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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31385, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115791

ABSTRACT

At its onset, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic brought significant challenges to healthcare systems, changing the focus of medical care on acute illness. Disruptions in medical service provision have impacted the field of viral hepatitis, with screening programs paused throughout much of 2020 and 2021. We performed a retrospective study on consecutive outpatients with COVID-19 during the second and third wave of COVID-19 in Romania, from November 2020 to April 2021, aiming to characterize the prevalence of undiagnosed hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among patients presenting with acute illness. Overall, 522 patients had available records during the study timespan. Their mean ±â€…standard deviation age was 51 ±â€…13 years; 274 (52.5%) were male. We identified 16 (3.1%) cases of active HBV infection; only six of these patients were aware of their HBV status, and 3 of the newly diagnosed cases were identified as candidates for HBV treatment. A total of 96 patients (18.4%) had serological markers suggestive for prior HBV vaccination. A large proportion of patients (n = 120, 23.0%) had positive HBV core antibodies; among these, 90 (17.2%) had cleared a previous HBV infection (being positive for HBV surface antibodies and HBV core antibodies). We identified the following parameters that were significantly more frequent in patients with a history of HBV infection: older age (P < .001), hypoalbuminemia (P = .015), thrombocytopenia (P < .001), thrombocytopenia followed by thrombocytosis (P = .041), increased blood urea nitrogen (P < .001) and increased creatinine (P = .011). In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic has taught us essential lessons about the importance of maintaining access to screening programs and of ensuring active monitoring of patients with chronic infections such as hepatitis B, even during a medical crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Thrombocytopenia , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Hepatitis B virus , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Acute Disease , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e062557, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088811

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the psychosocial concerns and ways of coping of pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B infection in Ghana. SETTING: Participants were selected from public health facilities in the Tema Metropolis. DESIGN: Exploratory descriptive qualitative design was employed. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen pregnant women were purposively selected to participate in face-to-face interviews. The data were analysed using the content analysis procedure. RESULTS: The participants' psychosocial concerns and coping strategies were diverse. A significant number of the participants were concerned about the impact their hepatitis B seropositivity would have on their relationships, finances, and general well-being. Specifically, they feared that their social network, especially their spouses, would perceive them as having led a promiscuous lifestyle in the past to acquire hepatitis B infection. Also, fear of transmitting the infection to their infants and the effects of the infection on their infants later in life were identified as major concerns by nearly all participants. The participants further reported feelings of distress and diminished self-esteem. These psychosocial afflictions reported were attributed to lack of pre-test counselling during the antenatal care period. However, the participants coped using different strategies, including avoidance/denial, spirituality, and alternative treatment use. CONCLUSION: To achieve optimal psychological and social well-being of pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B, it is important that their unique challenges are considered in their care and treatment cascade. Explicitly, protocols for supportive care addressing the specific needs of pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B should be implemented in the study setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ghana/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Qualitative Research
3.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(2): 243-254, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was the assessment of hepatitis B epidemiological situation in Poland in 2019 compared to previous years, taking into consideration the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic during that time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data for 2020 included in individual reports on hepatitis B and HBV infections recorded by sanitary and epidemiological stations at EpiBaza, i.e. in the electronic epidemiological surveillance system on infectious diseases, were analyzed. In the assessment of the epidemiological situation, data published in the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2020" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2020" were also used. Data on deaths were obtained from the Statistics Poland (GUS). RESULTS: In 2020, 2,854 cases of hepatitis B were reported, which corresponds to the incidence of 2.59 per 100,000 population, lower by 65.1% than in 2019. 14 cases of acute hepatitis B were reported, constituting 1.4% of all registered cases. The incidence of acute hepatitis B was 0.04 per 100,000 population and was lower by 67% compared to 2019 and lower by 71% compared to the median for the years 2014-2018. There were no cases of acute disease in the age group 0-29 years. A total of 978 chronic and unknown hepatitis B cases (UNK) were registered and the diagnosis rate was 2.56 per 100,000 population, lower by 64.2% than in 2019. Compared to the median diagnosis rate of chronic hepatitis B in 2014-2018, a decrease of 70.4% was observed. In the age group 0-19 years, there was no case reported. In 2020, 24 people died due to hepatitis B, including 22 from chronic hepatitis B. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a significant reduction in the number of HBV tests performed and, consequently, a reduction in the number of diagnosed infections. A decrease in the number of detected infections was observed from the second quarter of 2020, i.e. from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, although already in the first quarter of 2020 the number of registered hepatitis B cases was lower than in the same period in 2019. No acute cases were reported among people who were vaccinated against hepatitis B during childhood. Vaccination with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine in children in the second year of life was only slightly lower than in 2019, which proves the stability of the implementation of the preventive vaccination program, despite the limited access to primary health care during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Registries , Rural Population , Urban Population , Young Adult
4.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 8516944, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053439

