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Front Public Health ; 9: 735572, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775874

ABSTRACT

Background: The WHO has defined international targets toward the elimination of hepatitis C by 2030. Most countries cannot be on track to achieve this goal unless many challenges are surpassed. The Let's End HepC (LEHC) tool aims to contribute to the control of hepatitis C. The innovation of this tool combines the modelling of public health policies (PHP) focused on hepatitis C with epidemiological modelling of the disease, obtaining a unique result that allows to forecast the impact of policy outcomes. The model was applied to several countries, including Spain. Methods: To address the stated objective, we applied the "Adaptive Conjoint Analysis" for PHP decision-making and Markov Chains in the LEHC modelling tool. The tool also aims to be used as an element of health literacy for patient advocacy through gamification mechanisms and country comparability. The LEHC project has been conducted in several countries, including Spain. The population segments comprised in the project are: People Who Inject Drugs (PWID), prisoners, blood products, remnant population. Results: A total of 24 PHP related to hepatitis C were included in the LEHC project. It was identified that Spain had fully implemented 14 of those policies to control hepatitis C. According to LEHC's model forecast, the WHO's Hepatitis C elimination goal on reducing the number of patients living with Hepatitis C to 10% can be achieved in Spain by 2026 if current policies are maintained. The model estimates that the total population in Spain, by 2026, is expected to comprise 26,367 individuals living with hepatitis C. Moreover, if the 24 PHP considered for this study are fully implemented in Spain, the elimination goal may be achieved in 2024, with 29,615 individuals living with hepatitis C by that year. Conclusion: The findings corroborate the view that Spain has set great efforts in directing PHP toward Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) elimination by 2030. However, there is still room for improvement, namely in further implementing 10 of the 24 PHP considered for the LEHC project. By maintaining the 14 PHP in force, the LEHC model estimates the HCV elimination in the country by 2026, and by 2024 if further measures are employed to control the disease.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , Public Policy , Spain/epidemiology
3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10 Suppl 1: S6, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hepatitis C in people who use injectable drugs along the USA-Mexico border is very high (>90%). In 2019, the Mexican government committed to providing hepatitis C treatment with priority for people who use injectable drugs, people living with HIV, and people living in prison or jail, yet the immediate plan for prioritized treatment allocation and rollout remained unclear prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding which prevention and intervention strategies and at what level of scale-up can achieve the WHO goal of 80% incidence reduction by 2030 along the border is needed. METHODS: We adapted our previously published dynamic, deterministic model of hepatitis C transmission among people who use injectable drugs to determine the direct-acting antiviral treatment allocations in combination with harm-reduction interventions (opiate agonist therapy and needle and syringe programmes) needed to achieve the WHO elimination goal between 2021 and 2030. Our model is calibrated and parameterised to epidemiological data from Ciudad Juarez (where approximately 10 000 people who use injectable drugs reside and the seroprevalence of hepatitis C among people who use injectable drugs is 92%) and minimal harm reduction. FINDINGS: To reduce hepatitis C incidence by 80% between 2021 and 2030, 910 direct-acting antiviral treatments per 10 000 people who use injectable drugs in Ciudad Juarez per year are needed. Overall, fewer treatments are required if combined with harm reduction. If opiate agonist therapy and needle and syringe programmes are scaled-up to 50%, approximately 30-40% fewer people who use injectable drugs would need to be treated each year (650 direct-acting antiviral treatments per 10 000 people who use injectable drugs per year). Between 2021 and 2030, using direct-acting antivirals alone, an estimated total of 8190 people who use injectable drugs in Ciudad Juarez would need to be treated, compared with 6255 (nearly 25%) fewer people who use injectable drugs overall if treatment is scaled-up alongside 50% of opiate agonist therapy and needle and syringe programmes combination intervention coverage. INTERPRETATION: Hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals should be prioritised for people who use injectable drugs along the USA-Mexico border and progress towards hepatitis C elimination should be monitored. Regional hepatitis C micro-elimination among people who use injectable drugs could be possible if national treatment allocations are prioritised and distributed to people who use injectable drugs as planned and in the presence of essential harm-reduction programmes. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health; Fogarty International Center grant D43TW009343; and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and National Institute on Drug Abuse grant R01AI147490.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , World Health Organization
4.
Public Health ; 205: 182-186, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751168

