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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 611.e1-611.e7, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects the immune system. Whether elimination of HCV with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) restores immunity is unclear. We used mass cytometry to get a broad and in-depth assessment of blood cell populations of patients with chronic HCV before and after DAA therapy. METHODS: Before and 12 weeks after sustained virological response (SVR12) to DAA therapy, 22 cell populations were analysed by mass cytometry in blood collected from ten healthy control individuals and 20 HCV-infected patients with (ten patients) or without (ten patients) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. RESULTS: HCV infection altered the frequency of 14/22 (64%) blood cell populations. At baseline, the frequencies (median, interquartile range (IQR); control, HCV, HCV/HIV) of intermediate monocytes (1.2, IQR 0.47-1.46; 1.76, IQR 0.83-2.66; 0.78, IQR 0.28-1.77), non-classical monocytes (1.11, IQR 0.49-1.26; 0.9, IQR 0.18-0.99; 0.54, IQR 0.28-1.77), conventional dendritic cells type 2 (0.55, IQR 0.35-0.59; 0.31, IQR 0.16-0.38; 0.19, IQR 0.11-0.36) and CD56dim natural killer cells (8.08, IQR 5.34-9.79; 4.72, IQR 2.59-6.05) 3.61, IQR 2.98-5.07) were reduced by 35% to 65%, particularly in HCV/HIV co-infected patients. In contrast, activated double-negative T cells (0.07, IQR 0.06-0.10; 0.10, IQR 0.09-0.19; 0.19, IQR 0.12-0.25), activated CD4 T cells (0.28, IQR 0.21-0.36; 0.56, IQR 0.33-0.77; 0.40, IQR 0.22-0.53) and activated CD8 T cells (0.23, IQR 0.14-0.42; 0.74, IQR 0.30-1.65; 0.80, IQR 0.58-1.16) were increased 1.4 to 3.5 times. Upon stimulation with Toll-like receptor ligands, the expression of cytokines was up-regulated in 7/9 (78%) and 17/19 (89%) of the conditions in HCV- and HCV/HIV-infected patients, respectively. Most alterations persisted at SVR12. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HCV and HCV/HIV infections induce profound and durable perturbations of innate and adaptive immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans
2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765943

ABSTRACT

: Background:There are limited data available on the influence of direct-acting antivirals used to treat chronic hepatitis C (CHC) on growth in children. In this study, we aimed to analyze the growth parameters in children treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF). METHODS: We included38 patients (16 girls and 22 boys) aged 10-17 years treated with LDV/SOF for CHC (33 infected with genotype 1 and 5 with genotype 4; 36 were treated for 12 weeks, and 2 for 24 weeks according to the current guidelines). Patient weight and height were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks of treatment, at the end of the treatment (EOT), and 12 weeks and one year after the EOT. Body mass index (BMI), BMI z and height-for-age (HA) z scores were calculated according to the WHO Child Growth Standards and Growth reference data using the WHO anthropometric calculator AnthroPlus v. 1.0.4. In addition, correlations between BMI z scores and liver fibrosis (liver stiffness measurement, LSM), the aspartate transaminase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) and liver steatosis (controlled attenuation parameter, CAP) were analyzed. RESULTS: At baseline, 5/38 (13%) patients were obese (BMI z score >2 SD), 4/38 (11%) were overweight, and 29 (76%) were normal. A significant increase was observed in mean weight, height and BMI both 12 weeks and one year after the treatment compared to the baseline, whereas no differences were observed for BMI z scores and HA z scores. Baseline BMI z scores correlated with alanine aminotransferase levels (r = 0.33, 95% CI 0.01-0.58, p =0.04), LSM (r = 0.40, 95% CI 0.09-0.65, p =0.01), the APRI (r = 0.33, 95% CI 0.02-0.59, p =0.03), and the CAP (r = 0.40, 95% CI 0.08-0.64, p =0.01). No similar correlations were reported at 12 weeks posttreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with LDV/SOF in children with CHC (genotypes 1 and 4) did not negatively influence the patients' growth. However, higher baseline BMI z scores correlated with more advanced liver fibrosis and steatosis in children with CHC.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C, Chronic , Sofosbuvir , Adolescent , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Fluorenes , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Male , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
3.
Public Health ; 205: 182-186, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751168

