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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(6): 743, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864682
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268469, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a leading cause of viral hepatitis in children, yet the HAV vaccine is not included in the national immunization program (NIP) in Mexico. This study addresses an identified evidence gap of the burden of hepatitis A disease, complications, and associated costs in Mexico by analyzing surveillance and healthcare data. Data review included disease morbidity (incidence and hospitalization), mortality, and healthcare resource utilization costs. METHODS: In this observational, retrospective database study, we conducted a systematic screening, extraction, and analysis of outcome data from the national surveillance system in Mexico from January 2000 to December 2019. RESULTS: During the analysis period (2000-2019), the average incidence rate/year of HAV cases was 14.7 (5.4-21.5) per 100,000 inhabitants. Children 1-9 years of age (YoA) had the highest average incidence rate/year with 47.8 (14.7-74.5). The average hospitalization rate/year due to HAV infection was 5.8% (2.9-9.6%). Although the highest burden of HAV continued to be in children (1-9 YoA), an increase in incidence and hospitalizations (with complications) in older age groups (≥ 10-64 YoA) was observed. The annual average fatality rate was estimated to be 0.44% (0.26-0.83%) of which 28.8% of deaths were concentrated in adults ≥ 65 YoA. The total direct costs of medical attention due to HAV and related complications were estimated at $382 million Mexican pesos. CONCLUSION: The overall results suggest an uptrend in HAV infections in adolescents/adults compared to children in Mexico. Therefore, as the overall incidence risk of HAV infection decreases, the mean age of infection increases. This consequently increases the risk of severity and complications in older age groups, thus increasing the demand for healthcare resources. Our findings provide evidence for including the inactivated HAV vaccine in the Mexican NIP.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A virus , Hepatitis A , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Cost of Illness , Hepatitis A/complications , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 34-43, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We analysed hepatitis A (HepA) notifications and hospitalisations in Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Sweden for available periods between 1995 and 2014. We aimed to investigate whether decreasing HepA incidence is associated with increasing age at infection and worsening HepA presentation and to identify groups at risk of severe disease. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study including 36 734 notified and 36 849 hospitalised patients. We used negative binomial regressions to identify over time: i) trends in hospitalisation and notification rates; ii) proportion of hospitalised and notified patients aged ≥40 years; iii) proportion of "severe hospitalisations"; and iv) risk factors for severe hospitalisation. RESULTS: During the study period both HepA notifications and hospitalisations decreased, with notification rates decreasing faster, patients aged ≥40 years increased, however, the proportion of severe HepA hospitalisations remained stable. Older patients and patients with comorbidities, particularly liver diseases, were more likely to experience severe disease. CONCLUSIONS: We used digitalised health information to confirm decreasing trends in HepA hospitalisations and notifications, and the increasing age of patients with HepA in Europe. We did not identify an increase in the severity of the clinical presentation of patients with HepA. Older patients with liver diseases are at increased risk of severe disease and should be prioritised for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A , Europe/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
5.
Euro Surveill ; 27(15)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793104

