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1.
Trop Doct ; 52(1): 171-173, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745564

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus infection is a global problem and causes several liver diseases including acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Though uncommon, some immune mediated extra-hepatic manifestations may develop during the infection. Exudative ascites during HBV infection is one such.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B , Liver Neoplasms , Ascites/complications , Ascites/etiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258229, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We measured the association between underlying chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and antiviral use with infection rates among patients who underwent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. METHODS: In total, 204,418 patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 between January and June 2020 were included. For each case patient (n = 7,723) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, random controls (n = 46,231) were selected from the target population who had been exposed to someone with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but had a negative SARS-CoV-2 test result. We merged claim-based data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database collected. Primary endpoints were SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19. RESULTS: The proportion of underlying CHB was lower in COVID-19 positive patients (n = 267, 3.5%) than in COVID-19 negative controls (n = 2482, 5.4%). Underlying CHB was associated with a lower SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate, after adjusting for comorbidities (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.74). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, underlying CHB tended to confer a 66% greater risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, although this value was statistically insignificant. Antiviral treatment including tenofovir and entecavir was associated with a reduced SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate (aOR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.37-0.66), while treatment was not associated with severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Underlying CHB and antiviral agents including tenofovir decreased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. HBV coinfection did not increase the risk of disease severity or lead to a worse prognosis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Guanine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Young Adult
5.
Front Med ; 16(1): 111-125, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356049

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally. Although mixed liver impairment has been reported in COVID-19 patients, the association of liver injury caused by specific subtype especially chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with COVID-19 has not been elucidated. In this multi-center, retrospective, and observational cohort study, 109 CHB and 327 non-CHB patients with COVID-19 were propensity score matched at an approximate ratio of 3:1 on the basis of age, sex, and comorbidities. Demographic characteristics, laboratory examinations, disease severity, and clinical outcomes were compared. Furthermore, univariable and multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were used to explore the risk factors for disease severity and mortality, respectively. A higher proportion of CHB patients (30 of 109 (27.52%)) developed into severe status than non-CHB patients (17 of 327 (5.20%)). In addition to previously reported liver impairment markers, such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin, we identified several novel risk factors including elevated lactate dehydrogenase (⩾ 245 U/L, hazard ratio (HR) = 8.639, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.528-29.523; P < 0.001) and coagulation-related biomarker D-dimer (⩾ 0.5 µg/mL, HR = 4.321, 95% CI = 1.443-12.939; P = 0.009) and decreased albumin (< 35 g/L, HR = 0.131, 95% CI = 0.048-0.361; P < 0.001) and albumin/globulin ratio (< 1.5, HR = 0.123, 95% CI = 0.017-0.918; P = 0.041). In conclusion, COVID-19 patients with CHB were more likely to develop into severe illness and die. The risk factors that we identified may be helpful for early clinical surveillance of critical progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Cohort Studies , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
Int J Hematol ; 114(5): 626-629, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310613

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a known menace in hematology and is quite rare in practice with known triggers. Lately, in the COVID-19 pandemic, hematology has seen a new pathology amongst which TTP associated with COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine is unique. We report a case of a 69-year-old male with multiple comorbidities who presented to the hospital with severe fatigue and shortness of breath. Labs were significant for thrombocytopenia, anemia, and hemolysis with schistocytes consistent with TTP with a second dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine as a likely culprit been documented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Pandemics , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , ADAMTS13 Protein/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Male , Plasma Exchange , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/complications
8.
J Autoimmun ; 123: 102688, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293901