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In 2015, the Republic of Georgia initiated a National Hepatitis C Elimination Program, with a goal of 90% reduction in prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections by 2020. In this article, we explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the 2020 hepatitis C cascade of care in Georgia. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analytic study. METHODS: We used a national screening registry that includes hospitals, blood banks, antenatal clinics, harm reduction sites, and other programs and services to collect data on hepatitis C screening. A separate national treatment database was used to collect data on viremia and diagnostic testing, treatment initiation, and outcome including testing for and achieving sustained virologic response (SVR). We used these databases to create hepatitis C care cascades for 2020 and 2019. Bivariate associations for demographic characteristics and screening locations per year and care cascade comparisons were assessed using a chi-squared test. RESULTS: In 2020 compared to 2019, the total number of persons screened for HCV antibodies decreased by 25% (from 975,416 to 726,735), 59% fewer people with viremic infection were treated for HCV infection (3188 vs. 7868), 46% fewer achieved SVR (1345 vs. 2495), a significantly smaller percentage of persons with viremic infection initiated treatment for HCV (59% vs. 62%), while the percentage of persons who achieved SVR (99.2% vs. 99.3%) remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the hepatitis C elimination program in Georgia. To ensure Georgia reaches its elimination goals, mitigating unintended consequences of delayed diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C due to the COVID-19 pandemic are paramount.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Georgia (Republic)/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
4.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742735

ABSTRACT

Enhancing treatment uptake for hepatitis C to achieve the elimination goals set by the World Health Organization could be achieved by reducing the treatment duration. The aim of this study was to compare the sustained virological response at week 12 (SVR12) after four weeks of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) + ribavirin compared to eight weeks of GLE/PIB and to estimate predictors for SVR12 with four weeks of treatment through a multicenter open label randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized 2:1 (4 weeks:8 weeks) and stratified by genotype 3 and were treatment naïve of all genotypes and without significant liver fibrosis. A total of 27 patients were analyzed for predictors for SVR12, including 15 from the first pilot phase of the study. In the 'modified intention to treat' group, 100% (7/7) achieved cure after eight weeks and for patients treated for four weeks the SVR12 was 58.3% (7/12). However, patients with a baseline viral load <2 mill IU/mL had 93% SVR12. The study closed prematurely due to the low number of included patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results suggest that viral load should be taken into account when considering trials of short course treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Aminoisobutyric Acids , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles , Cyclopropanes , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Lactams, Macrocyclic , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Pandemics , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Pyrrolidines , Quinoxalines , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 371, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the availability of generic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) opens the door for large-scale treatment, the care for people living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Malaysia is shifting toward a tripartite partnership between the public health system, correctional settings and civil society organizations (CSOs). This study aimed to explore the barriers to scaling up HCV treatment in Malaysia from the perspective of key stakeholders. METHODS: Eighteen focus-group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 180 individuals, who actively engaged in coordinating, executing or supporting the implementation of the national strategic plan for HCV. An analytical framework was adapted to guide the data collection and thematic analysis. It covered four key aspects of HCV treatment: geographical accessibility, availability, affordability and acceptability. RESULTS: Movement restrictions in times of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks and being marginalized translated into barriers to treatment access in people living with HCV. Barriers to treatment initiation in health and correctional settings included limited staffing and capacity; disruption in material supply; silos mentality and unintegrated systems; logistical challenges for laboratory tests; and insufficient knowledge of care providers. Although no-cost health services were in place, concerns over transportation costs and productivity loss also continued to suppress the treatment uptake. Limited disease awareness, along with the disease-related stigma, further lowered the treatment acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: This study disclosed a series of supply- and demand-side barriers to expanding the treatment coverage among people living with HCV in Malaysia. The findings call for strengthening inter-organizational collaborations to overcome the barriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Health Services , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Malaysia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 272: 121012, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671114

ABSTRACT

Simeprevir and sofosbuvir are direct-acting antiviral drugs approved for the treatment of chronic HCV infection. Reports demonstrate the similarities between HCV and SARS-CoV-2 in terms of structure and replication mechanism. Therefore, it is suggested that a combination of simeprevir and sofosbuvir may be considered for COVID-19 patients. To date, no spectrophotometric methods have been published for quantitative analysis of simeprevir and sofosbuvir in combination. In this work, two simple spectrophotometric methods allowed quantitative analysis of the studied drugs in the mixed form. The zero-order direct method allowed quantitative analysis of simeprevir at 333 nm, with sofosbuvir showing zero absorbance values. The dual wavelength method allowed quantitative analysis of sofosbuvir by measuring the difference in absorbance values at 259.40 and 276 nm, where the difference in absorbance values of simeprevir was zero. With the applied methods, the investigated drugs in the mixtures and tablets prepared in the laboratory were successfully analyzed quantitatively with acceptable results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Simeprevir , Sofosbuvir
7.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 157(1): 31-37, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609118