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In 2015, the Republic of Georgia initiated a National Hepatitis C Elimination Program, with a goal of 90% reduction in prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections by 2020. In this article, we explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the 2020 hepatitis C cascade of care in Georgia. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analytic study. METHODS: We used a national screening registry that includes hospitals, blood banks, antenatal clinics, harm reduction sites, and other programs and services to collect data on hepatitis C screening. A separate national treatment database was used to collect data on viremia and diagnostic testing, treatment initiation, and outcome including testing for and achieving sustained virologic response (SVR). We used these databases to create hepatitis C care cascades for 2020 and 2019. Bivariate associations for demographic characteristics and screening locations per year and care cascade comparisons were assessed using a chi-squared test. RESULTS: In 2020 compared to 2019, the total number of persons screened for HCV antibodies decreased by 25% (from 975,416 to 726,735), 59% fewer people with viremic infection were treated for HCV infection (3188 vs. 7868), 46% fewer achieved SVR (1345 vs. 2495), a significantly smaller percentage of persons with viremic infection initiated treatment for HCV (59% vs. 62%), while the percentage of persons who achieved SVR (99.2% vs. 99.3%) remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the hepatitis C elimination program in Georgia. To ensure Georgia reaches its elimination goals, mitigating unintended consequences of delayed diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C due to the COVID-19 pandemic are paramount.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Georgia (Republic)/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
6.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715780

ABSTRACT

Following the availability of highly effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to treat hepatitis C infection, the uptake of treatment by people living with hepatitis C rose dramatically in high- and middle-income countries but has since declined. To achieve the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2030 target to eliminate hepatitis C as a public health threat among people who inject drugs, an increase in testing and treatment is required, together with improved coverage of harm reduction interventions. The population that remains to be treated in high- and middle-income countries with high hepatitis C prevalence are among the most socially disadvantaged, including people who inject drugs and are involved in the criminal justice system, a group with disproportionate hepatitis C prevalence, compared with people in the wider community. Imprisonment provides an unrivalled opportunity for screening and treating large numbers of people for hepatitis C, who may not access mainstream health services in the community. Despite some implementation challenges, evidence of the efficacy, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of in-prison hepatitis treatment programs is increasing worldwide, and evaluations of these programs have demonstrated the capacity for treating people in high numbers. In this Perspective we argue that the scale-up of hepatitis C prevention, testing, and treatment programs in prisons, along with the investigation of new and adapted approaches, is critical to achieving WHO elimination goals in many regions; the Australian experience is highlighted as a case example. We conclude by discussing opportunities to improve access to prevention, testing, and treatment for people in prison and other justice-involved populations, including harnessing the changed practices brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Australia/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Prisons
7.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715776

