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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 510-525, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are substantial public health threats in the region of Central Asia and the Caucasus, where the prevalence of these infections is currently rising. METHODS: A systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO was conducted with no publication date or language restrictions through October 2019. Additional data were also harvested from national surveillance reports, references found in discovered sources, and other "grey" literature. It included studies conducted on high-risk populations (people who inject drugs (PWID), female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), prisoners, and migrants) in Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan; and the Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Northern Caucasus region of the Russian Federation. RESULTS: Wide ranges were noted for HIV prevalence: PWID 0-30.1%, MSM 0-25.1%, prisoners 0-22.8%, FSW 0-10.0%, and migrants 0.06-1.5%, with the highest prevalence of these high-risk groups reported in Kazakhstan (for PWID), Georgia (for MSM and prisoners) and Uzbekistan (for migrants). HCV prevalence also had a wide range: PWID 0.3-92.1%, MSM 0-18.9%, prisoners 23.8-49.7%, FSW 3.3-17.8%, and migrants 0.5-26.5%, with the highest prevalence reported in Georgia (92.1%), Kyrgyzstan (49.7%), and migrants from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (26.5%). Similarly, HBV prevalence had a wide range: PWID 2.8-79.7%, MSM 0-22.2%, prisoners 2.7-6.2%, FSW 18.4% (one study), and migrants 0.3-15.7%. CONCLUSION: In Central Asia and the Caucasus, prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV remains exceedingly high among selected populations, notably PWID and MSM.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Asia, Central/epidemiology , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Prisoners , Risk Factors , Russia/epidemiology , Sex Workers , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Transcaucasia/epidemiology
4.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(9): 74, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315363

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the current data on infections associated with rituximab use published over the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: New literature was available on rates of serious infections, Hepatitis B reactivation and screening, and infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Rates of infection varied by study and population, however, higher risk of infection in patients with underlying rheumatologic diseases was seen in those who required a therapy switch, had a smoking history, and those undergoing retreatment who had a serious infection with their first course of therapy. With regards to HBV, the proportion of patients screened continues to be inadequate. Despite the upfront cost, HBV screening and prophylaxis were found to be cost effective. There is still limited data regarding COVID-19 severity in the setting of rituximab, however, rituximab, especially in combination with steroids, may lead to more severe disease and higher mortality.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Latent Infection/diagnosis , Latent Infection/drug therapy , Latent Infection/epidemiology , Latent Infection/prevention & control , Mass Screening , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244947, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is a phase of HBV infection characterised by the presence of HBV DNA in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). OBI is of concern in the HIV-infected due to high prevalence and risk of HBV reactivation. The prevalence and clinico-demographic characteristics of OBI in anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV infected adults in Kenya is unknown. METHODS: A cross sectional study carried was out at three sites in Kenya. HIV infected ART naïve adults were enrolled and demographic data collected. Blood samples were assayed for HBsAg, HBV DNA, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Data on CD4 count, HIV viral load and platelet count were obtained from medical records. RESULTS: Of 208 patients, 199 (95.7%) did not report HBV vaccination, 196 (94.2%) were HBsAg negative, 119 (57.2%) had no HBV markers, 58 (27.9%) had previous HBV infection (anti-HBc positive) and 11 (5.3%) had OBI. All 11 (100%) OBI patients were anti-HBc positive. OBI patients comprised 19.0% of HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive patients. There was no difference in clinico-demographic characteristics between the overt HBV, OBI and HBV negative patients. CONCLUSION: This was the first study on OBI in ART naïve HIV infected adults in Kenya. The lower OBI prevalence compared to other sub-Saharan African countries could be attributed to lower HBV exposure. Most patients were HBV unexposed and unimmunized, outlining the need to implement guideline recommended immunization strategies.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Hepatitis B/complications , Adult , Coinfection/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/virology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence
6.
RMD Open ; 7(1)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175192

