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1.
Pharm Res ; 39(3): 541-551, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777764

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intranasally administered unfractionated heparin (UFH) and other sulfated polysaccharides are potential prophylactics for COVID-19. The purpose of this research was to measure the safety and pharmacokinetics of clearance of intranasally administered UFH solution from the nasal cavity. METHODS: Double-blinded daily intranasal dosing in C57Bl6 mice with four doses (60 ng to 60 µg) of UFH was carried out for fourteen consecutive days, with both blood coagulation measurements and subject adverse event monitoring. The pharmacokinetics of fluorescent-labeled UFH clearance from the nasal cavity were measured in mice by in vivo imaging. Intranasal UFH at 2000 U/day solution with nasal spray device was tested for safety in a small number of healthy human subjects. RESULTS: UFH showed no evidence of toxicity in mice at any dose measured. No significant changes were observed in activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), platelet count, or frequency of minor irritant events over vehicle-only control. Human subjects showed no significant changes in aPTT time, international normalized ratio (INR), or platelet count over baseline measurements. No serious adverse events were observed. In vivo imaging in a mouse model showed a single phase clearance of UFH from the nasal cavity. After 12 h, 3.2% of the administered UFH remained in the nasal cavity, decaying to background levels by 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: UFH showed no toxic effects for extended daily intranasal dosing in mice as well as humans. The clearance kinetics of intranasal heparin solution from the nasal cavity indicates potentially protective levels for up to 12 h after dosing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Animals , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Partial Thromboplastin Time
2.
Kidney360 ; 2(1): 141-153, 2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776882

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has had substantial effects on the incidence and management of kidney diseases, including AKI, ESKD, GN, and kidney transplantation. Initial reports from China suggested a lower AKI incidence in patients with COVID-19, but more recent studies from North America reveal a much higher incidence, likely due to the higher prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, and CKD. AKI in this setting is associated with worse outcomes, including the requirement for vasopressors or mechanical ventilation and death. Performing RRT in those with AKI poses challenges, such as limiting exposure of staff, preserving PPE, coagulopathy, and hypoxemia due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Continuous RRT is the preferred modality, with sustained low-efficiency dialysis also an option, both managed without 1:1 hemodialysis nursing support. Regional citrate is the preferred anticoagulation, but systemic unfractionated heparin may be used in patients with coagulopathy. The ultrafiltration rate has to be set carefully, taking into consideration hypotension, hypoxemia, and responsiveness to presser and ventilatory support. The chance of transmission puts in-center chronic hemodialysis and other immunosuppressed patients at particularly increased risk. Limited data show that patients with CKD are also at increased risk for more severe disease, if infected. Little is known about the virus's effects on immunocompromised patients with glomerular diseases and kidney transplants, which introduces challenges for management of immunosuppressant regimens. Although there are no standardized guidelines regarding the management of immunosuppression, several groups recommend stopping the antimetabolite in hospitalized transplant patients and continuing a reduced dose of calcineurin inhibitors. This comprehensive review critically appraises the best available evidence regarding the effect of COVID-19 on the incidence and management of kidney diseases. Where evidence is lacking, current expert opinion and clinical guidelines are reviewed, and knowledge gaps worth investigation are identified.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heparin , Humans , Incidence , Kidney , Risk Factors
3.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221091770, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775237

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that inflammation may contribute to the interplay of endogenous glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and anti-PF4 antibodies. In this study, we quantified the levels of anti-PF4 antibody isotypes and endogenous GAGs together with inflammatory biomarkers in pulmonary embolism (PE) patients to determine whether there is a relationship in between. Identification of this relationship may provide insight to the complex pathophysiology of PE and HIT and may also be useful for development of potential prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples from PE patients (n: 210) were analyzed for anti-PF4 antibody isotypes and various thrombo-inflammatory cytokines utilizing commercially available biochip array and ELISA methods. The endogenous GAG levels in PE patients' plasma were quantified using a fluorescence quenching method. The collected data analyzed to demonstrate the relationship between various parameters. RESULTS: The endogenous GAG levels were increased in the PE group (P < .05). The levels of anti-PF4 antibody isotypes were higher in varying levels in comparison to the normal group (P < .05). Inflammatory cytokines have shown varying levels of increase with IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 showing the most pronounced values. Mortality outcome was related to increased GAGs and some of the cytokines. CONCLUSION: In this study, we demonstrated increased levels of anti-PF4 antibody isotypes, endogenous GAGs, and inflammatory biomarkers in a large patient cohort in PE. The levels of the endogenous GAGs and inflammatory biomarkers were associated with PE severity and mortality. More studies are needed to understand this complex pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombocytopenia , Biomarkers , Glycosaminoglycans , Heparin , Humans , Platelet Factor 4 , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis
4.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(2): 184-186, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753947

