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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 611.e1-611.e7, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects the immune system. Whether elimination of HCV with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) restores immunity is unclear. We used mass cytometry to get a broad and in-depth assessment of blood cell populations of patients with chronic HCV before and after DAA therapy. METHODS: Before and 12 weeks after sustained virological response (SVR12) to DAA therapy, 22 cell populations were analysed by mass cytometry in blood collected from ten healthy control individuals and 20 HCV-infected patients with (ten patients) or without (ten patients) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. RESULTS: HCV infection altered the frequency of 14/22 (64%) blood cell populations. At baseline, the frequencies (median, interquartile range (IQR); control, HCV, HCV/HIV) of intermediate monocytes (1.2, IQR 0.47-1.46; 1.76, IQR 0.83-2.66; 0.78, IQR 0.28-1.77), non-classical monocytes (1.11, IQR 0.49-1.26; 0.9, IQR 0.18-0.99; 0.54, IQR 0.28-1.77), conventional dendritic cells type 2 (0.55, IQR 0.35-0.59; 0.31, IQR 0.16-0.38; 0.19, IQR 0.11-0.36) and CD56dim natural killer cells (8.08, IQR 5.34-9.79; 4.72, IQR 2.59-6.05) 3.61, IQR 2.98-5.07) were reduced by 35% to 65%, particularly in HCV/HIV co-infected patients. In contrast, activated double-negative T cells (0.07, IQR 0.06-0.10; 0.10, IQR 0.09-0.19; 0.19, IQR 0.12-0.25), activated CD4 T cells (0.28, IQR 0.21-0.36; 0.56, IQR 0.33-0.77; 0.40, IQR 0.22-0.53) and activated CD8 T cells (0.23, IQR 0.14-0.42; 0.74, IQR 0.30-1.65; 0.80, IQR 0.58-1.16) were increased 1.4 to 3.5 times. Upon stimulation with Toll-like receptor ligands, the expression of cytokines was up-regulated in 7/9 (78%) and 17/19 (89%) of the conditions in HCV- and HCV/HIV-infected patients, respectively. Most alterations persisted at SVR12. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HCV and HCV/HIV infections induce profound and durable perturbations of innate and adaptive immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 842, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We examined correlates of COVID-19 testing among PWID in the U.S.-Mexico border region and described encounters with services representing potential opportunities (i.e., 'touchpoints') where COVID-19 testing could have been offered. METHODS: Between October, 2020 and September, 2021, participants aged ≥18 years from San Diego, California, USA and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico who injected drugs within the last month completed surveys and SARS-CoV-2, HIV, and HCV serologic testing. Logistic regression identified factors associated with COVID-19 testing including potential touchpoints, comorbidities and COVID-19 related misinformation and disinformation. RESULTS: Of 583 PWID, 30.5% previously had a COVID-19 test. Of 172 PWID who tested SARS-CoV-2 seropositive (30.1%), 50.3% encountered at least one touchpoint where COVID-19 testing could have been offered within the prior six months. Factors independently associated with at least two fold higher odds of COVID-19 testing were living in San Diego, recent incarceration, receiving substance use treatment, and experiencing ≥1 chronic health condition. Homelessness, having received ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine, and having a HIV or HCV test since the COVID-19 epidemic began were also independently associated with having had a prior COVID-19 test. CONCLUSION: We identified several factors independently associated with COVID-19 testing and multiple touchpoints where COVID-19 testing could be scaled up for PWID, such as SUD treatment programs and syringe service programs. Integrated health services are needed to improve access to rapid, free COVID-19 testing in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Users , HIV Infections , Hepatitis C , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/complications , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology
3.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(5): 352-365, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807204

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) contribute to significant healthcare burden globally. We aim to provide an updated and comprehensive analysis of global trends in the incidence and mortality of HBV and HCV related acute infections, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Estimates of annual cause-specific disease incidence and mortality for HBV and HCV were analysed using the 2010-2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study database. Three distinct disease states were evaluated: acute infections, cirrhosis and HCC. Age-standardized disease incidence and mortality were presented per 100,000 population and stratified by age, sex, year and 21 world regions. From 2010 to 2019, overall incidence of acute HBV declined by 19.3% (95% CI 4.1-32.0, p < .05) and HBV cirrhosis declined by 15.0% (95% CI 9.8-20.7, p < .05). Incidence of HCV cirrhosis increased by 5.6% (95% CI 0.3-10.2, p < .05) and HCV HCC remained stable. Incidence of acute HCV declined until 2015, after which it began increasing. From 2010 to 2019, overall mortality for HBV cirrhosis and HCV cirrhosis declined, whereas mortality for acute infections and HCC remained stable. Major differences in HBV and HCV incidence and mortality trends were observed when stratified by world regions. In conclusion, while our analyses of global trends in HBV and HCV incidence and mortality demonstrate encouraging trends, disparities in disease epidemiology were observed across world regions. These observations will identify regions and populations where greater focus and resources are needed to continue progressing towards viral hepatitis elimination.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Liver Neoplasms , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Risk Factors
4.
Gene ; 820: 146235, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778131