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is a direct-acting antiviral agent that inhibits viral RNA synthesis developed by Gilead Sciences, Inc. in the United States. It has been shown to have antiviral activity against single-stranded RNA viruses, including coronaviruses, in cell culture systems and animal models, and has been developed as a therapeutic agent for Ebola virus infection since 2015. however, to date, it has not been approved in any country. A novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in Dec, 2019, and is a respiratory disease characterized by fever, cough, and dyspnea. In severe cases, it may cause serious pneumonia, multi-organ failure and death. Gilead Sciences, Inc. U.S. embarked on the development of COVID-19 as a therapeutic drug, using remdesivir, which has shown in vitro and in vivo antiviral activities against MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, which are single-stranded RNA coronaviruses that cause Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The in vitro antiviral activity of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, was confirmed and clinical studies were initiated in February 2020. Based on the results of clinical studies conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and Gilead Sciences, Inc. and experience of administration from a compassionate use, an exceptional approval system based on the "Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Act" was also approved in Japan as of May 7, 2020 for the indication of "infections caused by SARS-CoV-2." In this article, the background of the development and clinical results of remdesivir are described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Drug Policy ; 101: 103570, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare delivery was disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic, requiring minimized in-person contact between patients and clinicians. During the pandemic, people with opioid use disorder (OUD) were not only at elevated risk for COVID-19, but had markedly reduced access to treatment for OUD, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV due to recommended decreased in-person visits. METHODS: From March 15-June 15, 2020 at the syringe services program (SSP) in New Haven, Connecticut, USA, a differentiated care model evolved with reduced clinical demands on people who inject drugs (PWID) to ensure screening and treatment for HCV, HIV and OUD, with a focus on HCV treatment. This model involved a single, bundled screening, evaluation, testing (SET) and monitoring strategy for all three conditions, minimal in-person visits, followed by tele-health communication between patients, outreach workers and clinicians. In-person visits occurred only during induction onto methadone and phlebotomy at baseline and phlebotomy 12 weeks post-treatment for HCV to measure sustained virological response (SVR). Patients received supportive texts/calls from outreach workers and clinicians. RESULTS: Overall, 66 actively injecting PWID, all with OUD, underwent bundled laboratory screening; 35 had chronic HCV infection. Participants were 40 years (mean), mostly white (N = 18) men (N = 28) and 12 were unstably housed. Two were lost to-follow-up and 2 were incarcerated, leaving 31 who started pan-genotypic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). The mean time from referral to initial phlebotomy and initiation of DAAs was 6.9 and 9.9 days, respectively. Fourteen additional patients were newly started on buprenorphine and 6 started on methadone; three and four, respectively, were on treatment at baseline. Overall, 29 (93.5%) PWID who initiated DAAs achieved SVR; among unstably housed persons the SVR was 83.3%. CONCLUSIONS: In response to COVID-19, an innovative differentiated care model for PWID at an SSP evolved that included successful co-treatment for HCV, HIV and OUD using a client-centered approach that reduces treatment demands on patients yet supports ongoing access to evidence-based treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Users , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Opioid-Related Disorders , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Telemedicine , Antiviral Agents , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Syringes
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(42): 7362-7375, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis, is associated with worse outcomes in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). AIM: To assess outcomes of COVID-19 infection among patients with pre-existing hepatitis C with or without liver cirrhosis. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study included all cases of confirmed co-infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and chronic hepatitis C with or without liver cirrhosis who were admitted to six hospitals (Al-Sahel Hospital, Al-Matareya Hospital, Al-Ahrar Hospital, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, Al-Gomhoreya Hospital, and the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute) affiliated with the General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes in Egypt. Patients were recruited from May 1, 2020, to July 31, 2020. Demographic, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes were collected. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to detect factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study included 125 patients with chronic hepatitis C and COVID-19 co-infection, of which 64 (51.20%) had liver cirrhosis and 40 (32.00%) died. Fever, cough, dyspnea, and fatigue were the most frequent symptoms in patients with liver cirrhosis. Cough, sore throat, fatigue, myalgia, and diarrhea were significantly more common in patients with liver cirrhosis than in non-cirrhotic patients. There was no difference between patients with and without cirrhosis regarding comorbidities. Fifteen patients (23.40%) with liver cirrhosis presented with hepatic encephalopathy. Patients with liver cirrhosis were more likely than non-cirrhotic patients to have combined ground-glass opacities and consolidations in CT chest scans: 28 (43.75%) vs 4 (6.55%), respectively (P value < 0.001). These patients also were more likely to have severe COVID-19 infection, compared to patients without liver cirrhosis: 29 (45.31%) vs 11 (18.04%), respectively (P value < 0.003). Mortality was higher in patients with liver cirrhosis, compared to those with no cirrhosis: 33 (51.56%) vs 9 (14.75%), respectively (P value < 0.001). All patients in Child-Pugh class A recovered and were discharged. Cirrhotic mortality occurred among decompensated patients only. A multivariate regression analysis revealed the following independent factors affecting mortality: Male gender (OR 7.17, 95%CI: 2.19-23.51; P value = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR 4.03, 95%CI: 1.49-10.91; P value = 0.006), and liver cirrhosis (OR 1.103, 95%CI: 1.037-1.282; P value < 0.0001). We found no differences in liver function, COVID-19 disease severity, or outcomes between patients who previously received direct-acting antiviral therapy (and achieved sustained virological response) and patients who did not receive this therapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with liver cirrhosis are susceptible to higher severity and mortality if infected with COVID-19. Male gender, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis are independent factors associated with increased mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Clin Immunol ; 233: 108888, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517099

