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1.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 114(10): 631, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204324

ABSTRACT

We would like to correspond and share ideas on the publication "SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, a new autoimmune hepatitis trigger?." López Romero-Salazar reported a case of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) after receiving SARS-COV2 vaccine. López Romero-Salazar et al noted that "vaccination can induce the development of autoimmune pathology in patients at risk." The possibility of a link between AIH and the SARS-CoV2 vaccine is explored. We agree that the COVID-19 vaccination has the potential to create clinical problems. The aberrant immune response could lead to a variety of health issues, including hepatitis. The vaccine recipient in this case had hepatitis, but there is no information about his or her health or liver function prior to inoculation. Other probable causes of hepatitis should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 433, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver diseases post-COVID-19 vaccination is extremely rare but can occur. A growing body of evidence has indicated that portal vein thrombosis, autoimmune hepatitis, raised liver enzymes and liver injuries, etc., may be potential consequence of COVID-19 vaccines. OBJECTIVES: To describe the results of a systematic review for new-onset and relapsed liver disease following COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: For this systematic review, we searched Proquest, Medline, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Wiley online library, Scopus and Nature through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses PRISMA guideline for studies on the incidence of new onset or relapsed liver diseases post-COVID-19 vaccination, published from December 1, 2020 to July 31, 2022, with English language restriction. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-five cases from one hundred and eighteen articles were included in the qualitative synthesis of this systematic review. Autoimmune hepatitis (138 cases) was the most frequent pathology observed post-COVID-19 vaccination, followed by portal vein thrombosis (52 cases), raised liver enzymes (26 cases) and liver injury (21 cases). Other cases include splanchnic vein thrombosis, acute cellular rejection of the liver, jaundice, hepatomegaly, acute hepatic failure and hepatic porphyria. Mortality was reported in any of the included cases for acute hepatic failure (n = 4, 50%), portal vein thrombosis (n = 25, 48.1%), splanchnic vein thrombosis (n = 6, 42.8%), jaundice (n = 1, 12.5%), raised liver enzymes (n = 2, 7.7%), and autoimmune hepatitis (n = 3, 2.2%). Most patients were easily treated without any serious complications, recovered and did not require long-term hepatic therapy. CONCLUSION: Reported evidence of liver diseases post-COIVD-19 vaccination should not discourage vaccination against this worldwide pandemic. The number of reported cases is relatively very small in relation to the hundreds of millions of vaccinations that have occurred and the protective benefits offered by COVID-19 vaccination far outweigh the risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Liver Failure, Acute , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Chronic Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/complications , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Liver Failure, Acute/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
7.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(9): 4574-4580, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the summer of 2021, case reports began to emerge documenting a small number of individuals who developed autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) following COVID-19 vaccination. These cases are rare and novel, and very little is known. In our systematic review, we analyzed every published case of AIH and reviewed their characteristic findings, treatment, and outcomes. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from December 1, 2019, to November 1, 2021. Two researchers independently extracted information from the articles about vaccine type, patient history, laboratory values, histology results, treatment regimens, and disease course. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients developed AIH-like syndromes after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Jaundice was the most frequently reported symptom (81%), and 19% of patients were initially asymptomatic and presented with elevated liver enzymes found during routine bloodwork. Mean alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin were 1231 U/L, 921 U/L, and 14 mg/dL, respectively. Anti-nuclear antibody was positive in 56%, and anti-smooth muscle antibody in 28% of patients. Steroids were used in 75% of patients. Improvement or complete resolution was seen in 97% of patients. One patient died despite aggressive steroid treatment. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine-induced AIH is an uncommon association with just 32 documented cases in the literature. Clinicians should be vigilant for AIH in patients who present with liver injury following vaccination. These new findings should under not deter individuals from getting vaccinated, as the benefits of vaccination far outweigh the risks. Fortunately, COVID-19 vaccine-induced AIH appears amendable to corticosteroid therapy and appears to have a favorable outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Humans , Vaccination
8.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 15(4): 791-795, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899346