ABSTRACT

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still a major health problem worldwide, placing healthcare workers, medical and dental students, and professionals at higher occupational risk. The present study aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about this virus and relevant safety precautions among dental students in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among the third, fourth, and fifth stage dental students of Hawler Medical, Sulaimani, and Duhok universities. Data on the students' demographic characteristics and their knowledge about HBV (16 close-ended questions) and safety precaution measures (10 close-ended questions) were collected by means of a questionnaire. Analysis of variance was used to compare the mean of knowledge and safety precaution scores. Results: In total, 372 students (mean age 21.77 ± 1.31 years) completed the questionnaires. The mean scores for knowledge and safety precautions were 13.17 ± 2.09 and 8.05 ± 1.61, respectively. Respondents from Hawler Medical University showed statistically significantly higher knowledge levels than their counterparts in Sulaimani and Duhok universities (p = 0.012). Conclusions: The majority of surveyed dental students are aware of HBV, its mode of transmission, infection, complications, vaccination, and safety precautions required to prevent the spreading of the virus. While the levels of knowledge about HBV and safety precautions among the dental students in the Kurdistan region of Iraq were generally acceptable, differences in knowledge level were identified between the universities, and these may be related to their educational and training programs.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Humans , Iraq , Students, Dental , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(26): 3081-3091, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957484

ABSTRACT

A relevant gradual reduction of both the incidence rate of acute hepatitis B (AHB) and prevalence of chronic hepatitis B has occurred in Italy in the last 50 years, due to substantial epidemiological changes: Improvement in socioeconomic and hygienic conditions, reduction of the family unit, accurate screening of blood donations, abolition of re-usable glass syringes, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-universal vaccination started in 1991, use of effective well tolerated nucleo(t)side analogues able to suppress HBV replication available from 1998, and educational mediatic campaigns against human immunodeficiency virus infection focusing on the prevention of sexual and parenteral transmission of infections. As an example, AHB incidence has gradually decreased from 10/100000 inhabitants in 1985 to 0.21 in 2020. Unfortunately, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has interrupted the trend towards HBV eradication. In fact, several HBV chronic carriers living in the countryside have become unable to access healthcare facilities for screening, diagnosis, clinical management, and nucleo(t)side analogue therapy in the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly for anxiety of becoming infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), movement restrictions, and reduced gains from job loss. In addition, one-third of healthcare facilities and personnel for HBV patients have been devolved to the COVID-19 assistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/prevention & control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04043, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924588

ABSTRACT

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading public health problem in China. COVID-19 pandemic has interrupted the delivery of health care interventions worldwide, including HBV infection control. Methods: In this study, we used a Markov model to quantify the costs and population health impact of HBV treatment in China for the following scenarios: 1) current practice with only 17% of treatment eligible HBV infected adults receiving antiviral treatment; 2) reaching the World Health Organization (WHO) treatment target of 80% by 2030 with a steady increase in treatment rate beginning in 2022; and 3) the effect of a 1-5-year delay in meeting the 2030 WHO treatment target. A one-way as well as a probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted. Results: Without increasing antiviral treatment for treatment eligible HBV infected adults, the life-time health care costs for the estimated 89.2 million adults living with HBV in China is US$1305 billion and 10.8 million (12%) will die from HBV-related liver disease. Increasing treatment to achieve the WHO 80% target by 2030 would save US$472 billion and prevent 3.3 million HBV-related deaths. We estimated that a 1-year delay beyond 2030 in reaching the WHO 80% treatment target would likely lead to US$55 billion increase in future health care costs, and an additional 334 000 future deaths from HBV-related liver disease or cancer. Conclusions: Reaching the WHO 2030 with minimal delays would have an immense health and economic benefit. Implementing a national treatment program for HBV in China should be a key priority for policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
9.
Vaccine ; 40(33): 4889-4896, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccinations among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been considerably lower than before the pandemic. Moreover, less frequent HBV testing and a reduction in numbers of sex partners have been reported. We assessed the impact of these COVID-19-related changes on HBV transmission among MSM in the Netherlands. METHODS: We estimated the changes in sexual activity, HBV testing, and HBV vaccination among MSM during the pandemic from Dutch data. We used a deterministic compartmental model and investigated scenarios with small or large declines in sexual activity, testing, and vaccination for the current phase of the pandemic (without available data). We examined the increase in HBV vaccinations needed to prevent further increase in HBV incidence. RESULTS: With a decrease in numbers of sex partners of 15-25% during the first lockdown and 5% during the second lockdown, we found a decline of 6.6% in HBV incidence in 2020, despite a >70% reduction in HBV testing and vaccination during the first lockdown. With numbers of sex partners rebounding close to pre-pandemic level in 2021, and a reduction of 15% in testing and 30% in vaccination in 2021, we found an increase of 1.4% in incidence in 2021 and 3.1% in 2026. With these changes, an increase of ≥60% in HBV vaccinations in 2022 would be needed to bring the HBV incidence in 2023 back to the level that it would have had if the COVID-19-related changes had not occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Despite reductions in sexual activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, the decrease in HBV vaccinations may result in a small increase in HBV incidence after 2021, which may persist for years. It is important to restore the vaccination level and limit further increase in HBV transmission among MSM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Hepatitis B , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B virus , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sexual Behavior , Vaccination
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(23): e29317, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895859