ABSTRACT

The relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409, transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) rs58542926, and membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7) rs641738 with outcomes in patients with hepatitis C infection (HCV) is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association of PNPLA3, TM6SF2, and MBOAT7 with the baseline fibrosis stage and progression of liver fibrosis after HCV eradication with direct antiviral agents (DAAs). A total of 171 patients who received the DAAs at the Peking University First Hospital between June 2015 and June 2020 were included in the retrospective cohort. Transient elastography was used to determine liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) at the baseline, the end of treatment (EOT), 24 weeks after treatment (W24), and the last follow-up (LFU) visit. We used the QIAamp Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen) for whole blood genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction for PNPLA3, TM6SF2, and MBOAT7 amplification of the target gene. The PNPLA3 rs738409 SNP was associated with the baseline fibrosis stage in multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for other factors, and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for advanced fibrosis (≥F3) at baseline was 2.52 (95% confidence interval[CI] = 1.096-5.794, p = 0.03). The G and GG alleles were predictive of advanced fibrosis (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.021-4.196, p = 0.015; OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.572-6.536, p = 0.005). Similarly, the OR of TM6SF2 rs58542926 at baseline was 2.608 (95% CI = 1.081-6.29, p = 0.033). T and TT alleles were predictive of advanced fibrosis (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.005-5.98, p = 0.007; OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.32-6.87, p = 0.001). After adjustment, the MBOAT7 rs641738 T plus TT alleles were not independently associated with the baseline fibrosis stage (95% CI = 0.707-2.959, p = 0.312). At the EOT, there were 35 patients and 136 patients in the fibrosis improvement and fibrosis non-improvement group, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the G allele in PNPLA3 rs738409 was associated with fibrosis progression (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.125-5.89, p = 0.003). The GG alleles were predictive of fibrosis progression (OR = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.35-6.35, p = 0.005). Similarly, the ORs of the T and TT alleles in TM6SF2 rs58542926 for fibrosis progression were 1.82 and 2.21, respectively (95% CI = 1.006-5.373, p = 0.045; 95% CI = 1.18-5.75, p = 0.01). At the W24 visit, we found that there was an association between the G allele in PNPLA3 rs738409 and fibrosis progression (OR = 2.218, 95% CI = 1.095-5.631, p = 0.015). Moreover, GG alleles were also predictive for fibrosis progression (OR = 2.558, 95% CI = 1.252-5.15, p = 0.008). Similarly, the OR of T allele and TT alleles in TM6SF2 rs58542926 for fibrosis progression was 2.056 and 2.652 (95% CI = 1.013-5.592, p = 0.038; 95% CI = 1.25-5.956, p = 0.015). For additional affirmation, we surveyed fibrosis progression utilizing the Cox proportional hazards model. G and GG alleles in PNPLA3 rs738409 were associated with an increased risk of progression to advanced fibrosis in multivariate model (hazard ratio [HR]1.566, 95% CI = 1.02-2.575, p = 0.017; and HR2.109, 95% CI = 1.36-3.271, p = 0.001, respectively). Besides, T and TT alleles in TM6SF2 rs58542926 were associated with an increased risk of progression to advanced fibrosis in multivariate model (HR = 1.322, 95% CI = 1.003-1.857, p = 0.045; and HR = 1.855, 95% CI = 1.35-2.765, p = 0.006, respectively). In contrast, rs641738 in MBOAT7 did not show a significant trend in the univariate and multivariate models. The PNPLA3 CG/GG SNP at rs738409 and TM6SF2 CT/TT SNP at rs58542926 were associated with the baseline fibrosis stage and fibrosis progression after HCV eradication with DAAs.