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the WHO announced a plan to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. In this narrative review, experts from Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia assessed the feasibility of achieving the WHO 2030 target for HCV infections in Central Europe. They focused mainly on HCV micro-elimination in prisons, where the highest incidence of HCV infections is usually observed, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the detection and treatment of HCV infections. According to the presented estimates, almost 400,000 people remain infected with HCV in the analyzed countries. Interferon-free therapies are available ad libitum, but the number of patients treated annually in the last two years has halved compared to 2017-2019, mainly due to the COVID-19 pandemic. None of the countries analyzed had implemented a national HCV screening program or a prison screening program. The main reason is a lack of will at governmental and prison levels. None of the countries analyzed see any chance of meeting the WHO targets for removing viral hepatitis from the public threat list by 2030, unless barriers such as a lack of political will and a lack of screening programs are removed quickly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Europe/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prisons
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 371, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the availability of generic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) opens the door for large-scale treatment, the care for people living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Malaysia is shifting toward a tripartite partnership between the public health system, correctional settings and civil society organizations (CSOs). This study aimed to explore the barriers to scaling up HCV treatment in Malaysia from the perspective of key stakeholders. METHODS: Eighteen focus-group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 180 individuals, who actively engaged in coordinating, executing or supporting the implementation of the national strategic plan for HCV. An analytical framework was adapted to guide the data collection and thematic analysis. It covered four key aspects of HCV treatment: geographical accessibility, availability, affordability and acceptability. RESULTS: Movement restrictions in times of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks and being marginalized translated into barriers to treatment access in people living with HCV. Barriers to treatment initiation in health and correctional settings included limited staffing and capacity; disruption in material supply; silos mentality and unintegrated systems; logistical challenges for laboratory tests; and insufficient knowledge of care providers. Although no-cost health services were in place, concerns over transportation costs and productivity loss also continued to suppress the treatment uptake. Limited disease awareness, along with the disease-related stigma, further lowered the treatment acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: This study disclosed a series of supply- and demand-side barriers to expanding the treatment coverage among people living with HCV in Malaysia. The findings call for strengthening inter-organizational collaborations to overcome the barriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Health Services , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Malaysia , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 7(5): 396-415, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the release of the first global hepatitis elimination targets in 2016, and until the COVID-19 pandemic started in early 2020, many countries and territories were making progress toward hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination. This study aims to evaluate HCV burden in 2020, and forecast HCV burden by 2030 given current trends. METHODS: This analysis includes a literature review, Delphi process, and mathematical modelling to estimate HCV prevalence (viraemic infection, defined as HCV RNA-positive cases) and the cascade of care among people of all ages (age ≥0 years from birth) for the period between Jan 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2030. Epidemiological data were collected from published sources and grey literature (including government reports and personal communications) and were validated among country and territory experts. A Markov model was used to forecast disease burden and cascade of care from 1950 to 2050 for countries and territories with data. Model outcomes were extracted from 2015 to 2030 to calculate population-weighted regional averages, which were used for countries or territories without data. Regional and global estimates of HCV prevalence, cascade of care, and disease burden were calculated based on 235 countries and territories. FINDINGS: Models were built for 110 countries or territories: 83 were approved by local experts and 27 were based on published data alone. Using data from these models, plus population-weighted regional averages for countries and territories without models (n=125), we estimated a global prevalence of viraemic HCV infection of 0·7% (95% UI 0·7-0·9), corresponding to 56·8 million (95% UI 55·2-67·8) infections, on Jan 1, 2020. This number represents a decrease of 6·8 million viraemic infections from a 2015 (beginning of year) prevalence estimate of 63·6 million (61·8-75·8) infections (0·9% [0·8-1·0] prevalence). By the end of 2020, an estimated 12·9 million (12·5-15·4) people were living with a diagnosed viraemic infection. In 2020, an estimated 641 000 (623 000-765 000) patients initiated treatment. INTERPRETATION: At the beginning of 2020, there were an estimated 56·8 million viraemic HCV infections globally. Although this number represents a decrease from 2015, our forecasts suggest we are not currently on track to achieve global elimination targets by 2030. As countries recover from COVID-19, these findings can help refocus efforts aimed at HCV elimination. FUNDING: John C Martin Foundation, Gilead Sciences, AbbVie, ZeShan Foundation, and The Hepatitis Fund.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis C , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Prevalence , Viremia/epidemiology
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 330, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1617001