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced thrombosis with thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a recently-described condition associated with arterial and venous thrombosis following vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccine. This report describes two cases of stroke caused by arterial and venous thromboses presenting within 28 days of receiving the AstraZeneca vaccine. The patients were otherwise young and healthy with minimal risk factors for thrombosis yet developed a rapid, ultimately fatal neurological deterioration.The patients were significantly thrombocytopenic with disproportionately raised D-dimers, both of which are widely reported in this condition. Both cases had measurable immunoglobulin G platelet factor-4 antibodies detected via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, similar to those described in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.These cases illustrate that physicians should be especially mindful of VITT in the context of evolving evidence on treatment and in view of the potentially rapid and catastrophic neurological deterioration, leading to fatality despite best supportive care.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Thrombosis , Thrombotic Stroke , Heparin , Humans , Stroke/complications , Thrombosis/etiology
5.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753654

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the importance of D-xylose for fighting viruses (especially SARS-CoV-2) that use core proteins as receptors at the cell surface, by providing additional supporting facts that these viruses probably bind at HS/CS attachment sites (i.e., the hydroxyl groups of Ser/Thr residues of the core proteins intended to receive the D-xylose molecules to initiate the HS/CS chains). Essentially, the additional supporting facts, are: some anterior studies on the binding sites of exogenous heparin and soluble HS on the core proteins, the inhibition of the viral entry by pre-incubation of cells with heparin, and additionally, corroborating studies about the mechanism leading to type 2 diabetes during viral infection. We then discuss the mechanism by which serine protease inhibitors inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry. The biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and heparin (Hep) is initiated not only by D-xylose derived from uridine diphosphate (UDP)-xylose, but also bioactive D-xylose molecules, even in situations where cells were previously treated with GAG inhibitors. This property of D-xylose shown by previous anterior studies helped in the explanation of the mechanism leading to type 2 diabetes during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This explanation is completed here by a preliminary estimation of xyloside GAGs (HS/CS/DS/Hep) in the body, and with other previous studies helping to corroborate the mechanism by which the D-xylose exhibits its antiglycaemic properties and the mechanism leading to type 2 diabetes during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This paper also discusses the confirmatory studies of regarding the correlation between D-xylose and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/metabolism , Heparin/pharmacology , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745765

ABSTRACT

Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a rare condition related to a state of hypercoagulability in advanced neoplastic disease. Most of the time, arterial thromboembolic event precedes the diagnosis of NBTE. We report here a case of NBTE responsible for multiple ischaemic strokes, which leads to the diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Aortic and mitral valvular regurgitations secondary to NBTE appeared within 6 weeks despite therapeutic anticoagulation with direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) in stroke prevention of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Bivalvular regurgitations resolved 8 weeks after therapeutic switch to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and chemotherapy. DOACs are a possible alternative to LMWH for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with active neoplasia. There is a lack of evidence for a clinical efficiency for the prevention of arterial thromboembolism in NBTE. We propose here a short review of the efficacy of anticoagulant therapy for the prevention of arterial thromboembolism in NBTE.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Endocarditis, Non-Infective , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Endocarditis, Non-Infective/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Non-Infective/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Non-Infective/etiology , Heparin , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e75, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742199