ABSTRACT

Unprecedented loss of life due to the COVID pandemic has necessitated the development of several vaccines in record time. Most of these vaccines have received approval without being extensively whetted for their adverse effect and efficacy profiles. Most adverse effects have been mild, nonetheless, more serious thromboembolic events have also been reported. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) can occur in predisposed individuals where an immune mediated reaction against hepatocytes is triggered by environmental factors. Vaccines are a very rare cause of AIH. We report two such cases of AIH triggered by COVID (Covishield) vaccination. While one patient made an uneventful recovery, another succumbed to the liver disease. Ours is the first report of Covishield vaccination related AIH and second ever after any form of COVID vaccination. We hope that our report does not deter COVID vaccination drives. However, we also hope to raise awareness of its potential side effects and the increased role of pharmacovigilance in guiding treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Fatal Outcome , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/pathology , Humans , Hypothyroidism/complications , Jaundice/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Immunological , Pharmacovigilance
9.
Hepatology ; 74(4): 1750-1765, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We compared risk of acute liver injury and mortality in patients with COVID-19 and current, past, and no HBV infection. APPROACH AND RESULTS: This was a territory-wide retrospective cohort study in Hong Kong. Patients with COVID-19 between January 23, 2020, and January 1, 2021, were identified. Patients with hepatitis C or no HBsAg results were excluded. The primary outcome was mortality. Acute liver injury was defined as alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ULN; i.e., 80 U/L), with total bilirubin ≥2 × ULN (i.e., 2.2 mg/dL) and/or international normalized ratio ≥1.7. Of 5,639 patients included, 353 (6.3%) and 359 (6.4%) had current and past HBV infection, respectively. Compared to patients without known HBV exposure, current HBV-infected patients were older and more likely to have cirrhosis. Past HBV-infected patients were the oldest, and more had diabetes and cardiovascular disease. At a median follow-up of 14 (9-20) days, 138 (2.4%) patients died; acute liver injury occurred in 58 (1.2%), 8 (2.3%), and 11 (3.1%) patients with no, current, and past HBV infection, respectively. Acute liver injury (adjusted HR [aHR], 2.45; 95% CI, 1.52-3.96; P < 0.001), but not current (aHR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.61-2.70; P = 0.507) or past (aHR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.56-1.46; P = 0.681) HBV infection, was associated with mortality. Use of corticosteroid, antifungal, ribavirin, or lopinavir-ritonavir (adjusted OR [aOR], 2.55-5.63), but not current (aOR, 1.93; 95% CI, 0.88-4.24; P = 0.102) or past (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.62-2.55; P = 0.533) HBV infection, was associated with acute liver injury. CONCLUSION: Current or past HBV infections were not associated with more liver injury and mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Acute Lung Injury/blood , Acute Lung Injury/diagnosis , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Medical History Taking/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors
10.
Transpl Immunol ; 67: 101412, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233623

ABSTRACT

Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a multisystem autoinflammatory disease due to an underlying plasma cell disorder that lacks a standard treatment strategy because of its rarity. We report a case of relapsed POEMS syndrome successfully treated with a second ambulatory autologous hematopoietic-cell transplantation (AHCT) after a daratumumab desensitization protocol performed during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in a patient with coexisting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis infections. He is a 37-year old Latin-American male who had been treated with radiation, CyBorD regimen, AHCT and bortezomib therapy before being referred to our service. It was decided to administer daratumumab therapy and subsequently perform the transplant. Placement of central venous access, fluid infusion, conditioning regimen with melphalan and previously cryopreserved autograft infusion were carried out in an outpatient basis. Following second AHCT, the patient demonstrated clinical, VEGF, hematological response and remains SARS-CoV-2 infection-free and in POEMS remission with excellent quality-of-life at last follow up (6 months). We evidenced that thanks to an outpatient transplant program, the best therapeutic modalities can be offered to patients with hematologic malignancies in the context of present or future pandemics. Finally, high-complexity patients with HIV infection should have access to the same treatment strategies as non-infected patients. A second AHCT in the outpatient setting is feasible, safe and highly effective to treat patients with relapsed POEMS syndrome.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/complications , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , POEMS Syndrome/surgery , Syphilis/complications , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplantation, Autologous , Treatment Outcome
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999235