ABSTRACT

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing HCV infection rates in haemodialysis patients in Brazil (Prospero CRD #42021275068). We included studies on patients under haemodialysis, comprising both convenience samples and exhaustive information from selected services. Patients underwent HCV serological testing with or without confirmation by HCV RNA PCR. Exclusion criteria were the following: absence of primary empirical information and studies without information on their respective settings, study year, accurate infection rates, or full specification of diagnostic tests. Studies with samples ≤ 30 and serial assessments with repeated information were also excluded. Reference databases included PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, and Web of Science for the period 1989-2019. A systematic review was carried out, followed by two independent meta-analyses: (i) studies with data on HCV prevalence and (ii) studies with a confirmatory PCR (i.e., active infection), respectively. A comprehensive set of different methods and procedures were used: forest plots and respective statistics, polynomial regression, meta-regression, subgroup influence, quality assessment, and trim-and-fill analysis. 29 studies and 11,290 individuals were assessed. The average time patients were in haemodialysis varied from 23.5 to 56.3 months. Prevalence of HCV infection was highly heterogeneous, with a pronounced decrease from 1992 to 2001, followed by a plateau and a slight decrease in recent years. The summary measure for HCV prevalence was 34% (95% CI 26-43%) for studies implemented before 2001. For studies implemented after 2001, the corresponding summary measure was 11% (95% CI 8-15%). Estimates for prevalence of active HCV infection were also highly heterogeneous. There was a marked decline from 1996 to 2001, followed by a plateau and a slight increase after 2010. The summary measure for active HCV infection was 19% (95% CI 15-25%) in studies carried out before 2001. For studies implemented after 2001, the corresponding summary measure was 9% (95% CI 6-13%). Heterogeneity was pervasive, but different analyses helped to identify its underlying sources. Besides the year each study was conducted, the findings differed markedly between geographic regions and were heavily influenced by the size of the studies and publication biases. Our systematic review and meta-analysis documented a substantial decline in HCV prevalence among Brazilian haemodialysis patients from 1992 to 2015. CKD should be targeted with specific interventions to prevent HCV infection, and if prevention fails, prompt diagnosis and treatment. Although the goal of HCV elimination by 2030 in Brazil remains elusive, it is necessary to adopt measures to achieve micro-elimination and to launch initiatives towards targeted interventions to curb the spread of HCV in people with CKD, among other high-risk groups. This is of particular concern in the context of a protracted COVID-19 pandemic and a major economic and political crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/genetics , Renal Dialysis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
Int J Drug Policy ; 101: 103570, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare delivery was disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic, requiring minimized in-person contact between patients and clinicians. During the pandemic, people with opioid use disorder (OUD) were not only at elevated risk for COVID-19, but had markedly reduced access to treatment for OUD, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV due to recommended decreased in-person visits. METHODS: From March 15-June 15, 2020 at the syringe services program (SSP) in New Haven, Connecticut, USA, a differentiated care model evolved with reduced clinical demands on people who inject drugs (PWID) to ensure screening and treatment for HCV, HIV and OUD, with a focus on HCV treatment. This model involved a single, bundled screening, evaluation, testing (SET) and monitoring strategy for all three conditions, minimal in-person visits, followed by tele-health communication between patients, outreach workers and clinicians. In-person visits occurred only during induction onto methadone and phlebotomy at baseline and phlebotomy 12 weeks post-treatment for HCV to measure sustained virological response (SVR). Patients received supportive texts/calls from outreach workers and clinicians. RESULTS: Overall, 66 actively injecting PWID, all with OUD, underwent bundled laboratory screening; 35 had chronic HCV infection. Participants were 40 years (mean), mostly white (N = 18) men (N = 28) and 12 were unstably housed. Two were lost to-follow-up and 2 were incarcerated, leaving 31 who started pan-genotypic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). The mean time from referral to initial phlebotomy and initiation of DAAs was 6.9 and 9.9 days, respectively. Fourteen additional patients were newly started on buprenorphine and 6 started on methadone; three and four, respectively, were on treatment at baseline. Overall, 29 (93.5%) PWID who initiated DAAs achieved SVR; among unstably housed persons the SVR was 83.3%. CONCLUSIONS: In response to COVID-19, an innovative differentiated care model for PWID at an SSP evolved that included successful co-treatment for HCV, HIV and OUD using a client-centered approach that reduces treatment demands on patients yet supports ongoing access to evidence-based treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Users , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Opioid-Related Disorders , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Telemedicine , Antiviral Agents , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Syringes
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(47): 8199-8200, 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580315

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the World Health Assembly adopted a Global Health Sector Strategy on viral hepatitis, with targets set for the years 2020 and 2030 to achieve hepatitis elimination. The main target of hepatitis elimination strategy is to reduce the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 90% and mortality by 65% in 2030. In last 5 years, the number of people receiving HCV treatment has increased from 1 million to 9.4 million; however, this number is far from the 2030 target of 40 million people receiving HCV treatment. HBV and HCV incidence rates are down from 1.4 million to 1.1 million annual deaths but this is far from the 2030 target of < 0.5 million deaths. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has severely affected the efforts in the fight against hepatitis. No major donor has committed to investing in the fight against hepatitis. Time is running out. There is a need to speed up efforts in the fight against hepatitis to achieve hepatitis elimination by 2030.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Global Health , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(3): 205-208, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532870

