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1.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(2): E292-E297, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081079

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Viral hepatitis remains a public health concern worldwide, mainly in developing countries. The public's awareness and interest in viral hepatitis information are essential in preventing and controlling this disease. Infodemiology has been used as a surrogate to assess the general understanding of disease and measure public awareness of health topics. However, this analysis has not been applied to viral hepatitis. Thus, this study investigated the online global search interest for viral hepatitis in the last decade, focusing on the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Global online search interest for hepatitis was measured using the Google Trends™ database. Spearman's rank-order correlation correlated country-specific characteristics and prevalence data with search volume index. Results: There was a significant reduction in online search interest for hepatitis during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). People searching for hepatitis are also interested in hepatitis vaccination. Search volume index is positively correlated with viral hepatitis and HIV prevalence and negatively correlated with GDP. This correlation mirrors the high burden of viral hepatitis in developing countries and their citizens' desire to be informed about this disease. Conclusions: Our study found decreased global online interest in viral hepatitis during the pandemic. Moreover, higher online interest in hepatitis was observed in countries with a lower gross domestic product and high viral hepatitis and HIV prevalence. We demonstrated that global online interest toward viral hepatitis could be assessed through the infodemiologic approach using Google Trends™.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/prevention & control , Humans , Infodemiology , Information Seeking Behavior , Pandemics
3.
Science ; 377(6605): 454-455, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008762
4.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(10): 2307-2316.e3, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: During the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease may represent a vulnerable population. We studied the etiology-based temporal trends in mortality of chronic liver disease and the underlying cause of death in the United States before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Population-based analyses were performed on United States national mortality records (2017-2020). Temporal trends in quarterly age-standardized mortality were obtained by joinpoint analysis with estimates of quarterly percentage change (QPC). RESULTS: Quarterly age-standardized all-cause mortality due to alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) initially increased at a quarterly rate of 1.1% before the COVID-19 pandemic, followed by a sharp increase during the COVID-19 pandemic at a quarterly rate of 11.2%. Likewise, steady increase in mortality of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease before the COVID-19 pandemic (QPC, 1.9%) accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic (QPC, 6.6%). Although ALD-related mortality increased steeply compared with viral hepatitis-related mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of mortality due to COVID-19 among individuals with ALD was the lowest at 2.5%; more than 50% lower than viral hepatitis. The significant decline in all-cause mortality due to viral hepatitis before the COVID-19 pandemic plateaued during the COVID-19 pandemic due to increase in COVID-19-related mortality in individuals with viral hepatitis. Mortality due to cirrhosis increased markedly during the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly attributable to ALD. CONCLUSION: All-cause mortality for ALD and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease rapidly accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the pre-COVID-19 era. There has been a significant decline in viral hepatitis; however, a significant increase in COVID-related death in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/complications , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
6.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(6): 1005-1009, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903566

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the COVID-19 health crisis affected all regions of the world, not sparing people already vulnerable to other viral epidemics such as HIV or HCV and/or those in precarious or socially marginalized situations. This is particularly the case for drug users or sex workers.Coalition PLUS, a network of associations fighting against HIV and viral hepatitis which defends and promotes the community-based approach, and its partners, have set up a multi-country community-based research project aimed at documenting the impact of the health crisis on the fight against HIV and viral hepatitis (key populations and community workers/activists), as well as the community responses put in place (EPIC survey).The objective of this paper is to reflect on the implementation of this community-based research study during the COVID-19 health crisis, and in particular the unforeseen difficulties to which the community-based research process had to confront and adapt. The goal is to draw lessons on what worked (and what did not work) in order to capitalize on community-based research practices during this pandemic and subsequently, facilitate the implementation of new research projects in similar contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Sex Workers , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 739-742, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703458

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease pandemic response began in March 2020, tests, vaccinations, diagnoses, and treatment initiations for sexual health, HIV, and viral hepatitis in England have declined. The shift towards online and outreach services happened rapidly during 2020 and highlights the need to evaluate the effects of these strategies on health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , England/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(1): 76-95, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631868

ABSTRACT

Viral hepatitis results in 1.4 million deaths annually. The World Health Organization (WHO) set an ambitious target to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030, but significant challenges remain. These include inequalities in access to healthcare, reaching at risk populations and providing access to screening and effective treatment. Stigma around viral hepatitis persists and must be addressed. The WHO goal of global elimination by 2030 is a worthy aim, but remains ambitious and the coronavirus 2019 pandemic undoubtedly has set back progress. This review article will focus on hepatitis A to E, highlighting problems that have been resolved in the field over the past decade, those that remain to be resolved and suggest directions for future problem solving and research.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/prevention & control , Humans , Mass Screening , World Health Organization
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(Suppl 2): 866, 2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The HIV pandemic impacts the lives of millions and despite the global coordinated response, innovative actions are still needed to end it. A major challenge is the added burden of coinfections such as viral hepatitis, tuberculosis and various sexually transmitted infections in terms of prevention, treatment and increased morbidity in individuals with HIV infection. A need for combination prevention strategies, tailored to high-risk key populations arises and technology-based interventions can be a valuable asset. The COVID-19 pandemic challenged the delivery of existing services and added stress to existing public health and clinical structures but also highlighted the potential of exploiting technical solutions for interventions regarding infectious diseases. In this paper we report the design process, results and evaluation findings from the pilots of 'RiskRadar'-a web and mobile application aiming to support combination prevention, testing and linkage to care for HIV, viral hepatitis, various sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis. METHODS: RiskRadar was developed for the INTEGRATE Joint Action's aim to improve, adapt and pilot innovative digital tools for combination prevention. RiskRadar was designed iteratively using informed end-user-oriented approaches. Emphasis was placed on the Risk Calculator that enables users to assess their risk of exposure to one or more of the four disease areas, make informed decisions to seek testing or care and adjust their behaviours ultimately aiming to harm/risk reduction. RiskRadar has been piloted in three countries, namely Croatia, Italy and Lithuania. RESULTS: RiskRadar has been used 1347 times across all platforms so far. More than 90% of users have found RiskRadar useful and would use it again, especially the Risk Calculator component. Almost 49.25% are men and 29.85% are in the age group of 25-34. The application has scored 5.2/7 in the User Experience Questionnaire, where it is mainly described as "supportive" and "easy-to-use". The qualitative evaluation of RiskRadar also yielded positive feedback. CONCLUSIONS: Pilot results demonstrate above average satisfaction with RiskRadar and high user-reported usability scores, supporting the idea that technical interventions could significantly support combination prevention actions on Sexually Transmitted Infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Tuberculosis , Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
10.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 37(1): 547-552, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378933