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus infection is a major global public health concern. This study explored the epidemic characteristics and tendency of hepatitis B in 31 provinces of mainland China, constructed a SARIMA model for prediction, and provided corresponding preventive measures.Monthly hepatitis B case data from mainland China from 2013 to 2020 were obtained from the website of the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Monthly data from 2013 to 2020 were used to build the SARIMA model and data from 2021 were used to test the model.Between 2013 and 2020, 9,177,313 hepatitis B cases were reported in mainland China. SARIMA(1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 was the optimal model and its residual was white noise. It was used to predict the number of hepatitis B cases from January to December 2021, and the predicted values for 2021 were within the 95% confidence interval.This study suggests that the SARIMA model simulated well based on epidemiological trends of hepatitis B in mainland China. The SARIMA model is a feasible tool for monitoring hepatitis B virus infections in mainland China.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Models, Statistical , China/epidemiology , Forecasting , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Seasons
11.
Sex Transm Infect ; 98(4): 286-292, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination for high-risk groups including gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is recommended in the UK, data on HBV immunisation coverage are limited. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of HBV infection, susceptibility and immunity due to immunisation among a high-risk population of MSM and heterosexuals who are less likely to attend sexual health services. METHODS: Residual HIV-negative serology samples archived from a national HIV self-sampling service in 2016 were tested for HBV markers using an unlinked anonymous approach. Prevalence of HBV infection, evidence of immunisation and susceptibility were calculated and stratified by individuals' characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate relative risk ratios (RRRs) associated with covariates. RESULTS: Of 2172 samples tested, 1497 (68.9%) were from MSM and 657 (30.2%) were from heterosexuals. Susceptibility to HBV infection was 66.1% among MSM and 77.0% among heterosexuals. Only 29.9% of MSM and 17.4% of heterosexuals had serological evidence of immunisation. Current infection was 1.1% in heterosexuals and 0.2% in MSM. Adjusted analysis showed evidence of immunisation was lower among heterosexuals (RRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86) and those with no previous HIV test (RRR 0.41, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.54), and higher in those of other white or other ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Among MSM and heterosexual users of a self-sampling HIV service, evidence of immunisation to HBV infection was low and susceptibility to infection was comparatively high, suggesting suboptimal delivery of HBV immunisation in sexual health services.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hepatitis B , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B virus , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors
12.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(5): 352-365, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807204

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) contribute to significant healthcare burden globally. We aim to provide an updated and comprehensive analysis of global trends in the incidence and mortality of HBV and HCV related acute infections, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Estimates of annual cause-specific disease incidence and mortality for HBV and HCV were analysed using the 2010-2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study database. Three distinct disease states were evaluated: acute infections, cirrhosis and HCC. Age-standardized disease incidence and mortality were presented per 100,000 population and stratified by age, sex, year and 21 world regions. From 2010 to 2019, overall incidence of acute HBV declined by 19.3% (95% CI 4.1-32.0, p < .05) and HBV cirrhosis declined by 15.0% (95% CI 9.8-20.7, p < .05). Incidence of HCV cirrhosis increased by 5.6% (95% CI 0.3-10.2, p < .05) and HCV HCC remained stable. Incidence of acute HCV declined until 2015, after which it began increasing. From 2010 to 2019, overall mortality for HBV cirrhosis and HCV cirrhosis declined, whereas mortality for acute infections and HCC remained stable. Major differences in HBV and HCV incidence and mortality trends were observed when stratified by world regions. In conclusion, while our analyses of global trends in HBV and HCV incidence and mortality demonstrate encouraging trends, disparities in disease epidemiology were observed across world regions. These observations will identify regions and populations where greater focus and resources are needed to continue progressing towards viral hepatitis elimination.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Liver Neoplasms , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Risk Factors
14.
Ann Hepatol ; 27(3): 100684, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676398

