Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
J Virol ; 95(21): e0135721, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476390

ABSTRACT

One of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virulence factors is the ability to interact with high affinity to the ACE2 receptor, which mediates viral entry into cells. The results of our study demonstrate that within a few passages in cell culture, both the natural isolate of SARS-CoV-2 and the recombinant cDNA-derived variant acquire an additional ability to bind to heparan sulfate (HS). This promotes a primary attachment of viral particles to cells before their further interactions with the ACE2. Interaction with HS is acquired through multiple mechanisms. These include (i) accumulation of point mutations in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the S protein, which increases the positive charge of the surface of this domain, (ii) insertions into the NTD of heterologous peptides containing positively charged amino acids, and (iii) mutation of the first amino acid downstream of the furin cleavage site. This last mutation affects S protein processing, transforms the unprocessed furin cleavage site into the heparin-binding peptide, and makes viruses less capable of syncytium formation. These viral adaptations result in higher affinity of viral particles to heparin, dramatic increase in plaque sizes, more efficient viral spread, higher infectious titers, and 2 orders of magnitude higher infectivity. The detected adaptations also suggest an active role of NTD in virus attachment and entry. As in the case of other RNA-positive (RNA+) viruses, evolution to HS binding may result in virus attenuation in vivo. IMPORTANCE The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is a major determinant of viral pathogenesis. It mediates binding to the ACE2 receptor and, later, fusion of viral envelope and cellular membranes. The results of our study demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 rapidly evolves during propagation in cultured cells. Its spike protein acquires mutations in the NTD and in the P1' position of the furin cleavage site (FCS). The amino acid substitutions or insertions of short peptides in NTD are closely located on the protein surface and increase its positive charge. They strongly increase affinity of the virus to heparan sulfate, make it dramatically more infectious for the cultured cells, and decrease the genome equivalent to PFU (GE/PFU) ratio by orders of magnitude. The S686G mutation also transforms the FCS into the heparin-binding peptide. Thus, the evolved SARS-CoV-2 variants efficiently use glycosaminoglycans on the cell surface for primary attachment before the high-affinity interaction of the spikes with the ACE2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adaptation, Biological , Animals , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , DNA, Complementary , Furin/metabolism , Heparin/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serial Passage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Plaque Assay , Virus Attachment
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 134, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387323

ABSTRACT

Understanding the factors that contribute to efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human cells may provide insights on SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility and pathogenesis, and reveal targets of intervention. Here, we analyze host and viral determinants essential for efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection in both human lung epithelial cells and ex vivo human lung tissues. We identify heparan sulfate as an important attachment factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Next, we show that sialic acids present on ACE2 prevent efficient spike/ACE2-interaction. While SARS-CoV infection is substantially limited by the sialic acid-mediated restriction in both human lung epithelial cells and ex vivo human lung tissues, infection by SARS-CoV-2 is limited to a lesser extent. We further demonstrate that the furin-like cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 spike is required for efficient virus replication in human lung but not intestinal tissues. These findings provide insights on the efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human lungs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Furin/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestines/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/physiology
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366851

ABSTRACT

The global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the associated disease COVID-19, requires therapeutic interventions that can be rapidly identified and translated to clinical care. Traditional drug discovery methods have a >90% failure rate and can take 10 to 15 y from target identification to clinical use. In contrast, drug repurposing can significantly accelerate translation. We developed a quantitative high-throughput screen to identify efficacious agents against SARS-CoV-2. From a library of 1,425 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved compounds and clinical candidates, we identified 17 hits that inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed their antiviral activity across multiple cell lines, including lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells and a physiologically relevant model of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (iAEC2s). Additionally, we found that inhibitors of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway exacerbate SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Notably, we discovered that lactoferrin, a glycoprotein found in secretory fluids including mammalian milk, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in the nanomolar range in all cell models with multiple modes of action, including blockage of virus attachment to cellular heparan sulfate and enhancement of interferon responses. Given its safety profile, lactoferrin is a readily translatable therapeutic option for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning/methods , Epithelial Cells , Heparitin Sulfate/antagonists & inhibitors , Heparitin Sulfate/immunology , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Hepatocytes , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
4.
Cell Rep ; 36(2): 109364, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283971