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but life-threatening complication. VITT strongly mimics heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and shares clinical features. Heparin is commonly used to prevent coagulation during hemodialysis. Therefore, nephrologists might encounter patients needing dialysis with a history of heparin exposure who developed thrombotic thrombocytopenia after vaccination. A 70-year-old male presented with acute kidney injury and altered mental status due to lithium intoxication. He needed consecutive hemodialysis using heparin. Deep vein thrombosis of left lower extremity and accompanying severe thrombocytopenia of 15,000/µL on 24 days after vaccination and at the same time, nine days after heparin use. Anti-platelet factor 4 antibody test was positive. Anticoagulation with apixaban and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion resolved swelling of his left calf and thrombocytopenia. There were no definitive diagnostic tools capable of differentiating between VITT and HIT in this patient. Although VITT and HIT share treatment with IVIG and non-heparin anticoagulation, distinguishing between VITT and HIT will make it possible to establish a follow-up vaccination plan in a person who has had a thrombocytopenic thrombotic event. Further research is needed to develop the tools to make a clear distinction between the clinical syndromes.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Autoantibodies/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lithium/toxicity , Male , Platelet Count , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis/methods , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis
10.
Internist (Berl) ; 63(4): 453-460, 2022 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739283

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a high risk of microvascular immunothrombosis as well as symptomatic and incidental thromboembolisms, predominantly in the venous system but also in the arterial system. This explains among other things the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of the patients. The present state of knowledge on the pathophysiology of immunothrombosis and the strategies of anticoagulation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are summarized and illuminated in this article. According to the current guidelines moderately to severely ill patients who are being treated in hospital should receive thrombosis prophylaxis with low molecular weight or unfractionated heparin or alternatively with fondaparinux, as long as there is no clearly increased risk of bleeding. Apart from the established indications for treatment, an intensified or therapeutic dose prophylaxis should be considered very cautiously in these critically ill patients, also due to the increased bleeding complications. The routine continuation of prophylactic anticoagulation after discharge from hospital is currently not recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD013739, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is respiratory insufficiency that can also be related to diffuse pulmonary microthrombosis and thromboembolic events, such as pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, or arterial thrombosis. People with COVID-19 who develop thromboembolism have a worse prognosis. Anticoagulants such as heparinoids (heparins or pentasaccharides), vitamin K antagonists and direct anticoagulants are used for the prevention and treatment of venous or arterial thromboembolism. Besides their anticoagulant properties, heparinoids have an additional anti-inflammatory potential. However, the benefit of anticoagulants for people with COVID-19 is still under debate. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of anticoagulants versus active comparator, placebo or no intervention in people hospitalised with COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and IBECS databases, the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and medRxiv preprint database from their inception to 14 April 2021. We also checked the reference lists of any relevant systematic reviews identified, and contacted specialists in the field for additional references to trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cluster-RCTs and cohort studies that compared prophylactic anticoagulants versus active comparator, placebo or no intervention for the management of people hospitalised with COVID-19. We excluded studies without a comparator group and with a retrospective design (all previously included studies) as we were able to include better study designs. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and necessity for additional respiratory support. Secondary outcomes were mortality related to COVID-19, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, adverse events, length of hospital stay and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. We used Cochrane RoB 1 to assess the risk of bias for RCTs, ROBINS-I to assess risk of bias for non-randomised studies (NRS) and GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. We meta-analysed data when appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven studies (16,185 participants) with participants hospitalised with COVID-19, in either intensive care units, hospital wards or emergency departments. Studies were from Brazil (2), Iran (1), Italy (1), and the USA (1), and two involved more than country. The mean age of participants was 55 to 68 years and the follow-up period ranged from 15 to 90 days. The studies assessed the effects of heparinoids, direct anticoagulants or vitamin K antagonists, and reported sparse data or did not report some of our outcomes of interest: necessity for additional respiratory support, mortality related to COVID-19, and quality of life. Higher-dose versus lower-dose anticoagulants (4 RCTs, 4647 participants) Higher-dose anticoagulants result in little or no difference in all-cause mortality (risk ratio (RR) 1.03, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.16, 4489 participants; 4 RCTs) and increase minor bleeding (RR 3.28, 95% CI 1.75 to 6.14, 1196 participants; 3 RCTs) compared to lower-dose anticoagulants up to 30 days (high-certainty evidence). Higher-dose anticoagulants probably reduce pulmonary embolism (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.70, 4360 participants; 4 RCTs), and slightly increase major bleeding (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.80, 4400 participants; 4 RCTs) compared to lower-dose anticoagulants up to 30 days (moderate-certainty evidence). Higher-dose anticoagulants may result in little or no difference in deep vein thrombosis (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.03, 3422 participants; 4 RCTs), stroke (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.40 to 2.03, 4349 participants; 3 RCTs), major adverse limb events (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.99, 1176 participants; 2 RCTs), myocardial infarction (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.55, 4349 participants; 3 RCTs), atrial fibrillation (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.70, 562 participants; 1 study), or thrombocytopenia (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.24, 2789 participants; 2 RCTs) compared to lower-dose anticoagulants up to 30 days (low-certainty evidence). It is unclear whether higher-dose anticoagulants have any effect on necessity for additional respiratory support, mortality related to COVID-19, and quality of life (very low-certainty evidence or no data). Anticoagulants versus no treatment (3 prospective NRS, 11,538 participants) Anticoagulants may reduce all-cause mortality but the evidence is very uncertain due to two study results being at critical and serious risk of bias (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.74, 8395 participants; 3 NRS; very low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain if anticoagulants have any effect on necessity for additional respiratory support, mortality related to COVID-19, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, stroke, myocardial infarction and quality of life (very low-certainty evidence or no data). Ongoing studies We found 62 ongoing studies in hospital settings (60 RCTs, 35,470 participants; 2 prospective NRS, 120 participants) in 20 different countries. Thirty-five ongoing studies plan to report mortality and 26 plan to report necessity for additional respiratory support. We expect 58 studies to be completed in December 2021, and four in July 2022. From 60 RCTs, 28 are comparing different doses of anticoagulants, 24 are comparing anticoagulants versus no anticoagulants, seven are comparing different types of anticoagulants, and one did not report detail of the comparator group. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: When compared to a lower-dose regimen, higher-dose anticoagulants result in little to no difference in all-cause mortality and increase minor bleeding in people hospitalised with COVID-19 up to 30 days. Higher-dose anticoagulants possibly reduce pulmonary embolism, slightly increase major bleeding, may result in little to no difference in hospitalisation time, and may result in little to no difference in deep vein thrombosis, stroke, major adverse limb events, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, or thrombocytopenia.  Compared with no treatment, anticoagulants may reduce all-cause mortality but the evidence comes from non-randomised studies and is very uncertain. It is unclear whether anticoagulants have any effect on the remaining outcomes compared to no anticoagulants (very low-certainty evidence or no data). Although we are very confident that new RCTs will not change the effects of different doses of anticoagulants on mortality and minor bleeding, high-quality RCTs are still needed, mainly for the other primary outcome (necessity for additional respiratory support), the comparison with no anticoagulation, when comparing the types of anticoagulants and giving anticoagulants for a prolonged period of time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(2): JC17, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716078