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines have been effective against the worldwide pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), some case reports have described autoimmune hepatitis triggered by COVID-19 vaccination. Meanwhile, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to be related to autoimmune diseases. Here, we report a case of autoimmune hepatitis with history of HCV treatment triggered by COVID-19 vaccination. An 82-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for severe liver injury. She had received a COVID-19 vaccination 7 days prior. She had a history of HCV treatment with direct-acting antivirals 7 years previously. In her blood data, despite HCV antibody positivity, she was negative for HCV RNA by real-time RT-PCR. Anti-nuclear antibody was positive and IgG was elevated. Interface hepatitis and plasma cell infiltration were confirmed pathologically. She was diagnosed as autoimmune hepatitis and her liver injury quickly improved after initiation of steroid administration. This is a first case report of autoimmune hepatitis with history of HCV treatment triggered by COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Humans , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
Hepatology ; 76(6): 1576-1586, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A few case reports of autoimmune hepatitis-like liver injury have been reported after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. We evaluated clinical features, treatment response and outcomes of liver injury following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a large case series. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We collected data from cases in 18 countries. The type of liver injury was assessed with the R-value. The study population was categorized according to features of immune-mediated hepatitis (positive autoantibodies and elevated immunoglobulin G levels) and corticosteroid therapy for the liver injury. We identified 87 patients (63%, female), median age 48 (range: 18-79) years at presentation. Liver injury was diagnosed a median 15 (range: 3-65) days after vaccination. Fifty-one cases (59%) were attributed to the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) vaccine, 20 (23%) cases to the Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOX1 nCoV-19) vaccine and 16 (18%) cases to the Moderna (mRNA-1273) vaccine. The liver injury was predominantly hepatocellular (84%) and 57% of patients showed features of immune-mediated hepatitis. Corticosteroids were given to 46 (53%) patients, more often for grade 3-4 liver injury than for grade 1-2 liver injury (88.9% vs. 43.5%, p = 0.001) and more often for patients with than without immune-mediated hepatitis (71.1% vs. 38.2%, p = 0.003). All patients showed resolution of liver injury except for one man (1.1%) who developed liver failure and underwent liver transplantation. Steroid therapy was withdrawn during the observation period in 12 (26%) patients after complete biochemical resolution. None had a relapse during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can be associated with liver injury. Corticosteroid therapy may be beneficial in those with immune-mediated features or severe hepatitis. Outcome was generally favorable, but vaccine-associated liver injury led to fulminant liver failure in one patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Vaccination , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(15): e116, 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793044

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells, causing the liver to be inflamed. AIH is one of the manifestations of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as an adverse event occurring after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Few cases of AIH have been described after vaccination with two messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines-BTN162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna)-against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we report a case of AIH occurring after Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. A 27-year-old female presented with jaundice and hepatomegaly, appearing 14 days after receiving the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Her laboratory results showed abnormal liver function with high total immunoglobulin G level. She was diagnosed with AIH with histologic finding and successfully treated with oral prednisolone. We report an AIH case after COVID-19 vaccination in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Adult , Autoimmunity , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 114(9): 567-568, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776738

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV2 infection and vaccination against this virus have been related to the development of autoimmune diseases. We report a case of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) after SARS-COV2 vaccine. Male, 76 years old, with a history of hepatic cirrhosis secondary to primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), compensated, treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and obeticholic acid. The patient received the third dose of the SARS-CoV2 vaccine (BioNTech/Pfizer) in December 2021. In subsequent analytical control, the patient presented altered liver test, with elevation of ALT and AST. Ultrasound was performed, without alterations, and viral causes were ruled out. IgG elevation and positive antinuclear antibodies were observed. A liver biopsy was performed, with findings of intense interface and lobular hepatitis and areas of centrilobular necrosis. The inflammation was predominantly lymphoplasmacytic. The patient was diagnosed with AIH and initiated therapy with steroids and azathioprine, currently with an adequate response. AIH is an immune-mediated disease of uncertain etiology. Cases of AIH with SARS-CoV2 vaccination as a possible trigger have recently been published, with characteristics similar to ours. Some of them had a history of autoimmune pathology, such as this case (PBC). Therefore, it is suggested that vaccination can induce the development of autoimmune pathology in patients at risk. Our reported case reinforces the hypothesis of an association between AIH and the SARS-CoV2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/drug therapy , Male , RNA, Viral/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Transpl Immunol ; 72: 101600, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773822

ABSTRACT

Whilst vaccination for the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been successful in reducing the severity and burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been recent reports of mRNA vaccines triggering autoimmune hepatitis in the native liver. There have been no descriptions thus far of recurrent 'autoimmune hepatitis' after liver transplantation in the context of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We describe a patient transplanted for autoimmune hepatitis who was stable for many years until they had immune-mediated flares coinciding with Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccination. Intravenous steroid treatment was required to suppress histologically evident interface hepatitis. We firmly believe that mRNA vaccination was responsible for this 'recurrence' and that clinicians should be vigilant for this reaction in patients transplanted for autoimmune hepatitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
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