ABSTRACT

With the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic in Africa, many other severe epidemics have been given low priority, such as viral hepatitis. Patient mortality due to viral hepatitis has raised concern to COVID-19 patients due to compromise with undiagnosed hepatitis in Africa. The pandemic has worsened the control of the viral hepatitis epidemic as healthcare control facilities have moved their focus towards curbing COVID-19 infections. However, different challenges have arisen to viral hepatitis patients because of low health attention that declines the progress of already diagnosed hepatitis patients. Follow-up plans, routine testing and treatment plans for viral hepatitis are no longer as strict with the human resources transferred towards combating the pandemic. Thus, a global effort is required to abide by renewed recommendations to eradicate viral hepatitis in Africa that also fit the current picture of the COVID-19 pandemic. The article discusses the current challenges viral hepatitis patients faced during the COVID-19 pandemic and important recommendations that can see through these challenges in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Africa/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(26): 4004-4017, 2021 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319755

ABSTRACT

Chronic viral hepatitis is a significant health problem throughout the world, which already represents high annual mortality. By 2040, chronic viral hepatitis due to virus B and virus C and their complications cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma will be more deadly than malaria, vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone, and tuberculosis altogether. In this review, we analyze the global impact of chronic viral hepatitis with a focus on the most vulnerable groups, the goals set by the World Health Organization for the year 2030, and the key points to achieve them, such as timely access to antiviral treatment of direct-acting antiviral, which represents the key to achieving hepatitis C virus elimination. Likewise, we review the strategies to prevent transmission and achieve control of hepatitis B virus. Finally, we address the impact that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has had on implementing elimination strategies and the advantages of implementing telemedicine programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Liver Neoplasms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/prevention & control
14.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(8): 585-588, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272954

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the World Health Organization developed a plan for viral hepatitis elimination by 2030. Globally, control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most challenging aspects of viral hepatitis elimination. In many developed countries elimination of HBV could be targeted to special populations mostly immigrants from low resource settings. Elimination of HCV, however, remains a challenge globally. Barriers to HCV elimination include high cost of medications and the ability to engage specific at-risk populations as well as individuals who are out of medical care. In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, treatment access and screening have been further negatively impacted by social distancing rules and COVID-19-related anxieties. This threatens to throw most countries off course in their elimination efforts. Before the pandemic, some states in the United States had scaled up their elimination efforts with plans to ramp up testing and treatment using Netflix-like payment models for HCV direct acting antiviral drugs. Most of these efforts have stalled on account of the health system's focus on COVID-19 control. To prevent further delays in achieving elimination targets, programs would need to explore new models of care that address COVID-19-related access hurdles. Systems that leverage technologies such as telemedicine and self-testing could help maintain treatment levels. Mathematical models estimate that COVID-19-related delays in 2020 could lead to 44,800 hepatocellular cancers and 72,300 liver-related deaths for the next decade.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Goals , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
18.
Ann Saudi Med ; 40(4): 273-280, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612198

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified in patients in Wuhan, China. The virus, subsequently named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, spread worldwide and the disease (coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Older adults and individuals with comorbidities have been reported as being more vulnerable to COVID-19. Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have compromised immune function due to cirrhosis and are more susceptible to infection. However, it is unclear if patients with CLD are more vulnerable to COVID-19 and its complications than other populations. The high number of severe cases of COVID-19 has placed an unusual burden on health systems, compromising their capacity to provide the regular care that patients with CLD require. Hence, it is incredibly crucial at this juncture to provide a set of interim recommendations on the management of patients with CLD during the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/therapy , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Transplantation , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Purines , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Ultrasonography/methods
20.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 96-103, 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595083

ABSTRACT

Liver injury has been reported to occur during the disease in severe cases. Therefore, this meta-analysis study aims to investigate the incidence of liver injury among published literature from 2019-Jan-01 to 2020-April-03 to provide an outline for further studies on the liver injury of COVID-19. Four databases including Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Scopus were searched for studies published from 2019-Jan-01 to 2020-April-03. Data analysis and drawing of charts were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software Version 2.2 (Biostat, USA). The search yielded 450 publications, of which 64 potentially eligible studies were identified for full-text review and 21 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria remained. A total of 4191 COVID-19 patients were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of liver injury was 19.5% (95% CI: 14.3-26.1). According to our results, there was significant heterogeneity among the 19 studies (X2 = 738.5; p < 0.001; I2 = 94.34%). Among 288 death cases, the pooled prevalence of liver injury was 22.8% (95% CI: 11.7-39.8). In summary, the COVID-19 disease itself can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases and even may lead to ARDS and multiple organ failure. The results of this systematic review highlight the importance of liver injury that may assist clinicians anywhere in the globe in controlling COVID-19-related infection and complications. Moreover, the prevalence of liver injury can be higher in severe cases than in mild cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Failure/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/etiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Sample Size
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