ABSTRACT

On 31 March 2022, Public Health Scotland was alerted to five children aged 3-5 years admitted to hospital with severe hepatitis of unknown aetiology. Retrospective investigation identified eight additional cases aged 10 years and younger since 1 January 2022. Two pairs of cases have epidemiological links. Common viral hepatitis causes were excluded in those with available results. Five children were adenovirus PCR-positive. Other childhood viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, have been isolated. Investigations are ongoing, with new cases still presenting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis A , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology
6.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(6): 853-859, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to estimate vaccination and susceptibility rates against vaccine-preventable diseases among healthcare personnel (HCP) in eight hospitals. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: A total of 1284 HCP participated (physicians: 31.3%, nursing personnel: 36.6%, paramedical personnel: 11.1%, administrative personnel: 13.2%, supportive personnel: 7.3%). Vaccination rates were 32.9% against measles and mumps, 38.1% against rubella, 5.7% against varicella, 9.2% against hepatitis A, 65.8% against hepatitis B, 31.8% against tetanus-diphtheria, 7.1% against pertussis, 60.2% against influenza, and 80.1% against COVID-19. Susceptibility rates were as follows: 27.8% for measles, 39.6% for mumps, 33.4% for rubella, 22.2% for varicella, 86.3% for hepatitis A, 34.2% for hepatitis B, 68.2% for tetanus-diphtheria, and 92.9% for pertussis. Older HCP had higher susceptibility rates against mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus-diphtheria, and pertussis (p-values <0.001 for all). Mandatory vaccinations were supported by 81.85% of HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Although most HCPs supported mandatory vaccinations, significant vaccination gaps, and susceptibility rates were recorded. The proportion of susceptible HCP to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella has increased in the past decade, mostly because of reduction in acquired cases of natural illness. Vaccination programs for HCP should be developed. A national registry to follow HCP's vaccination rates is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Diphtheria , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
7.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 7(5): 396-415, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the release of the first global hepatitis elimination targets in 2016, and until the COVID-19 pandemic started in early 2020, many countries and territories were making progress toward hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination. This study aims to evaluate HCV burden in 2020, and forecast HCV burden by 2030 given current trends. METHODS: This analysis includes a literature review, Delphi process, and mathematical modelling to estimate HCV prevalence (viraemic infection, defined as HCV RNA-positive cases) and the cascade of care among people of all ages (age ≥0 years from birth) for the period between Jan 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2030. Epidemiological data were collected from published sources and grey literature (including government reports and personal communications) and were validated among country and territory experts. A Markov model was used to forecast disease burden and cascade of care from 1950 to 2050 for countries and territories with data. Model outcomes were extracted from 2015 to 2030 to calculate population-weighted regional averages, which were used for countries or territories without data. Regional and global estimates of HCV prevalence, cascade of care, and disease burden were calculated based on 235 countries and territories. FINDINGS: Models were built for 110 countries or territories: 83 were approved by local experts and 27 were based on published data alone. Using data from these models, plus population-weighted regional averages for countries and territories without models (n=125), we estimated a global prevalence of viraemic HCV infection of 0·7% (95% UI 0·7-0·9), corresponding to 56·8 million (95% UI 55·2-67·8) infections, on Jan 1, 2020. This number represents a decrease of 6·8 million viraemic infections from a 2015 (beginning of year) prevalence estimate of 63·6 million (61·8-75·8) infections (0·9% [0·8-1·0] prevalence). By the end of 2020, an estimated 12·9 million (12·5-15·4) people were living with a diagnosed viraemic infection. In 2020, an estimated 641 000 (623 000-765 000) patients initiated treatment. INTERPRETATION: At the beginning of 2020, there were an estimated 56·8 million viraemic HCV infections globally. Although this number represents a decrease from 2015, our forecasts suggest we are not currently on track to achieve global elimination targets by 2030. As countries recover from COVID-19, these findings can help refocus efforts aimed at HCV elimination. FUNDING: John C Martin Foundation, Gilead Sciences, AbbVie, ZeShan Foundation, and The Hepatitis Fund.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis C , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Prevalence , Viremia/epidemiology
8.
J Travel Med ; 29(2)2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-immune international travellers are at risk of acquiring hepatitis A. Although hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for unvaccinated travellers to high or intermediate hepatitis A virus endemicity, compliance with this recommendation is not universal.The main objective was to describe the demographic and travel characteristics of international travellers infected with hepatitis A during travel. METHODS: Available data on travellers with confirmed (positive molecular test) or probable (symptomatic individuals with a single positive IgM test) hepatitis A diagnosed during and after travel from January 2008 to December 2020 were obtained from the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network database. We analysed demographic and travel characteristics of infected travellers. RESULTS: Among 254 travellers with hepatitis A (185 confirmed and 69 probable), the median age was 28 years (interquartile range: 19-40), 150 (59%) were male, and among 54 travellers with information available, 53 (98%) were unvaccinated. The most common reasons for travel included tourism (n = 120; 47%) and visiting friends or relatives (VFR; n = 72; 28%). About two-thirds of VFR travellers with hepatitis A (n = 50; 69%) were younger than 20 years old. Hepatitis A was acquired most frequently in South-Central Asia (n = 63; 25%) and sub-Saharan Africa (n = 61; 24%), but 16 travellers (6%) acquired hepatitis A in regions with low endemicity including Western Europe (n = 7; 3%), the Caribbean (n = 6; 2%) and North America (n = 3; 1%). Median duration from illness onset to GeoSentinel site presentation was ~7 days (interquartile range : 4-14 days). Among 88 travellers with information available, 59% were hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS: Despite availability of highly effective vaccines, travellers still acquire hepatitis A, even when traveling to low-endemicity destinations. Providing pre-departure hepatitis A vaccine to susceptible travellers is crucial to reducing travel-associated hepatitis A and should be offered to all travellers as part of the pre-travel consultation, regardless of destination.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A , Adult , Europe/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Humans , Male , Travel , Vaccination , Young Adult
9.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662707