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, which causes the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a great impact on healthcare systems worldwide, including hepatitis B and C viruses screening and elimination programs. The high number of COVID-19 hospitalizations represent a great opportunity to screen patients for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), which was the aim of this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, retrospective study performed between April 2020 and 20201 at a referral center in Mexico dedicated to the care of adults with severe/critical COVID-19. We retrieved clinical, demographic, and laboratory results from each patient´s medical records, including antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV), HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against the HBV core antigen (anti-HBcAg), and antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBsAg). RESULTS: Out of 3620 patients that were admitted to the hospital, 24 (0.66%), 4 (0.11%), and 72 (1.99%) tested positive for anti-HCV, HBsAg, and anti-HBcAg, respectively. Of all seronegative patients, 954 (27%) had undetectable anti-HBsAg and 401 (12%) had anti-HBsAg at protective levels. Blood transfusion was the most relevant risk factor. Only 9.7% of the anti-HBc positive, 25% of the HBsAg positive, and 52% of the anti-HCV positive were aware of their serological status. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found a prevalence of anti-HCV of 0.66%, HBsAg in 0.11%, and isolated anti-HBcAg in 1.99%. We also found that HBV vaccination coverage has been suboptimal and needs to be reinforced. This study gave us a trustworthy insight of the actual seroprevalence in Mexico, which can help provide feedback to the Hepatitis National Elimination Plan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Core Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Humans , Inpatients , Mexico/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
15.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637925

ABSTRACT

In 2016, WHO member states at the World Health Assembly adopted a Global Health Sector Strategy that included a policy of eliminating viral hepatitis. Clear targets were established to assist in achieving this by 2030. The strategy, while achievable, has exposed existing global disparities in healthcare systems and their ability to implement such policies. Compounding this, the regions with most disparity are also those where the hepatitis B prevalence and disease burden are the greatest. Foundational to hepatitis B elimination is the identification of both those with chronic infection and crucially pregnant women, and primary prevention through vaccination. Vaccination, including the birth dose and full three-dose coverage, is key, but complete mother-to-child transmission prevention includes reducing the maternal hepatitis B viral load in the third trimester where appropriate. Innovations and simplified tools exist in order to achieve elimination, but what is desperately required is the will to implement these strategies through the support of appropriate investment and funding. Without this, disparities will continue.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Healthcare Disparities , Hepatitis B, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Africa/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cost of Illness , Female , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Prevalence , Vaccination
16.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(1): 78-86, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598404

ABSTRACT

Updated incidence data of acute Delta virus hepatitis (HDV) are lacking worldwide. Our aim was to evaluate incidence of and risk factors for acute HDV in Italy after the introduction of the compulsory vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 1991. Data were obtained from the National Surveillance System of acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA). Independent predictors of HDV were assessed by logistic-regression analysis. The incidence of acute HDV per 1-million population declined from 3.2 cases in 1987 to 0.04 in 2019, parallel to that of acute HBV per 100,000 from 10.0 to 0.39 cases during the same period. The median age of cases increased from 27 years in the decade 1991-1999 to 44 years in the decade 2010-2019 (p < .001). Over the same period, the male/female ratio decreased from 3.8 to 2.1, the proportion of coinfections increased from 55% to 75% (p = .003) and that of HBsAg positive acute hepatitis tested for by IgM anti-HDV linearly decreased from 50.1% to 34.1% (p < .001). People born abroad accounted for 24.6% of cases in 2004-2010 and 32.1% in 2011-2019. In the period 2010-2019, risky sexual behaviour (O.R. 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.8) was the sole independent predictor of acute HDV; conversely intravenous drug use was no longer associated (O.R. 1.25; 95%CI: 0.15-10.22) with this. In conclusion, HBV vaccination was an effective measure to control acute HDV. Intravenous drug use is no longer an efficient mode of HDV spread. Testing for IgM-anti HDV is a grey area requiring alert. Acute HDV in foreigners should be monitored in the years to come.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis D , Adult , Female , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Hepatitis D/prevention & control , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male
17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(47): 8199-8200, 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580315