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Spyropoulos AC, Goldin M, Giannis D, et al. Efficacy and safety of therapeutic-dose heparin vs standard prophylactic or intermediate-dose heparins for thromboprophylaxis in high-risk hospitalized patients with COVID-19: the HEP-COVID randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181:1612-20. 34617959.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714384

ABSTRACT

We present a case study of a 38-year-old man who developed arterial and venous thrombi, resulting in multiterritorial strokes, a pulmonary embolus and a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the setting of spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia syndrome.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Adult , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced
14.
Hematology ; 27(1): 318-321, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse drug reaction associated with thrombosis. Clinical scoring systems and the presence of anti-platelet factor 4 (anti-PF4)/heparin antibodies determine the diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man who was treated with acenocoumarol due to a chronic left ventricular thrombus was admitted to the hospital for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and pulmonary embolism. The patient was started on bemiparin and discharged. Left lower limb acute arterial ischemia and thrombocytopenia were diagnosed 18 days later. Computed tomography angiography revealed a large left ventricular thrombus and multiple arterial thrombi. Left femoral-popliteal thromboembolectomy was performed. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies confirmed an HIT diagnosis. Fondaparinux (7.5 mg/24 h) was initiated, but cardiac surgery was necessary. Bivalirudin was used during surgery, with an initial load (1.25 mg/kg) and maintenance infusion (2.5 mg/kg/h). The cardiac thrombus was extracted, but the patient experienced a postsurgical myocardial infarction. Percutaneous cardiovascular intervention (PCI) required a bivalirudin load (0.75 mg/kg) and maintenance infusion (1.75 mg/kg/h). No coronary lesions were detected, and argatroban was started afterwards (0.5 µg/kg/min). When the platelet count exceeded 100 × 109/L, acenocoumarol was initiated. Thereupon, acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/24 h) was added. No other complications have been reported to date. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of intraventricular and multiple arterial thrombi is remarkable. SARS-CoV-2 infection likely contributed to a hypercoagulable state. The management of patients with HIT undergoing cardiac surgery is challenging. If surgery cannot be delayed, then treatment with bivalirudin is recommended. Additionally, this drug is recommended for PCI. Bivalirudin is safe and well-tolerated in both procedures.


