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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 365-375, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490458

ABSTRACT

Concerns about vaccine safety are an important reason for vaccine hesitancy, however, limited information is available on whether common adverse reactions following vaccination affect the immune response. Data from three clinical trials of recombinant vaccines were used in this post hoc analysis to assess the correlation between inflammation-related solicited adverse reactions (ISARs, including local pain, redness, swelling or induration and systematic fever) and immune responses after vaccination. In the phase III trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cecolin®), the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for IgG anti-HPV-16 and -18 (P<0.001) were significantly higher in participants with any ISAR following vaccination than in those without an ISAR. Local pain, induration, swelling and systemic fever were significantly correlated with higher GMCs for IgG anti-HPV-16 and/or anti-HPV-18, respectively. Furthermore, the analyses of the immunogenicity bridging study of Cecolin® and the phase III trial of a hepatitis E vaccine yielded similar results. Based on these results, we built a scoring model to quantify the inflammation reactions and found that the high score of ISAR indicates the strong vaccine-induced antibody level. In conclusion, this study suggests inflammation-related adverse reactions following vaccination potentially indicate a stronger immune response.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis E/immunology , Human papillomavirus 16/immunology , Human papillomavirus 18/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Hepatitis E/prevention & control , Hepatitis E/virology , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/genetics , Young Adult
2.
Mod Rheumatol Case Rep ; 5(2): 226-228, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493585

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 61-year old female with a 20-year history of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed acute hepatitis. Her arthritis had been treated with methotrexate (MTX) since 2003 and, following an increase in disease activity, Rituximab (RTX) was commenced in January 2017. In May 2020, routine blood tests showed a new elevation in her liver profile, although synthetic function was preserved. A standard liver screen found no cause for her acutely abnormal lab values. Upon additional serological testing, the patient was confirmed to have acute hepatitis E virus (HEV). Her primary complaint at the time was fatigue. Within a month, her liver blood tests spontaneously improved and her symptoms resolved with conservative management.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Hepatitis E , Immunocompromised Host , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Female , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Hepatitis E/immunology , Humans , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Rituximab/therapeutic use
3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 572567, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886164

ABSTRACT

Immunological adaptations in pregnancy allow maternal tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus but also increase maternal susceptibility to infection. At implantation, the endometrial stroma, glands, arteries and immune cells undergo anatomical and functional transformation to create the decidua, the specialized secretory endometrium of pregnancy. The maternal decidua and the invading fetal trophoblast constitute a dynamic junction that facilitates a complex immunological dialogue between the two. The decidual and peripheral immune systems together assume a pivotal role in regulating the critical balance between tolerance and defense against infection. Throughout pregnancy, this equilibrium is repeatedly subjected to microbial challenge. Acute viral infection in pregnancy is associated with a wide spectrum of adverse consequences for both mother and fetus. Vertical transmission from mother to fetus can cause developmental anomalies, growth restriction, preterm birth and stillbirth, while the mother is predisposed to heightened morbidity and maternal death. A rapid, effective response to invasive pathogens is therefore essential in order to avoid overwhelming maternal infection and consequent fetal compromise. This sentinel response is mediated by the innate immune system: a heritable, highly evolutionarily conserved system comprising physical barriers, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and a variety of immune cells-principally neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells-which express pattern-receptors that detect invariant molecular signatures unique to pathogenic micro-organisms. Recognition of these signatures during acute infection triggers signaling cascades that enhance antimicrobial properties such as phagocytosis, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of the complement system. As well as coordinating the initial immune response, macrophages and dendritic cells present microbial antigens to lymphocytes, initiating and influencing the development of specific, long-lasting adaptive immunity. Despite extensive progress in unraveling the immunological adaptations of pregnancy, pregnant women remain particularly susceptible to certain acute viral infections and continue to experience mortality rates equivalent to those observed in pandemics several decades ago. Here, we focus specifically on the pregnancy-induced vulnerabilities in innate immunity that contribute to the disproportionately high maternal mortality observed in the following acute viral infections: Lassa fever, Ebola virus disease (EVD), dengue fever, hepatitis E, influenza, and novel coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Decidua/immunology , Placenta/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/pathology , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/pathology , Hepatitis E/immunology , Hepatitis E/pathology , Humans , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lassa Fever/immunology , Lassa Fever/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pregnancy
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