ABSTRACT

Human interferon alpha (hIFN-α) administration constitutes the current FDA approved therapy for chronic Hepatitis B and C virus infections. Additionally, hIFN-α treatment efficacy was recently demonstrated in patients with COVID-19. Thus, hIFN-α constitutes a therapeutic alternative for those countries where vaccination is inaccessible and for people who did not respond effectively to vaccination. However, hIFN-α2b exhibits a short plasma half-life resulting in the occurrence of severe side effects. To optimize the cytokine's pharmacokinetic profile, we developed a hyperglycosylated IFN, referred to as GMOP-IFN. Given the significant number of reports showing neutralizing antibodies (NAb) formation after hIFN-α administration, here we applied the DeFT (De-immunization of Functional Therapeutics) approach to develop functional, de-immunized versions of GMOP-IFN. Two GMOP-IFN variants exhibited significantly reduced ex vivo immunogenicity and null antiproliferative activity, while preserving antiviral function. The results obtained in this work indicate that the new de-immunized GMOP-IFN variants constitute promising candidates for antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cattle , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Drug Stability , HEK293 Cells , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(4): 567-575, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several randomized trials have evaluated the effects of sofosbuvir-based direct-acting antivirals on the clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search with no language restrictions was performed on electronic databases and preprint repositories to identify eligible randomized trials published up to 8 July 2021. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) for outcomes of interest with the use of sofosbuvir combined with direct-acting antiviral agents relative to the nonuse of sofosbuvir-based direct-acting antiviral agents at 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The meta-analysis of 11 trials (n = 2,161) revealed statistically significant reduction in the odds of mortality (pooled odds ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.99) but no statistically significant difference in the odds of development of composite endpoint of severe illness (pooled odds ratio = 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.43 to 1.44) with the administration of sofosbuvir-based direct-acting antiviral agents among patients with COVID-19, relative to non-administration of sofosbuvir-based direct-acting antiviral agents.Subgroup analysis with seven trials involving sofosbuvir-daclatasvir revealed no significant mortality benefit (pooled odds ratio = 0.77; 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 1.22). CONCLUSION: Sofosbuvir-based direct-acting antiviral agents have no protective effects against the development of severe illness in patients with COVID-19 with the current dosing regimen. Whether sofosbuvir-based direct-acting antiviral agents could offer mortality benefits would require further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir
12.
In Vivo ; 35(6): 3377-3383, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Liver injury has been frequently reported in association with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but data are still lacking regarding the impact of pre-existing liver damage and neoplasia on SARS-CoV-2 infection outcome and vice-versa. This study aimed to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients, both in therapeutic-naïve and patients treated with direct acting antivirals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 21 patients with a personal history of HCV infection, that have been diagnosed with different forms of HCC and who were subsequently infected with SARS-CoV-2. Patients were monitored by liver function tests, tumoral markers, blood cell count, and coagulation profile periodically. RESULTS: Solitary HCC nodules were predominant among the subjects who achieved sustained virologic response, while multinodular and infiltrative patterns were mostly prevalent among the treatment-naïve group. Most patients had mild and moderate COVID-19 infections. CONCLUSION: Within the current global pandemic crisis, cancer patients are highly vulnerable and in need of constant monitoring. Among patients with HCC, the ones with cured HCV infection may be at a lower risk of fatality than those with active HCV infection, when diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Liver Neoplasms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Chemother ; 34(2): 73-86, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459998