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the World Health Assembly adopted a Global Health Sector Strategy on viral hepatitis, with targets set for the years 2020 and 2030 to achieve hepatitis elimination. The main target of hepatitis elimination strategy is to reduce the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 90% and mortality by 65% in 2030. In last 5 years, the number of people receiving HCV treatment has increased from 1 million to 9.4 million; however, this number is far from the 2030 target of 40 million people receiving HCV treatment. HBV and HCV incidence rates are down from 1.4 million to 1.1 million annual deaths but this is far from the 2030 target of < 0.5 million deaths. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has severely affected the efforts in the fight against hepatitis. No major donor has committed to investing in the fight against hepatitis. Time is running out. There is a need to speed up efforts in the fight against hepatitis to achieve hepatitis elimination by 2030.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Global Health , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(3): 205-208, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532870

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted routine healthcare services. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are often asymptomatic, and therefore, screening and on/post-treatment monitoring are required. Our aim was to determine the effect of the first, second and third waves of the pandemic on HBV and HCV testing in Ontario, Canada. We extracted data from Public Health Ontario for HBV and HCV specimens from 1 January 2019 to 31 May 2021. Testing volumes were evaluated and stratified by age, sex and region. Changes in testing volumes were analysed by per cent and absolute change. Testing volumes decreased in April 2020 with the first wave of the pandemic and recovered to 72%-75% of prepandemic volumes by the end of the first wave. HBsAg testing decreased by 33%, 18% and 15%, and HBV DNA testing decreased by 37%, 27% and 20%, in each consecutive wave. Anti-HCV testing decreased by 35%, 21% and 19%, and HCV RNA testing decreased by 44%, 30% and 36% in each consecutive wave. These trends were consistent by age, region and sex. Prenatal HBV testing volumes were stable. In conclusion, significant decreases in HBV and HCV testing occurred during the first three waves of the pandemic and have not recovered. In addition to direct consequences on viral hepatitis elimination efforts, these data provide insight into the impacts of the pandemic on chronic disease screening and management. Strategies to make up for missed testing will be critical to avoid additional consequences of COVID-19 long after the pandemic has resolved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Female , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(42): 7271-7284, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526865

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective liver-tropic virus that needs the helper function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to infect humans and replicate. HDV is transmitted sexually or by a parenteral route, in co-infection with HBV or by super-infection in HBV chronic carriers. HDV infection causes acute hepatitis that may progress to a fulminant form (7%-14% by super-infection and 2%-3% by HBV/HDV co-infection) or to chronic hepatitis (90% by HDV super-infection and 2%-5% by HBV/HDV co-infection), frequently and rapidly progressing to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Peg-interferon alfa the only recommended therapy, clears HDV in only 10%-20% of cases and, consequently, new treatment strategies are being explored. HDV endemicity progressively decreased over the 50 years from the identification of the virus, due to improved population lifestyles and economic levels, to the use of HBV nuclei(t)side analogues to suppress HBV replication and to the application of universal HBV vaccination programs. Further changes are expected during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 pandemic, unfortunately towards increased endemicity due to the focus of healthcare towards coronavirus disease 2019 and the consequently lower possibility of screening and access to treatments, lower care for patients with severe liver diseases and a reduced impulse to the HBV vaccination policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Coinfection , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis D , Liver Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis D/diagnosis , Hepatitis D/drug therapy , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6223, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510592

ABSTRACT

In 2016 the World Health Organization set the goal of eliminating hepatitis B globally by 2030. Horizontal transmission has been greatly reduced in most countries by scaling up coverage of the infant HBV vaccine series, and vertical transmission is therefore becoming increasingly dominant. Here we show that scaling up timely hepatitis B birth dose vaccination to 90% of new-borns in 110 low- and middle-income countries by 2030 could prevent 710,000 (580,000 to 890,000) deaths in the 2020 to 2030 birth cohorts compared to status quo, with the greatest benefits in Africa. Maintaining this could lead to elimination by 2030 in the Americas, but not before 2059 in Africa. Drops in coverage due to disruptions in 2020 may lead to 15,000 additional deaths, mostly in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific. Delays in planned scale-up could lead to an additional 580,000 deaths globally in the 2020 to 2030 birth cohorts.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Africa/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/mortality , Hepatitis B/virology , Hepatitis Viruses/genetics , Hepatitis Viruses/immunology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Vaccination , World Health Organization
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