initiating (case) treatment at 43 sites in Germany from September 2017 to June 2018. It aimed to compare characteristics of the two patient populations and to identify factors involved in patient/physician decision to initiate/not initiate chronic hepatitis C virus treatment, with a particular focus on historical barriers. Overall, 793 patients were identified: 573 (72%) who received treatment and 220 (28%) who did not. In 42% of patients, the reason for not initiating treatment was patient wish, particularly due to fear of treatment (17%) or adverse events (13%). Other frequently observed reasons for not initiating treatment were in accordance with known historical barriers for physicians to initiate therapy, including perceived or expected lack of compliance (14.5%), high patient age (10.9%), comorbidities (15.0%), alcohol abuse (9.1%), hard drug use (7.7%), and opioid substitution therapy (4.5%). Patient wish against therapy was also a frequently reported reason for not initiating treatment in the postponed (35.2%) and not planned (47.0%) subgroups; of note, known historical factors were also common reasons for postponing treatment. Real-world and clinical trial evidence is accumulating, which suggests that such historical barriers do not negatively impact treatment effectiveness. Improved education is key to facilitate progress towards the World Health Organization target of eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sustained Virologic Response , Young Adult
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