Subject(s)
Acenocoumarol/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin , Hirudins/administration & dosage , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pipecolic Acids/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Arginine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/therapy
15.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(2): JC16, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708592

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Sholzberg M, Tang GH, Rahhal H, et al. Effectiveness of therapeutic heparin versus prophylactic heparin on death, mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission in moderately ill patients with covid-19 admitted to hospital: RAPID randomised clinical trial. BMJ. 2021;375:n2400. 34649864.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Hematol ; 97(5): 519-526, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705173

ABSTRACT

Rare cases of COVID-19 vaccinated individuals develop anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia and thrombotic complications, a syndrome referred to as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Currently, information on the characteristics and persistence of anti-PF4 antibodies that cause VITT after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination is limited, and available diagnostic assays fail to differentiate Ad26.COV2.S and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-associated VITT from similar clinical disorders, namely heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and spontaneous HIT. Here we demonstrate that while Ad26.COV2.S-associated VITT patients are uniformly strongly positive in PF4-polyanion enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs); they are frequently negative in the serotonin release assay (SRA). The PF4-dependent p-selectin expression assay (PEA) that uses platelets treated with PF4 rather than heparin consistently diagnosed Ad26.COV2.S-associated VITT. Most Ad26.COV2.S-associated VITT antibodies persisted for >5 months in PF4-polyanion ELISAs, while the PEA became negative earlier. Two patients had otherwise unexplained mild persistent thrombocytopenia (140-150 x 103 /µL) 6 months after acute presentation. From an epidemiological perspective, differentiating VITT from spontaneous HIT, another entity that develops in the absence of proximate heparin exposure, and HIT is important, but currently available PF4-polyanion ELISAs and functional assay are non-specific and detect all three conditions. Here, we report that a novel un-complexed PF4 ELISA specifically differentiates VITT, secondary to both Ad26.COV2.S and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, from both spontaneous HIT, HIT and commonly-encountered HIT-suspected patients who are PF4/polyanion ELISA-positive but negative in functional assays. In summary, Ad26.COV2.S-associated VITT antibodies are persistent, and the un-complexed PF4 ELISA appears to be both sensitive and specific for VITT diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Platelet Factor 4 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 120, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic is the major public health problem in the world actually. It's associated with high morbidity and mortality. To date, no therapeutic measure has a curative potential. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a drug with immunomodulatory properties that has demonstrated antiviral efficacy in in vitro experiments, with conflicting results in in vivo studies. METHODS: A single-center, prospective and interventional study, that evaluates the impact on mortality of the HCQ use in 154 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a Brazilian public hospital. The study also aims to determine prognostic factors that predict mortality, ICU admission and endotracheal intubation in this population. RESULTS: 154 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR and hospitalized were included. There was a male predominance (87/154, 56.5%), median age 60 years and 88% (136/154) had comorbidities. Among these, 76% (117/154) were admitted to the ICU and 29.2% (45/154) experienced EOT. The OMR was 51.3% (79/154). There was no difference in mortality between patients treated with HCQ (N = 95) and non-HCQ (N = 59) (44.1% × 55.8%, p = 0.758). In univariate analysis, age ≥ 60 years (HR 3.62, p < 0.001), need for mechanical ventilation (HR 2.17, p = 0.001), ≥ 2 comorbidities (HR 1.83, p = 0.049), SAH (HR: 1.56, p = 0.054) were predictors of mortality, as well as no use of prophylactic or therapeutic heparin (HR 3.60, p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis identified admission to the ICU (HR 8.98, p = 0.002) and advanced age (HR 3.37, p < 0.01) as independent predictors of mortality, although, use of heparin (HR 0.25, p = 0.001) was independently associated with a favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the absence of a benefit associated with the use of HCQ in Brazilian patients hospitalized with COVID-19. However, prophylactic or therapeutic heparin was an independent predictor for reducing mortality in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Preliminary Data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686810