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are particularly common among children. They often have a mild course, are self-limiting and do not need any specific treatment. However, in some cases, the disease can be severe and lead to permanent disabilities. A variety of antiviral drugs are available for the treatments of certain infectious agents: for instance, acyclovir is used to treat herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Recommendations for flu treatment may change according to the current epidemiological surveillance data, on the basis of which antiviral sensibility can be forecast: recommended drugs for the 2020-21 flu season are oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and baloxavir. Some drugs are used to treat congenital infections, such as valganciclovir and ganciclovir in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Antiretroviral prophylaxis in newborns from HIV-1 infected mothers must be initiated as soon as possible, with one or more drugs according to therapeutic regimens based on the baby's risk category. According to the most recent guidelines, antiretroviral therapy must be started at diagnosis. Several antiretroviral drugs are available today and approved for use in children, so several combinations can be made. However, out of the 29 antiretroviral drugs approved for adults, only 38% (11/29) are approved for children under the age of two and about 60% (18/29) for children under the age of twelve. Treatment with direct antiviral agents against hepatitis C virus is approved for children over the age of three; it consists in different therapeutic regimens chosen on the basis of the viral genotype (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for genotypes 1, 4, 5 and 6, sofosbuvir/ribavirin for genotypes 2 and 3, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and glecaprevir/pibrentasvir for all genotypes) and it has dramatically changed the course of the illness. Many molecules have been studied in order to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, but only remdesivir seems to play a role in shortening recovery time, although inclusion criteria are very specific and data on the use in children is limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(8): 1738-1740, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444536

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are curative treatments for hepatitis C. However, initiation of these treatments requires adequate healthcare access. Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in restrictions to healthcare services in March 2020. We examined the impact of COVID-19 on the number of individuals dispensed DAAs. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study examining the number of individuals dispensed DAAs in Ontario, Canada, from 2018 to 2020. Time-series models determined the impact of healthcare restrictions on DAA dispensations. RESULTS: Healthcare restrictions resulted in a 49.3% decrease in DAA dispensations (P = 0.026). DISCUSSION: COVID-19-related healthcare restrictions significantly affected access to DAAs. Studies exploring the long-term effects on reduced treatment are needed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ontario
15.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(10): 1474-1483, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440781

ABSTRACT

The number of patients diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is markedly higher than the number initiating treatment indicating gaps in the care cascade, likely centred around reaching at-risk populations. Understanding changing characteristics of patients with HCV allows for targeted programs that increase linkage to care. We investigated changes in demographic and clinical characteristics of patients registered in the German Hepatitis C-Registry (DHC-R) from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2019. The DHC-R is an ongoing, noninterventional, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort registry including 327 German centres. Patient characteristics were analysed over time in 7 phases for all patients completing a screening visit. Overall, 14,357 patients were enrolled. The percentage of treatment-naïve/non-cirrhotic patients increased from 34.4% in phase 1 (1 January-31 December 2014) to 68.2% in phase 7 (1 August-31 December 2019). The proportion of migrants, alcohol users, people who inject drugs, and those receiving opiate substitution therapy increased in later registry phases. Most patients (60.1%) were receiving comedication at baseline. The most prescribed comedications were drugs used to treat opioid dependence which increased from 9.2% in phase 1 to 24.0% in phase 7. The patients' mean age decreased from 52.3 years in phase 1 to 48.7 years in phase 7. From 2014 to 2019, the proportion of at-risk patients enrolling in the registry increased. To eliminate viral hepatitis as a major public health threat, a continued commitment to engaging underserved populations into the HCV care cascade is needed.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/drug therapy
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257369, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416897