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted routine healthcare services. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are often asymptomatic, and therefore, screening and on/post-treatment monitoring are required. Our aim was to determine the effect of the first, second and third waves of the pandemic on HBV and HCV testing in Ontario, Canada. We extracted data from Public Health Ontario for HBV and HCV specimens from 1 January 2019 to 31 May 2021. Testing volumes were evaluated and stratified by age, sex and region. Changes in testing volumes were analysed by per cent and absolute change. Testing volumes decreased in April 2020 with the first wave of the pandemic and recovered to 72%-75% of prepandemic volumes by the end of the first wave. HBsAg testing decreased by 33%, 18% and 15%, and HBV DNA testing decreased by 37%, 27% and 20%, in each consecutive wave. Anti-HCV testing decreased by 35%, 21% and 19%, and HCV RNA testing decreased by 44%, 30% and 36% in each consecutive wave. These trends were consistent by age, region and sex. Prenatal HBV testing volumes were stable. In conclusion, significant decreases in HBV and HCV testing occurred during the first three waves of the pandemic and have not recovered. In addition to direct consequences on viral hepatitis elimination efforts, these data provide insight into the impacts of the pandemic on chronic disease screening and management. Strategies to make up for missed testing will be critical to avoid additional consequences of COVID-19 long after the pandemic has resolved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Female , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053394, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476608

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a highly infectious and deadly disease, affecting some 58 million people worldwide. Of the 1.13 million people living in the Balearic Islands, Spain, about 1350 individuals have untreated HCV. Of these, about 1120 (83%) are estimated to be people who use drugs (PWUD), who are one of the key at-risk groups for HCV infection globally. Carrying out micro-elimination approaches focused on this population is crucial to achieve the WHO goal of eliminating HCV by 2030. Thus, the primary objective of this study is to validate a model of care that simplifies the screening and linkage to HCV care pathways for PWUD on the Balearic Islands. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This intervention study will be implemented across 17 sites, in 4 different settings: addiction service centres (n=12), non-governmental organisation centres (n=3), a mobile methadone unit and a prison, with an estimated 3725 participants. Together with the healthcare staff at each centre, the intervention protocols will be adapted, focusing on four phases: recruitment and testing; linkage to care; treatment for those who test positive; and monitoring of sustained virological response 12 weeks after treatment and reinfection. The primary outcomes will be the number of tested and treated individuals and the secondary outcomes will include individuals lost at each step in the cascade of care. Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression of the data will be undertaken. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Spain, Ethics Committee approved this study on 18 February 2021 (HCB/2020/2018). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and social media. The results of this study could provide a model for targeting PWUD for HCV testing and treatment in the rest of Spain and in other settings, helping to achieve the WHO HCV elimination goal.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Spain/epidemiology , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/drug therapy , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , World Health Organization
16.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 57(3): 201-204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468620

ABSTRACT

Italy has been one of the countries with the greatest burden of HCV in Western Europe and with the highest number of HCV liver-related deaths. In order to achieve HCV elimination by 2030 Italy, like many other countries, will need to succeed in tackling the undiagnosed individuals with active HCV infection. To this aim beginning in 2021, a nationwide action has been implemented, consisting of the performance of screening tests among key populations and birth cohorts (1969-1989), estimated to have a high prevalence of undiagnosed individuals. The realization of the proactive screening during the first two years will define the tracks for the whole optimized screening strategy, including also the screening of 1948-1968 birth cohorts, reported to be the best cost-effective strategy in achieving the HCV elimination targets by 2030 in Italy. Each Italian region needs to define the present and future steps to reach HCV elimination goal by 2030 guaranteeing the equity of care.