ABSTRACT

Intra-abdominal thromboses are a poorly characterised thrombotic complication of COVID-19 and are illustrated in this case. A 42-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B (undetectable viral load, FibroScan 7.4 kPa) developed fever and cough in March 2020. 14 days later, he developed right upper quadrant pain. After being discharged with reassurance, he re-presented with worsening pain on symptom day 25. Subsequent abdominal ultrasound suggested portal vein thrombosis. CT of the abdomen confirmed portal and mid-superior mesenteric vein thromboses. Concurrent CT of the chest suggested COVID-19 infection. While reverse transcription PCR was negative, subsequent antibody serology was positive. Thrombophilia screen excluded inherited and acquired thrombophilia. Having been commenced on apixaban 5 mg two times per day, he is currently asymptomatic. This is the first case of COVID-19-related portomesenteric thrombosis described in the UK. A recent meta-analysis suggests 9.2% of COVID-19 cases develop abdominal pain. Threshold for performing abdominal imaging must be lower to avoid this reversible complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Mesenteric Ischemia , Mesenteric Veins/diagnostic imaging , Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Mesenteric Ischemia/etiology , Mesenteric Ischemia/physiopathology , Mesenteric Ischemia/therapy , Portography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography/methods
14.
Liver Int ; 41(4): 720-730, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic. Although COVID-19 is caused by infection in the respiratory tract, extrapulmonary manifestations including dysregulation of the immune system and hepatic injury have been observed. Given the high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in China, we sought to study the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HBV coinfection in patients. METHODS: Blood samples of 50 SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfected patients, 56 SARS-CoV-2 mono-infected patients, 57 HBeAg-negative chronic HBV patient controls and 57 healthy controls admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were collected in this study. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry panels including markers indicative of liver functions were performed. Cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were evaluated. T cell, B cell and NK cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfection did not significantly affect the outcome of the COVID-19. However, at the onset of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfected patients showed more severe monocytopenia and thrombocytopenia as well as more disturbed hepatic function in albumin production and lipid metabolism. Most of the disarrangement could be reversed after recovery from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: While chronic HBV infection did not predispose COVID-19 patients to more severe outcomes, our data suggest SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfection poses a higher extent of dysregulation of host functions at the onset of COVID-19. Thus, caution needs to be taken with the management of SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection , Erythrocyte Count , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/blood , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Male , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(3): 597-603, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global health threat. We aimed to describe the characteristics of liver function in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. METHODS: We enrolled all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection admitted to Tongji Hospital from February 1 to February 29, 2020. Data of demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected. The characteristics of liver function and its association with the severity and prognosis of disease were described. RESULTS: Of the 105 patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection, elevated levels of liver test were observed in several patients at admission, including elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (22, 20.95%), aspartate aminotransferase (29, 27.62%), total bilirubin (7, 6.67%), gamma-glutamyl transferase (7, 6.67%), and alkaline phosphatase (1, 0.95%). The levels of the indicators mentioned above increased substantially during hospitalization (all P < .05). Fourteen (13.33%) patients developed liver injury. Most of them (10, 71.43%) recovered after 8 (range 6-21) days. Notably the other, 4 (28.57%) patients rapidly progressed to acute-on-chronic liver failure. The proportion of severe COVID-19 was higher in patients with liver injury (P = .042). Complications including acute-on-chronic liver failure, acute cardiac injury and shock happened more frequently in patients with liver injury (all P < .05). The mortality was higher in individuals with liver injury (28.57% vs 3.30%, P = .004). CONCLUSION: Liver injury in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection was associated with severity and poor prognosis of disease. During the treatment of COVID-19 in chronic HBV-infected patients, liver function should be taken seriously and evaluated frequently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Liver/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , China , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/mortality , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/blood , Hepatitis B, Chronic/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
16.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(6): 1357-1358, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892538
19.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 701-710, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cytokine storm has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We examine the incidence of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing compensated chronic liver disease (CLD). METHODS: From 20 Jan 2020 to 7 Feb 2020, we studied 140 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to either Fuyang Second People's Hospital (FYSPH), Anhui or the Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital (PLAGH) in Beijing, China. Pre-existing CLD includes those with liver cirrhosis assessed by APRI/FIB-4 score and /or ultrasound; NAFLD as identified by either ultrasound or hepatic steatosis index with significant liver fibrosis and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or hepatitis C (CHC) infection. The diagnosis, grading of severity and clinical management of COVID-19 patients complied to the guideline and clinical protocol issued by the China National Health Commission. All patients had liver function test at least twice weekly till discharge with full recovery or death. RESULTS: In total, 3 had liver cirrhosis, 6 patients had CHB, 13 had NAFLD with significant liver fibrosis (one also had CHB). On admission, none had liver decompensation. COVID-19 disease progression was significantly less frequent in non-CLD patients (10/118 8.5%) than CLD patients (13/22 59.1%, p < 0.001). One patient with CLD had acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). CONCLUSION: Disease progression is significantly higher in those COVID-19 patients with CLD as compared to those with no CLD. ACLF can also occur in patient with pre-existing compensated CLD who had severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Coronavirus Infections , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Liver Cirrhosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/epidemiology , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/etiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography/methods
20.
Singapore Med J ; 61(12): 619-623, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-145282

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we aim to provide professional guidance to clinicians who are managing patients with chronic liver disease during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Singapore. We reviewed and summarised the available relevant published data on liver disease in COVID-19 and the advisory statements that were issued by major professional bodies, such as the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver, contextualising the recommendations to our local situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Chronic Disease , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Transplantation , Singapore/epidemiology
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