ABSTRACT

Aortic aneurysms are sometimes associated with enhanced-fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC, both coagulation and fibrinolysis are markedly activated. Typical cases show decreased platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, increased concentrations of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer, and increased FDP/D-dimer ratios. Thrombin-antithrombin complex or prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, as markers of coagulation activation, and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex, a marker of fibrinolytic activation, are all markedly increased. Prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) is not so obvious, and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is rather shortened in some cases. As a result, DIC can be neither diagnosed nor excluded based on PT and APTT alone. Many of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis activation are serine proteases. Treatment of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC requires consideration of how to control the function of these serine proteases. The cornerstone of DIC treatment is treatment of the underlying pathology. However, in some cases surgery is either not possible or exacerbates the DIC associated with aortic aneurysm. In such cases, pharmacotherapy becomes even more important. Unfractionated heparin, other heparins, synthetic protease inhibitors, recombinant thrombomodulin, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are agents that inhibit serine proteases, and all are effective against DIC. Inhibition of activated coagulation factors by anticoagulants is key to the treatment of DIC. Among them, DOACs can be taken orally and is useful for outpatient treatment. Combination therapy of heparin and nafamostat allows fine-adjustment of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic effects. While warfarin is an anticoagulant, this agent is ineffective in the treatment of DIC because it inhibits the production of coagulation factors as substrates without inhibiting activated coagulation factors. In addition, monotherapy using tranexamic acid in cases of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC may induce fatal thrombosis. If tranexamic acid is needed for DIC, combination with anticoagulant therapy is of critical importance.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antifibrinolytic Agents/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinolysin , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , alpha-2-Antiplasmin
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674671

ABSTRACT

Inflammation and thrombosis are closely intertwined in numerous disorders, including ischemic events and sepsis, as well as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thrombotic complications are markers of disease severity in both sepsis and COVID-19 and are associated with multiorgan failure and increased mortality. Immunothrombosis is driven by the complement/tissue factor/neutrophil axis, as well as by activated platelets, which can trigger the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and release further effectors of immunothrombosis, including platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4) and high-mobility box 1 protein (HMGB1). Many of the central effectors of deregulated immunothrombosis, including activated platelets and platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (pEVs) expressing PF4, soluble PF4, HMGB1, histones, as well as histone-decorated NETs, are positively charged and thus bind to heparin. Here, we provide evidence that adsorbents functionalized with endpoint-attached heparin efficiently deplete activated platelets, pEVs, PF4, HMGB1 and histones/nucleosomes. We propose that this elimination of central effectors of immunothrombosis, rather than direct binding of pathogens, could be of clinical relevance for mitigating thrombotic complications in sepsis or COVID-19 using heparin-functionalized adsorbents.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/isolation & purification , Heparin/pharmacology , /drug therapy , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , HMGB Proteins/isolation & purification , HMGB Proteins/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/isolation & purification , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Heparin/metabolism , Histones/isolation & purification , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activation/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/isolation & purification , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/metabolism , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Thrombosis/drug therapy
20.
Blood ; 139(12): 1903-1907, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673896

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is triggered by vaccination against COVID-19 with adenovirus vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; Ad26.COV2-S). In this observational study, we followed VITT patients for changes in their reactivity of platelet-activating antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by an anti-PF4/heparin IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a functional test for PF4-dependent, platelet-activating antibodies, and new thrombotic complications. Sixty-five VITT patients (41 females; median, 51 years; range, 18-80 years) were followed for a median of 25 weeks (range, 3-36 weeks). In 48/65 patients (73.8%; CI, 62.0% to 83.0%) the functional assay became negative. The median time to negative functional test result was 15.5 weeks (range, 5-28 weeks). In parallel, EIA optical density (OD) values decreased from median 3.12 to 1.52 (P < .0001), but seroreversion to a negative result was seen in only 14 (21.5%) patients. Five (7.5%) patients showed persistent platelet-activating antibodies and high EIA ODs for >11 weeks. None of the 29 VITT patients who received a second vaccination dose with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed new thromboses or relevant increase in anti-PF4/heparin IgG EIA OD, regardless of whether PF4-dependent platelet-activating antibodies were still present. PF4-dependent platelet-activating antibodies are transient in most patients with VITT. VITT patients can safely receive a second COVID-19 mRNA-vaccine shot.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Platelet Factor 4 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Vaccines/adverse effects
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