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of infections, prevalence of hospitalisation due to infections, the vaccination status and perceived screening of infections prior to the start of biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) of a patient cohort with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRD). METHODS: Consecutive CIRD patients reporting to our specialised centre were prospectively included (n=975) in this cross-sectional study. Data on comorbidities including infections, treatment, vaccination status, screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and hepatitis B (HepB) were collected. Antibodies against measles and HepB were measured by ELISA. The vaccination status was assessed by a predefined vaccination score (0-26) categorising patients into four immunisation states: low (0-6), moderate (7-13), good (14-20), high (21-26). RESULTS: All patients on bDMARDs (n=499) were screened for LTBI, and 469 for HepB (94%). All LTBI patients (n=16) received isoniazid (3.2%) and 16 chronic HepB patients received lamivudine (3.4%). Protective measles specific IgG-antibodies were found in 901 patients (92.4%). Although 629 patients were educated about vaccination strategies (64.5%), only 540 showed a vaccination card (55.4%). Only 49% of patients had undergone pneumococcal vaccination and less than 30% were protected against HepB and influenza, while 7.6% have not protective antibody titres against measles. No patient met the German national vaccination recommendations requiring a complete documentation of vaccines. The mean vaccination score was 13.3±4.2 with 5.7% of patients having a low, 43.9% a moderate, 47.0% a good and 3.3% a high score. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of CIRD patients are n0t sufficiently vaccinated against pneumococci, HepB, influenza and measles. Although CIRD patients and general practitioners regularly receive professional information about the need of vaccination, vaccination rates were low to moderate. Interdisciplinary quality projects should be planned to change that inacceptable result.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Rheumatic Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccination
7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242658, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B imposes a major public health problem with an increased risk of occupational exposure among unvaccinated health care workers. This study was conducted to determine the Hepatitis B vaccination status, along with the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding Hepatitis B, among preclinical medical students of a medical college in Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted among preclinical students of a medical college in Kathmandu, Nepal from 6th July to 14th July 2020. The whole sampling technique was used. Data were collected using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire which was emailed to individuals and analyzed with the statistical package for social sciences version-22. RESULTS: A total of 181 students participated in the study out of 198, giving a response rate of 91.4%. Among the study participants, only 67 (37%) were fully vaccinated against Hepatitis B while 71 (39.2%) were never vaccinated. For the majority (74.6%) of the non-vaccinated participants, the main reason for not getting vaccination was a lack of vaccination programs. Half the study participants (n = 92, 50.8%) had good knowledge, attitude and practice regarding hepatitis B. The median knowledge, attitude and practice scores towards Hepatitis B were 61.00 (57.00-66.00), 20(18.00-21.00) and 21(19.00-23.00) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of preclinical medical students were not fully vaccinated against Hepatitis B and only half of them had acceptable knowledge, attitude and practice towards Hepatitis B, which makes them vulnerable to the infection. This might represent the situation of not only Nepal, but also all South Asian countries, and creates concern about whether students take the vaccination programs seriously. Since unavailability of vaccination program is the main cause of non-vaccination, we strongly recommend the provision of the Hepatitis B vaccination program to the preclinical medical students.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology
8.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(1): 80-88, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979832

ABSTRACT

The interaction between existing chronic liver diseases caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and COVID-19 has not been studied. We analysed 70 COVID-19 cases combined with HBV infection (CHI) to determine the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome. We investigated clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 patients of seven hospitals from Jan 20 to March 20, 2020. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse risk factors for progression of patients with COVID-19 combined with HBV infection. Compared with COVID-19 without HBV infection (WHI) group, patients with dual infection had a higher proportion of severe/critically ill disease (32.86% vs. 15.27%, P = .000), higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) [50(28-69)vs 21(14-30), P = .000; 40(25-54) vs 23(18-30), P = .000; 34.0(27.2-38.7) vs 37.2(31.1-41.4), P = .031]. The utilization rates of Arbidol and immunoglobulin were significantly higher than those in the co-infected group [48.57% vs. 35.64%, P < .05; 21.43% vs. 8.18%, P < .001], while the utilization rate of chloroquine phosphate was lower (1.43% vs 14.00%, P < .05) in the co-infected patients group. Age and c-reactive protein (CRP) level were independent risk factors for recovery of patients with COVID-19 combined with HBV infection. The original characteristics of COVID-19 cases combined with HBV infection were higher rate of liver injury, coagulation disorders, severe/critical tendency and increased susceptibility. The elderly and patients with higher level of CRP were more likely to experience a severe outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/therapy , Female , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/therapy , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Liver/injuries , Liver/pathology , Liver/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925932, 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging disease that is still not fully characterized. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that can be transmitted easily from human to human mainly by the respiratory route. Currently, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 or a vaccine for prevention. The disease has various degrees of severity. It often presents with nonspecific symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue, accompanied by respiratory symptoms (e.g., cough and dyspnea) and other systemic involvement. Severe disease is associated with hemophagocytic syndrome and cytokine storm due to altered immune response. Patients with severe disease are more likely to have increased liver enzymes. The disease can affect the liver through various mechanisms. CASE REPORT We report an unusual case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 24-year-old man with no previous medical illness, who presented with mild respiratory involvement. He had no serious lung injury during the disease course. However, he experienced acute fulminant hepatitis B infection and cytokine release syndrome that led to multiorgan failure and death. CONCLUSIONS It is uncommon for SARS-CoV-2 infection with mild respiratory symptoms to result in severe systemic disease and organ failure. We report an unusual case of acute hepatitis B infection with concomitant SARS-CoV-2 leading to fulminant hepatitis, multiorgan failure, and death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/diagnosis , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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