Subject(s)
Acyltransferases/economics , Acyltransferases/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Membrane Proteins/economics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Phospholipases A2, Calcium-Independent/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Adult , Aged , Alleles , Disease Progression , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935075, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Thyroiditis is an important extrahepatic association in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. There have been reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the onset or re-activation of autoimmune hypothyroidism. Therefore, we performed this prospective observational study of 42 patients with COVID-19 infection and a history of hepatitis C virus infection and thyroid disease with follow-up thyroid function and autoantibody testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS From April 2020 to October 2020, we performed a prospective observational study of patients with cured hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and documented thyroid disease who became infected with SARS-CoV-2 (confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection via reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCT] from the upper respiratory tract, both nasal and pharyngeal swabs). Evaluation at 1 and 3 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection included serum determination of antithyroid antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin [anti-Tg] and antithyroid peroxidase [ATPO]), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and evaluation of thyroid medication, with dose adjustment if required. RESULTS One-month follow-up showed that both patients with autoimmune thyroiditis as well as patients without antibodies had increased ATPO levels. Also, levels of TSH, fT3, and fT4 were significantly decreased. At 3-month follow-up, levels of ATPO were decreased in all patient groups and the levels of thyroid hormones increased to normal values. CONCLUSIONS This study supports previous reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and thyroid dysfunction associated with thyroid autoantibodies. Thyroid function tests may be considered as part of the laboratory work-up in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis C/complications , Hypothyroidism/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Hypothyroidism/physiopathology , Hypothyroidism/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/blood , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood
6.
Liver Int ; 41(1): 76-80, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and impact of liver fibrosis stage upon infection rates in persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), a well-established database of HCV-infected Veterans in care. We excluded those with missing FIB-4 score and those with HIV or hepatitis B virus co-infection. We determined the number of persons tested, proportion who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and the infection rate by age and liver fibrosis stage. RESULTS: Among 172,235 persons with HCV, 14,305 (8.3%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 892 (6.2%) tested positive. Those with SARS-CoV-2 infection were older, more likely to be Black (55.2% vs 37.8%), obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2 36.2% vs 29.7%) and have diabetes or stroke (P < .0001 for all comparisons). Mean FIB-4 scores and proportion of persons with cirrhosis (based on a FIB-4 > 3.25) were similar in both groups. Incidence rate/1,000 tested persons was much higher among Blacks (88.4; 95% CI 81.1, 96.2) vs Whites (37.5; 95% CI 33.1, 42.4) but similar among those with cirrhosis (FIB-4 > 3.25). The rates were also similar among those who were untreated for HCV vs those treated with or without attaining a sustained virologic response. CONCLUSIONS: Testing rates among persons with HCV are very low. Persons with infection are more likely to be Black, have a higher body mass index and diabetes or stroke. The degree of liver fibrosis does not appear to have an impact on infection rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/ethnology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2233-2235, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153143

ABSTRACT

The effect of host immune status on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unknown. Here, we report the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)/hepatitis C virus coinfection, who showed a persistently negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA test but delayed antibody response in the plasma. This case highlights the influence of HIV-1-induced immune dysfunction on early SARS-CoV-2 clearance.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , HIV Infections/complications , Hepatitis C/complications , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1 , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Liver Int ; 41(8): 1824-1831, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection upon hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality in persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is unknown. METHODS: We used the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV infected Veterans (ERCHIVES) database to determine the impact of HCV infection upon the rates of acute care hospitalization, ICU admission and all-cause mortality. We identified Veterans with chronic HCV infection and propensity score matched controls without HCV in ERCHIVES. We excluded those with HIV or hepatitis B virus coinfection. RESULTS: We identified 975 HCV+ and 975 propensity score matched HCV- persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mean FIB-4 score (±SD) was higher in those with HCV (1.9 ± 2.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.9; P < .0001) and a larger proportion of those with HCV had cirrhosis (8.1% vs 1.4%; P < .0001). A larger proportion of HCV+ were hospitalized compared to HCV- (24.0% vs 18.3%; P = .002); however, those requiring ICU care and mortality were also similar in both groups (6.6% vs 6.5%; P = .9). Among those with FIB-4 score of 1.45-3.25, hospitalization rate/1000-person-years was 41.4 among HCV+ and 20.2 among HCV-, while among those with a FIB-4 > 3.25, the rate- was 9.4 and 0.6 (P < .0001). There was no difference in all-cause mortality by age, gender, FIB-4 score, number of comorbidities or treatment with remdesivir and/or systemic corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: HCV+ persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more likely to be admitted to a hospital. The hospitalization rate also increased with higher FIB-4 score. However, admission to an ICU and mortality are not different between those with and without HCV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Asian J Androl ; 23(4): 335-347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039129