ABSTRACT

Australia was one of the first countries to introduce government-funded unrestricted access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, with 88,790 treated since March 2016. However, treatment uptake is declining which could potentially undermine Australia's progress towards the WHO HCV elimination targets. Using mathematical modelling, we updated estimates for those living with chronic HCV in Australia, new cases of decompensated cirrhosis (DC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver-related mortality among the HCV-cured and viraemic populations from 2015 to 2030. We considered various DAA treatment scenarios incorporating annual treatment numbers to 2020, and subsequent uptake per year of 6,790 (pessimistic), 8,100 (intermediate), and 11,310 (optimistic). We incorporated the effects of excess alcohol consumption and reduction in progression to DC and HCC among cirrhosis-cured versus viraemic individuals. At the end of 2020, we estimated 117,810 Australians were living with chronic HCV. New cases per year of DC, HCC, and liver-related mortality among the HCV viraemic population decreased rapidly from 2015 (almost eliminated by 2030). In contrast, the growing population size of those cured with advanced liver disease meant DC, HCC, and liver-related mortality declined slowly. The estimated reduction in liver-related mortality from 2015 to 2030 in the combined HCV viraemic and cured population is 25% in the intermediate scenario. With declining HCV treatment uptake and ongoing individual-level risk of advanced liver disease complications, including among cirrhosis-cured individuals, Australia is unlikely to achieve all WHO HCV elimination targets by 2030.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/prevention & control , Australia/epidemiology , Calibration , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Disease Progression , Epidemics , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/mortality , Humans , Incidence , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
17.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 113(8): 623-624, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395476

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C (HCV) management has dramatically changed with the advent of direct-acting antivirals. Their high efficacy and safety are changing the paradigm of detection and treatment of patients with an active HCV infection. Following the latest guidelines, the path to elimination of hepatitis C will be achieved by simplifying management.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Telemedicine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans
18.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(1): e5238, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380369

ABSTRACT

Sofosbuvir is a direct-acting antiviral drug that inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase, which in turn affects the virus replication inside biological systems. The clinical importance of sofosbuvir is based not only on its effect on HCV but also on other lethal viruses such as Zika and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2019 (SARS-COVID-19). Accordingly, there is a continuous shedding of light on the development and validation of accurate and fast analytical methods for the determination of sofosbuvir in different environments. This work critically reviews the recent advances in chromatographic methods for the analysis of sofosbuvir and/or its metabolites in pure samples, pharmaceutical dosage forms, and in the presence of other co-administered drugs to highlight the current status and future perspectives to enhance its determination in different matrixes.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/blood , Chromatography/methods , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Sofosbuvir/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/blood , Humans , Plasma/chemistry , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(26): 4004-4017, 2021 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319755

ABSTRACT

Chronic viral hepatitis is a significant health problem throughout the world, which already represents high annual mortality. By 2040, chronic viral hepatitis due to virus B and virus C and their complications cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma will be more deadly than malaria, vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone, and tuberculosis altogether. In this review, we analyze the global impact of chronic viral hepatitis with a focus on the most vulnerable groups, the goals set by the World Health Organization for the year 2030, and the key points to achieve them, such as timely access to antiviral treatment of direct-acting antiviral, which represents the key to achieving hepatitis C virus elimination. Likewise, we review the strategies to prevent transmission and achieve control of hepatitis B virus. Finally, we address the impact that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has had on implementing elimination strategies and the advantages of implementing telemedicine programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Liver Neoplasms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/prevention & control
20.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302500

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a significant strain on hepatitis programs and interventions (screening, diagnosis, and treatment) at a critical moment in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination. We sought to quantify changes in Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) utilization among different countries during the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional time series analysis between 1 September 2018 and 31 August 2020, using the IQVIA MIDAS database, which contains DAA purchase data for 54 countries. We examined the percent change in DAA units dispensed (e.g., pills and capsules) from March to August 2019 to the same period of time in 2020 across the 54 countries. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to examine the impact of COVID-19 on monthly rates of DAA utilization across each of the major developed economies (G7 nations). Overall, 46 of 54 (85%) jurisdictions experienced a decline in DAA utilization during the pandemic, with an average of -43% (range: -1% in Finland to -93% in Brazil). All high HCV prevalence (HCV prevalence > 2%) countries in the database experienced a decline in utilization, average -49% (range: -17% in Kazakhstan to -90% in Egypt). Across the G7 nations, we also observed a decreased trend in DAA utilization during the early months of the pandemic, with significant declines (p < 0.01) for Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The global response to COVID-19 led to a large decrease in DAA utilization globally. Deliberate efforts to counteract the impact of COVID-19 on treatment delivery are needed to support the goal of HCV elimination.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/standards , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Finland/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Kazakhstan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States
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