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) variants govern transmissibility, responsiveness to vaccination, and disease severity. In a screen for new models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we identify human H522 lung adenocarcinoma cells as naturally permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection despite complete absence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression. Remarkably, H522 infection requires the E484D S variant; viruses expressing wild-type S are not infectious. Anti-S monoclonal antibodies differentially neutralize SARS-CoV-2 E484D S in H522 cells as compared to ACE2-expressing cells. Sera from vaccinated individuals block this alternative entry mechanism, whereas convalescent sera are less effective. Although the H522 receptor remains unknown, depletion of surface heparan sulfates block H522 infection. Temporally resolved transcriptomic and proteomic profiling reveal alterations in cell cycle and the antiviral host cell response, including MDA5-dependent activation of type I interferon signaling. These findings establish an alternative SARS-CoV-2 host cell receptor for the E484D SARS-CoV-2 variant, which may impact tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and consequently human disease pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Receptors, Virus , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Profiling , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Models, Biological , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Proteomics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1065-1076, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236184

ABSTRACT

A main clinical parameter of COVID-19 pathophysiology is hypoxia. Here we show that hypoxia decreases the attachment of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the S1 subunit (S1) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to epithelial cells. In Vero E6 cells, hypoxia reduces the protein levels of ACE2 and neuropilin-1 (NRP1), which might in part explain the observed reduction of the infection rate. In addition, hypoxia inhibits the binding of the spike to NCI-H460 human lung epithelial cells by decreasing the cell surface levels of heparan sulfate (HS), a known attachment receptor of SARS-CoV-2. This interaction is also reduced by lactoferrin, a glycoprotein that blocks HS moieties on the cell surface. The expression of syndecan-1, an HS-containing proteoglycan expressed in lung, is inhibited by hypoxia on a HIF-1α-dependent manner. Hypoxia or deletion of syndecan-1 results in reduced binding of the RBD to host cells. Our study indicates that hypoxia acts to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that the hypoxia signalling pathway might offer therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Hypoxia/physiology , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Syndecan-1/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Heparitin Sulfate/genetics , Humans , Neuropilin-1/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Syndecan-1/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment/drug effects
7.
Life Sci ; 277: 119508, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185152

ABSTRACT

Antiviral strategies for viruses that utilize proteoglycan core proteins (syndecans and glypicans) as receptors should focus on heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis rather than on inhibition of these sugar chains. Here, we show that heparin and certain xylosides, which exhibit in vitro viral entry inhibitory properties against HSV-1, HSV-2, HPV-16, HPV-31, HVB, HVC, HIV-1, HTLV-1, SARS-CoV-2, HCMV, DENV-1, and DENV-2, stimulated HS biosynthesis at the cell surface 2- to 3-fold for heparin and up to 10-fold for such xylosides. This is consistent with the hypothesis from a previous study that for core protein attachment, viruses are glycosylated at HS attachment sites (i.e., serine residues intended to receive the D-xylose molecule for initiating HS chains). Heparanase overexpression, endocytic entry, and syndecan shedding enhancement, all of which are observed during viral infection, lead to glycocalyx deregulation and appear to be direct consequences of this hypothesis. In addition to the appearance of type 2 diabetes and the degradation of HS observed during viral infection, we linked this hypothesis to that proposed in a previous publication.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Drug Discovery , Glycosides/chemistry , Glycosides/pharmacology , Heparin/chemistry , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117797, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084646

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a pandemic and continues to spread at an unprecedented rate around the world. Although a vaccine has recently been approved, there are currently few effective therapeutics to fight its associated disease in humans, COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 and the related severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) result from zoonotic respiratory viruses that have bats as the primary host and an as yet unknown secondary host. While each of these viruses has different protein-based cell-surface receptors, each rely on the glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate as a co-receptor. In this study we compare, for the first time, differences and similarities in the structure of heparan sulfate in human and bat lungs. Furthermore, we show that the spike glycoprotein of COVID-19 binds 3.5 times stronger to human lung heparan sulfate than bat lung heparan sulfate.