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have haunted humankind since times immemorial. Overpopulation, globalization, and extensive deforestation have created an ideal environment for a viral spread with unknown and multiple shedding routes. Many viruses can infect the male reproductive tract, with potential adverse consequences to male reproductive health, including infertility and cancer. Moreover, some genital tract viral infections can be sexually transmitted, potentially impacting the resulting offspring's health. We have summarized the evidence concerning the presence and adverse effects of the relevant viruses on the reproductive tract (mumps virus, human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, Ebola virus, Zika virus, influenza virus, and coronaviruses), their routes of infection, target organs and cells, prevalence and pattern of virus shedding in semen, as well as diagnosis/testing and treatment strategies. The pathophysiological understanding in the male genital tract is essential to assess its clinical impact on male reproductive health and guide future research.


Subject(s)
Reproductive Health/trends , Virus Diseases/complications , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Herpes Genitalis/complications , Herpes Genitalis/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/physiopathology
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027278

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases represent a relevant issue in lung cancer patients. Bacterial and viral infections might influence the patients' prognosis, both directly affecting the immune system and indirectly impairing the outcome of anticancer treatments, mainly immunotherapy. In this analysis, we aimed to review the current evidence in order to clarify the complex correlation between infections and lung cancer. In detail, we mainly explored the potential impact on immunotherapy outcome/safety of (1) bacterial infections, with a detailed focus on antibiotics; and (2) viral infections, discriminating among (a) human immune-deficiency virus (HIV), (b) hepatitis B/C virus (HBV-HCV), and (c) Sars-Cov-2. A series of studies suggested the prognostic impact of antibiotic therapy administration, timing, and exposure ratio in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, probably through an antibiotic-related microbiota dysbiosis. Although cancer patients with HIV, HBV, and HCV were usually excluded from clinical trials evaluating immunotherapy, some retrospective and prospective trials performed in these patient subgroups reported similar results compared to those described in not-infected patients, with a favorable safety profile. Moreover, patients with thoracic cancers are particularly at risk of COVID-19 severe outcomes and mortality. Few reports speculated about the prognostic implications of anticancer therapy, including immunotherapy, in lung cancer patients with concomitant Sars-Cov-2 infection, showing, to date, inconsistent results. The correlation between infectious diseases and immunotherapy remains to be further explored and clarified in the context of dedicated trials. In clinical practice, the accurate and prompt multidisciplinary management of lung cancer patients with infections should be encouraged in order to select the best treatment options for these patients, avoiding unexpected toxicities, while maintaining the anticancer effect.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Virus Diseases/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/microbiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/virology , HIV/drug effects , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/pathology , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/pathology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/microbiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Microbiota/drug effects , Microbiota/immunology
11.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(2): 198-206, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006455

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Public health responses often lack the infrastructure to capture the impact of public health emergencies on pregnant women and infants, with limited mechanisms for linking pregnant women with their infants nationally to monitor long-term effects. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in close collaboration with state, local, and territorial health departments, began a 5-year initiative to establish population-based mother-baby linked longitudinal surveillance, the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this report is to describe an expanded surveillance approach that leverages and modernizes existing surveillance systems to address the impact of emerging health threats during pregnancy on pregnant women and their infants. METHODS: Mother-baby pairs are identified through prospective identification during pregnancy and/or identification of an infant with retrospective linking to maternal information. All data are obtained from existing data sources (e.g., electronic medical records, vital statistics, laboratory reports, and health department investigations and case reporting). RESULTS: Variables were selected for inclusion to address key surveillance questions proposed by CDC and health department subject matter experts. General variables include maternal demographics and health history, pregnancy and infant outcomes, maternal and infant laboratory results, and child health outcomes up to the second birthday. Exposure-specific modular variables are included for hepatitis C, syphilis, and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The system is structured into four relational datasets (maternal, pregnancy outcomes and birth, infant/child follow-up, and laboratory testing). DISCUSSION: SET-NET provides a population-based mother-baby linked longitudinal surveillance approach and has already demonstrated rapid adaptation to COVID-19. This innovative approach leverages existing data sources and rapidly collects data and informs clinical guidance and practice. These data can help to reduce exposure risk and adverse outcomes among pregnant women and their infants, direct public health action, and strengthen public health systems.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense/methods , Mother-Child Relations , Population Surveillance/methods , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Civil Defense/instrumentation , Female , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mass Screening/methods , Pregnancy , Syphilis/complications , Syphilis/diagnosis
12.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(5): 556-560, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841750