Subject(s)
Goals , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Humans , Mass Screening , World Health Organization
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257975, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463309

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a new mathematical model is formulated that describes the interaction between uninfected cells, infected cells, viruses, intracellular viral RNA, Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), and antibodies. Hence, the model contains certain biological relations that are thought to be key factors driving this interaction which allow us to obtain precise logical conclusions. Therefore, it improves our perception, that would otherwise not be possible, to comprehend the pathogenesis, to interpret clinical data, to control treatment, and to suggest new relations. This model can be used to study viral dynamics in patients for a wide range of infectious diseases like HIV, HPV, HBV, HCV, and Covid-19. Though, analysis of a new multiscale HCV model incorporating the immune system response is considered in detail, the analysis and results can be applied for all other viruses. The model utilizes a transformed multiscale model in the form of ordinary differential equations (ODE) and incorporates into it the interaction of the immune system. The role of CTLs and the role of antibody responses are investigated. The positivity of the solutions is proven, the basic reproduction number is obtained, and the equilibrium points are specified. The stability at the equilibrium points is analyzed based on the Lyapunov invariance principle. By using appropriate Lyapunov functions, the uninfected equilibrium point is proven to be globally asymptotically stable when the reproduction number is less than one and unstable otherwise. Global stability of the infected equilibrium points is considered, and it has been found that each equilibrium point has a specific domain of stability. Stability regions could be overlapped and a bistable equilibria could be found, which means the coexistence of two stable equilibrium points. Hence, the solution converges to one of them depending on the initial conditions.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 510-525, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are substantial public health threats in the region of Central Asia and the Caucasus, where the prevalence of these infections is currently rising. METHODS: A systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO was conducted with no publication date or language restrictions through October 2019. Additional data were also harvested from national surveillance reports, references found in discovered sources, and other "grey" literature. It included studies conducted on high-risk populations (people who inject drugs (PWID), female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), prisoners, and migrants) in Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan; and the Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Northern Caucasus region of the Russian Federation. RESULTS: Wide ranges were noted for HIV prevalence: PWID 0-30.1%, MSM 0-25.1%, prisoners 0-22.8%, FSW 0-10.0%, and migrants 0.06-1.5%, with the highest prevalence of these high-risk groups reported in Kazakhstan (for PWID), Georgia (for MSM and prisoners) and Uzbekistan (for migrants). HCV prevalence also had a wide range: PWID 0.3-92.1%, MSM 0-18.9%, prisoners 23.8-49.7%, FSW 3.3-17.8%, and migrants 0.5-26.5%, with the highest prevalence reported in Georgia (92.1%), Kyrgyzstan (49.7%), and migrants from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (26.5%). Similarly, HBV prevalence had a wide range: PWID 2.8-79.7%, MSM 0-22.2%, prisoners 2.7-6.2%, FSW 18.4% (one study), and migrants 0.3-15.7%. CONCLUSION: In Central Asia and the Caucasus, prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV remains exceedingly high among selected populations, notably PWID and MSM.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Asia, Central/epidemiology , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Prisoners , Risk Factors , Russia/epidemiology , Sex Workers , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Transcaucasia/epidemiology
19.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 45(4): 256-264, 2022 Apr.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450112

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the results of a hepatitis B and C screening program in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHOD: Transversal prospective study conducted in two Spanish hospitals. Patients admitted from March 1st to December 31st 2020 with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were tested for markers of hepatitis B (HBsAg, anti-HBc) and C (anti-HCV, HCV RNA) infection. RESULTS: In this period, 4662 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to our centers: 56.3% were male, median age was 76 (0-104) years. Data regarding HBV infection was available in 2915 (62.5%) patients; 253 (8.75%) were anti-HBc+ and 11 (0.38%) HBsAg+. From these, 4 patients did not have a previous diagnosis of hepatitis B, 7 received corticosteroids and one received prophylaxis. There was one HBV reactivation. Anti-HCV was available in 2895 (62%) patients; 24 (0.83%) were positive. From these, 13 patients had a previous hepatitis C diagnosis: 10 patients had been treated with SVR, one achieved spontaneous cure and 2 did not receive treatment. From the 11 previously unknown anti-VHC+patients, 10 had a negative HCV RNA. Overall, only 3 (0.10%) patients tested RNA HCV+. However, none received HCV treatment (2 older than 90 years with comorbidities, 1 died from COVID-19). CONCLUSION: Screening of hepatitis C infection in hospitalized COVID-19 patients seems less useful than expected. The low prevalence of active infection after antiviral treatments and the high age of our population limit the detection of potential candidates for treatment. HBV screening should be aimed to prevent reactivation under immunosuppressive treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Aged , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Activation
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