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1.
J Immunol ; 206(7): 1597-1608, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082059

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with immune dysregulation and cytokine storm. Exploring the immune-inflammatory characteristics of COVID-19 patients is essential to reveal pathogenesis and predict progression. In this study, COVID-19 patients showed decreased CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells but increased neutrophils in circulation, exhibiting upregulated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and neutrophil-to-CD8+ T cell ratio. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-18, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-10, Tim-3, IL-8, neutrophil extracellular trap-related proteinase 3, and S100A8/A9 were elevated, whereas IFN-γ and C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (clec9A) were decreased in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls. When compared with influenza patients, the expressions of TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-8, S100A8/A9 and Tim-3 were significantly increased in critical COVID-19 patients, and carcinoembryonic Ag, IL-8, and S100A8/A9 could serve as clinically available hematologic indexes for identifying COVID-19 from influenza. Moreover, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, TNF-α, proteinase 3, and S100A8/A9 were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of severe/critical patients compared with moderate patients, despite decreased CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. Interestingly, bronchoalveolar IL-6, carcinoembryonic Ag, IL-8, S100A8/A9, and proteinase 3 were found to be predictive of COVID-19 severity and may serve as potential biomarkers for predicting COVID-19 progression and potential targets in therapeutic intervention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation Mediators , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Calgranulin A/blood , Calgranulin A/immunology , Calgranulin B/blood , Calgranulin B/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Female , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/blood , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloblastin/blood , Myeloblastin/immunology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 192, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748172

Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/blood , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/genetics , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/immunology , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/blood , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/genetics , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/genetics , Lymphopenia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 9/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 9/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 9/immunology
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