ABSTRACT

People who use drugs (PWUD) face concurrent public health emergencies from overdoses, HIV, hepatitis C, and COVID-19, leading to an unprecedented syndemic. Responses to PWUD that go beyond treatment--such as decriminalization and providing a safe supply of pharmaceutical-grade drugs--could reduce impacts of this syndemic. Solutions already implemented for COVID-19, such as emergency safe-supply prescribing and providing housing to people experiencing homelessness, must be sustained once COVID-19 is contained. This pandemic is not only a public health crisis but also a chance to develop and maintain equitable and sustainable solutions to the harms associated with the criminalization of drug use.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Syndemic , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Criminals , Drug Overdose/complications , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Housing , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prescriptions , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , United States Public Health Service
13.
J Clin Psychol Med Settings ; 28(3): 553-561, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812560

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco use among patients living with HIV/HCV co-infection. Patient reported outcomes (PROs) were analyzed of patients living with HIV/HCV co-infection (n = 313) who presented for clinical evaluation and treatment of HCV between 2013 and 2017 at a university-affiliated HIV/HCV Co-infection Clinic. The prevalence of tobacco use in patients living with HIV/HCV co-infection was 48%. Compared to non-smokers, a higher proportion of tobacco smokers had substance use disorders and concurrent alcohol and substance use. In the multivariate analysis, concurrent alcohol and substance use was positively associated with tobacco use. The findings suggest clinical interventions are urgently needed to reduce tobacco use among patients living with HIV/HCV co-infection-a doubly-vulnerable immunocompromised population. Otherwise, failed efforts to dedicate resources and targeted behavioral interventions for this respective population will inhibit survival-especially considering the recent and evolving COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , HIV Infections , Hepatitis C , Substance-Related Disorders , Coinfection/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626611

ABSTRACT

The present review summarizes up-to-date evidence addressing the frequently discussed clinical controversies regarding the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in cancer patients with viral infections, including AIDS, hepatitis B and C, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, influenza, and COVID-19. In detail, we provide available information on (1) safety regarding the risk of new infections, (2) effects on the outcome of pre-existing infections, (3) whether immunosuppressive drugs used to treat ICI-related adverse events affect the risk of infection or virulence of pre-existing infections, (4) whether the use of vaccines in ICI-treated patients is considered safe, and (5) whether there are beneficial effects of ICIs that even qualify them as a therapeutic approach for these viral infections.


Subject(s)
Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/complications , Virus Diseases/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/therapy , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepatitis C/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology
15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2202-2204, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593310

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can be associated with coagulopathy (CAC, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy) with a high prothrombotic risk based on an intense inflammatory response to viral infection leading to immunothrombosis through different procoagulant pathways. Emerging evidence suggests that the use of heparin in these patients could be associated with lower mortality. Emicizumab is a bispecific humanized monoclonal antibody that bridges activated factor IX and factor X, thereby restoring the function of missing factor VIIIa in hemophilia A. The use of emicizumab has been associated with thrombotic events in patients who also received high cumulative amounts of activated prothrombin complex concentrates. Although this risk is extremely low, there is a lack of evidence on whether CAC increases the thrombotic risk in patients on emicizumab prophylaxis. We present the case of a patient with severe hemophilia A in prophylaxis treatment with emicizumab; due to the potential thrombotic risk we decided to administer low molecular weight heparin as prophylaxis treatment without any thrombotic or bleeding complications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hemophilia A/complications , Hemophilia A/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Coagulants , Factor IXa/chemistry , Factor X/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/complications , Hepatitis C/complications , Humans , Inflammation , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
16.
Am J Transplant ; 20(8): 2254-2259, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155106

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious and rapidly spreading disease. There are limited published data on the epidemiology and outcomes of COVID-19 infection among organ transplant recipients. After initial flulike symptoms, progression to an inflammatory phase may occur, characterized by cytokine release rapidly leading to respiratory and multiorgan failure. We report the clinical course and management of a liver transplant recipient on hemodialysis, who presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, and despite completing a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, later developed marked inflammatory manifestations with rapid improvement after administration of off-label, single-dose tocilizumab. We also highlight the role of lung ultrasonography in early diagnosis of the inflammatory phase of COVID-19. Future investigation of the effects of immunomodulators among transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection will be important.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Renal Dialysis , Transplant Recipients , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/surgery , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Reoperation , Treatment Outcome
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