Subject(s)
Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Lung/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Chiroptera , Female , Heparitin Sulfate/chemistry , Heparitin Sulfate/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Molecular Structure , Molecular Weight , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/isolation & purification
10.
J Virol ; 95(3)2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048660

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic of historic proportions and continues to spread globally, with enormous consequences to human health. Currently there is no vaccine, effective therapeutic, or prophylactic. As with other betacoronaviruses, attachment and entry of SARS-CoV-2 are mediated by the spike glycoprotein (SGP). In addition to its well-documented interaction with its receptor, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), SGP has been found to bind to glycosaminoglycans like heparan sulfate, which is found on the surface of virtually all mammalian cells. Here, we pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 SGP on a third-generation lentiviral (pLV) vector and tested the impact of various sulfated polysaccharides on transduction efficiency in mammalian cells. The pLV vector pseudotyped SGP efficiently and produced high titers on HEK293T cells. Various sulfated polysaccharides potently neutralized pLV-S pseudotyped virus with clear structure-based differences in antiviral activity and affinity to SGP. Concentration-response curves showed that pLV-S particles were efficiently neutralized by a range of concentrations of unfractionated heparin (UFH), enoxaparin, 6-O-desulfated UFH, and 6-O-desulfated enoxaparin with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 5.99 µg/liter, 1.08 mg/liter, 1.77 µg/liter, and 5.86 mg/liter, respectively. In summary, several sulfated polysaccharides show potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and can be developed for prophylactic as well as therapeutic purposes.IMPORTANCE The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and its subsequent spread to the rest of the world has created a pandemic situation unprecedented in modern history. While ACE2 has been identified as the viral receptor, cellular polysaccharides have also been implicated in virus entry. The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (SGP) binds to glycosaminoglycans like heparan sulfate, which is found on the surface of virtually all mammalian cells. Here, we report structure-based differences in antiviral activity and affinity to SGP for several sulfated polysaccharides, including both well-characterized FDA-approved drugs and novel marine sulfated polysaccharides, which can be developed for prophylactic as well as therapeutic purposes.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Heparin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enoxaparin/chemistry , Enoxaparin/metabolism , Enoxaparin/pharmacology , Genetic Vectors/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Heparin/chemistry , Heparin/metabolism , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Lentivirus/genetics , Molecular Structure , Molecular Weight , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transduction, Genetic , Virus Attachment/drug effects
12.
Cell ; 183(4): 1043-1057.e15, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756808

ABSTRACT

We show that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein interacts with both cellular heparan sulfate and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through its receptor-binding domain (RBD). Docking studies suggest a heparin/heparan sulfate-binding site adjacent to the ACE2-binding site. Both ACE2 and heparin can bind independently to spike protein in vitro, and a ternary complex can be generated using heparin as a scaffold. Electron micrographs of spike protein suggests that heparin enhances the open conformation of the RBD that binds ACE2. On cells, spike protein binding depends on both heparan sulfate and ACE2. Unfractionated heparin, non-anticoagulant heparin, heparin lyases, and lung heparan sulfate potently block spike protein binding and/or infection by pseudotyped virus and authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. We suggest a model in which viral attachment and infection involves heparan sulfate-dependent enhancement of binding to ACE2. Manipulation of heparan sulfate or inhibition of viral adhesion by exogenous heparin presents new therapeutic opportunities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Heparin/chemistry , Heparin/metabolism , Heparitin Sulfate/chemistry , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
13.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(24): 5059-5077, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381758

ABSTRACT

Heparanase (HPSE) is a multifunctional protein endowed with many non-enzymatic functions and a unique enzymatic activity as an endo-ß-D-glucuronidase. The latter allows it to serve as a key modulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) via a well-regulated cleavage of heparan sulfate side chains of proteoglycans at cell surfaces. The cleavage and associated changes at the ECM cause release of multiple signaling molecules with important cellular and pathological functions. New and emerging data suggest that both enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic functions of HPSE are important for health and illnesses including viral infections and virally induced cancers. This review summarizes recent findings on the roles of HPSE in activation, inhibition, or bioavailability of key signaling molecules such as AKT, VEGF, MAPK-ERK, and EGFR, which are known regulators of common viral infections in immune and non-immune cell types. Altogether, our review provides a unique overview of HPSE in cell-survival signaling pathways and how they relate to viral infections.


Subject(s)
Glucuronidase/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Extracellular Matrix/genetics , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...