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of hepatitis A may occur in countries of medium and high socioeconomic levels in which the population generally exhibits an increased susceptibility in young adults to this infection if they are not vaccinated against the hepatitis A virus (HAV). In Europe, an outbreak involved approximately 22 European countries with 4475 cases reported from 2016 to 2018; most of them were men who have sex with men (MSM). This outbreak expanded to North and South America, including Brazil, particularly in São Paulo city with 1547 reported cases from 2016 to 2019. In the present study, we characterized the HAV strains involved in the acute hepatitis A cases identified in the reference centers of São Paulo city during this outbreak. A total of 51 cases with positive anti-HAV IgM were included, 80.4% male, 68.6% of them between 20 and 40 years old and 41.7% MSM. HAV RNA was detected in 92% (47/51) of the cases. Subgenotype IA of HAV was identified and most of the strains were closely related to that isolated in outbreaks that occurred in different European countries in 2016. These results showed the epidemiological relation between these outbreaks and reinforce the need to implement vaccination against hepatitis A for the adult population, particularly for a population with a high-risk behavior.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Hepatitis A virus/genetics , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/virology , Acute Disease , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Hepatitis A virus/classification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Vaccination
10.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 44(8): 587-598, 2021 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626213

ABSTRACT

Patients with certain immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have an increased risk of severe infectious diseases than the general population, which are mainly associated with the immunosuppressive treatments that they receive. These treatments act on the immune system through different mechanisms, causing different degrees of immunosuppression and a variable risk depending on whether the pathogen is a virus, bacteria or fungus. This article reviews the most relevant literature on the subject, which was selected and discussed by a panel of experts. The aim of this article is to review the risk of infections in patients with IBD and RA, and the potential preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
11.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 196-205, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a global health concern as outbreaks continue to occur. Since 1999, several countries have introduced universal vaccination (UV) of children against HAV according to approved two-dose schedules. Other countries have implemented one-dose UV programs since 2005; the long-term impact of this schedule is not yet known. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in four electronic databases for data published between January 2000 and July 2019 to assess evidence for one-dose and two-dose UV of children with non-live HAV vaccines and describe their global impact on incidence, mortality, and severity of hepatitis A, vaccine effectiveness, vaccine efficacy, and antibody persistence. RESULTS: Of 3739 records screened, 33 peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract were included. Rapid declines in incidence of hepatitis A and related outcomes were observed in all age groups post-introduction of UV programs, which persisted for at least 14 years for two-dose and six years for one-dose programs according to respective study durations. Vaccine effectiveness was ≥95% over 3-5 years for two-dose programs. Vaccine efficacy was >98% over 0.1-7.5 years for one-dose vaccination. Antibody persistence in vaccinated individuals was documented for up to 15 years (≥90%) and ten years (≥74%) for two-dose and one-dose schedules, respectively. CONCLUSION: Experience with two-dose UV of children against HAV is extensive, demonstrating an impact on the incidence of hepatitis A and antibody persistence for at least 15 years in many countries globally. Because evidence is more limited for one-dose UV, we were unable to draw conclusions on immune response persistence beyond ten years or the need for booster doses later in life. Ongoing epidemiological monitoring is essential in countries implementing one-dose UV against HAV. Based on current evidence, two doses of non-live HAV vaccines are needed to ensure long-term protection.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis A , Adolescent , Child , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Humans , Vaccination
12.
Ann Epidemiol ; 64: 111-119, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544749

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of Hepatitis A, caused by the Hepatitis A Virus (HAV), remain a worldwide health concern. We conducted a retrospective chart review to characterize patients with acute HAV during an outbreak at our urban tertiary care center to better characterize patients infected with HAV. We searched our electronic records for patients with positive HAV IgM antibodies during a period of outbreak in Philadelphia, May 2017-December 2019. Characteristics of patients were recorded. We searched an equal period of time prior to the outbreak, September 2014-April 2017, to compare the two patient populations. During the outbreak we diagnosed 205 cases of acute HAV compared to just 23 during an equal time period prior to the onset of the outbreak. When compared to the results reported by the public health department for 2019, this accounted for 39.9% of patients documented in the city. A history of drug use was found in 49.4% of our patients while 19.5% of patients were homeless. Our analysis of homelessness and drug usage among documented cases of HAV during the outbreak period mirrored data reported by the city. Further, our analysis found that 7 zip codes accounted for 60% of our patients. Biochemical measures of liver function were higher in patients examined during the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A virus , Hepatitis A , Disease Outbreaks , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Safety-net Providers
13.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 114(3): 174-175, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478755

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of COVID-19 ranging from mild to severe and pulmonary manifestations are the most common. However, liver injury is not rare as there might be a reciprocal influence between COVID-19 and hepatic disease. While high levels of liver enzymes are associated with an increased prevalence of severe complications, the search for other etiologies of hepatic disease should be not be ignored. We report a case of COVID-19 that presented with acute fulminant hepatitis A (HAV) without a previous history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis A , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A/complications , Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects
14.
Vaccine ; 39(44): 6460-6463, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective hepatitis A vaccines have been recommended in the United States for at-risk adults since 1996; however, adult vaccination coverage is low. METHODS: Among a random sample of adult outbreak-associated hepatitis A cases from three states that were heavily affected by person-to-person hepatitis A outbreaks, we assessed the presence of documented Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) indications for hepatitis A vaccination, hepatitis A vaccination status, and whether cases that were epidemiologically linked to an outbreak-associated hepatitis A case had received postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). RESULTS: Overall, 74.1% of cases had a documented ACIP indication for hepatitis A vaccination. Fewer than 20% of epidemiologically linked cases received PEP. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are needed to increase provider awareness of and adherence to ACIP childhood and adult hepatitis A vaccination and PEP recommendations in order to stop the current person-to-person hepatitis A outbreaks and prevent similar outbreaks in the future.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A , Adult , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
15.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S3): S348-S355, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243907

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To examine how and what information is communicated via social media during an infectious disease outbreak.Methods. In the context of the 2016 through 2018 hepatitis A outbreak in San Diego County, California, we used a grounded theory-based thematic analysis that employed qualitative and quantitative approaches to uncover themes in a sample of public tweets (n = 744) from Twitter, a primary platform used by key stakeholders to communicate to the public during the outbreak.Results. Tweets contained both general and hepatitis A-specific information related to the outbreak, restatements of policy and comments critical of government responses to the outbreak, information with the potential to shape risk perceptions, and expressions of concern regarding individuals experiencing homelessness and their role in spreading hepatitis A. We also identified misinformation and common channels of content driving themes that emerged in our sample.Conclusions. Public health professionals may identify real-time public risk perceptions and concerns via social media during an outbreak and target responses that fulfill the informational needs of those who seek direction and reassurance during times of uncertainty.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Health Communication , Hepatitis A , Public Health , Social Media , California , Grounded Theory , Hepatitis A/therapy , Hepatitis A/transmission , Humans
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(7): 3132-3135, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194854

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Vulnerable populations are being more severely impacted by the ongoing pandemic, and the recent release of vaccines for Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) may offer them protection. The aim of this study was to investigate the willingness of homeless persons to be vaccinated against COVID-19; secondary aims were to analyze the immunization coverage for other conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine and immunization coverage for other conditions were investigated through a form in 112 persons experiencing homelessness referring to the primary care medical services of the Eleemosynaria Apostolica, Holy See. RESULTS: Most subjects, with a male preponderance, were willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19 (64.3%), 3.6% were unsure and 32.1% preferred not to be vaccinated. When answering questions on the immunization coverage for tuberculosis and hepatitis A and B, most subjects reported not to be vaccinated (48.2%, 56.2% and 55.3%, respectively) or did not know (33%, 28.6% and 27.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A significant portion of our sample declared to be willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19. It would be auspicious that the recent statements from several countries on the importance to extend COVID-19 vaccination to fragile populations be followed by the distribution of the vaccine to these populations.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Homeless Persons , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Female , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis A Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Rome , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis Vaccines/therapeutic use , Young Adult
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140317

ABSTRACT

A 31-year-old immunocompetent, heterosexual man with no relevant medical history presented with 1 week of jaundice, abdominal pain, cough and headache. Examination revealed scleral icterus, right upper quadrant tenderness and hepatomegaly. Initial investigations revealed hyperbilirubinaemia and elevated transaminases. Serum studies were positive for antinuclear antibodies, antimitochondrial antibodies, and herpes simplex virus IgM. Despite being started on intravenous acyclovir, his bilirubin and transaminase levels continued to rise. He was subsequently tested for syphilis given his maculopapular rash on the soles of his feet and it returned positive. He improved clinically with the initiation of penicillin. In this case, we will discuss the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of syphilitic hepatitis.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A , Hepatitis , Jaundice , Syphilis , Adult , Hepatitis/diagnosis , Hepatitis/drug therapy , Hepatomegaly , Humans , Male , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy
18.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(1): 382-384, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689054

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: COVID-19 has become the biggest health problem of this century. It has been hypothesized that immunity against hepatitis A virus (HAV) may provide protection from COVID- 19. Materials and methods: As of 10June 2020, the infection had spread to 213 countries, with 7.3 million people infected and 413,733 dead. This data was combined with the World Health Organization susceptibility classification on the worldwide prevalence of HAV, and the relationship between HAV susceptibility and COVID-19 mortality were analyzed. Results: When the data from 213 countries were analyzed, it was found that there was a significant increasing trend in COVID-19 mortality rates by HAV susceptibility (P <0.001). Using a cut-off of 200/million population, the mortality risk associated with living in a more susceptible country (medium/high) was 27.8 times higher (95% CI for OR: 3.6­213.2) Conclusion: The results of this study showed that, despite confounding factors in different countries, hepatitis A susceptibility of the population may have been correlated with COVID-19 mortality. This observation needs to be confirmed by further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Hepatitis A/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus/immunology , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Ships
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