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1.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(3): 485-511, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767998

ABSTRACT

Maternal pathogens can be transmitted to the fetus resulting in congenital infection with sequelae ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe debilitating disease and still birth. The TORCH pneumonic (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) is used widely, but it provides a limited description of the expanding list of pathogens associated with congenital infection. This article focuses on the evaluation and management of infants with common congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus, and infections that warrant early diagnosis and treatment to prevent serious complications, such as toxoplasmosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis. Zika virus and Chagas disease remain uncommon.


Subject(s)
Fetal Diseases , Herpes Simplex , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Rubella , Syphilis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Toxoplasmosis , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Female , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Rubella/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
2.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 103(1): 115653, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719595

ABSTRACT

Differentiating COVID-19 from other causes of viral pneumonia, like herpes simplex (HSV), can be complicated by shared clinical and laboratory features. Viral pneumonia is mostly diagnosed based on molecular or serological techniques. Serological immunoassay interferences, often attributed to concurrent appearance of heterologous (viral) immunoglobulins, is well-known, but has not been studied in COVID-19 patients. Following false positive HSV immunoglobulin M (IgM) results in our index patient, 25 other COVID-19 patients were tested for HSV-1/2 IgM with the chemiluminescent Liaison assay and Euroimmun enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-five percent of COVID-19 patients tested positive for HSV IgM with Liaison. No HSV indices were positive with Euroimmun enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, suggesting immunoassay interference. Significant correlation between HSV IgM and SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG positivity was found. Adding 0.5% polyvinylpyrrolidone, inhibiting non-specific solid-phase adsorption, abolished interference in 22% of false positive cases, suggesting interference caused by solid-phase reactive IgM. Hence, serologic immunoassay results should be interpreted with caution in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Simplex , Pneumonia, Viral , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(11): 1169-1174, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542850

ABSTRACT

<b>Background and Objective:</b> In recent years, respiratory tract viral infections have caused many pandemics that impact the whole world. To investigate the seropositivity of <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>, rubella, CMV, HSV-1 and group A <i>Streptococcus</i> in recovered COVID-19 patients and correlate these findings with vitamin D levels. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> A total of 417 COVID-19 patients with diarrhoea were enrolled in this study. Vitamin D and seroprevalence for <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>, rubella, CMV, HSV-1 and group A <i>Streptococcus</i> were evaluated and correlated. <b>Results:</b> It was found that recent infection in COVID-19 patients with HSV-1, rubella, <i>Toxoplasma</i> and CMV, respectively. IgG was detected indicating the development of adaptive immunity with all microbes. <b>Conclusion:</b> Current study detected a correlation between vitamin D levels and HSV-1 and no correlation between this infection and vitamin D deficiency with the other microbes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Calcifediol/blood , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 1, Human/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Female , Herpes Simplex/blood , Herpes Simplex/epidemiology , Herpes Simplex/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Rubella/blood , Rubella/diagnosis , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/immunology , Rubella virus/immunology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Streptococcal Infections/blood , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/immunology , Streptococcus/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/blood , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e145, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392726

ABSTRACT

The appearance on the skin of herpes virus lesions, concomitantly with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leads us to suspect an underlying infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Diagnostic reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG seroconversion studies have therefore been carried out. We present three cases of herpes virus infections in immunocompetent patients: one of the infections was herpes simplex 1 in a 40-year-old woman, and the other two were herpes varicella-zoster infections in a 62-year-old man and a 25-year-old woman. The patients were in the care of the southern health district of Seville of the SAS (Andalusian Health Service) during the Spanish state of alarm over the COVID-19 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in only one of the three cases. In this study, we briefly review the etiopathogenic role of the COVID-19 pandemic situation, whereby immunodeficiencies are generated that favour the appearance of other viral infections, such as herpes virus infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Herpes Simplex/etiology , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Activation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/virology , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133189

ABSTRACT

Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rare, with an estimated incidence of 3.58 per 100 000 live births in the UK and should be suspected in any newborn with fever and bacterial culture-negative sepsis. We describe a case of a previously well full-term male neonate who presented with persistent fever and elevated ferritin level that was carried out during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic as part of SARS-CoV-2 panel investigations. Despite the initial negative HSV serology, HSV-1 PCR from a scalp lesion returned positive. He made a full recovery after acyclovir therapy. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high clinical index of suspicion of HSV infection in any febrile neonate even with absence of maternal history and negative serology, particularly if associated with hyperferritinaemia. We also address the challenge of interpreting inflammatory biomarkers' results for SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ferritins/blood , Fever/etiology , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Herpes Simplex/complications , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9151-9153, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-790175

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present case report aims to make a discussion concerning oral manifestations in a patient with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Female patient, 20 years old, nursing technician, showed severe sore throat and headache without presence of fever. She tested positive for COVID-19 RT-PCR test in 2 episodes. She also showed lesions in the median lower lip semimucosa and severe pruritus, with a clinical course of 14 days, in which we performed a clinical diagnosis of herpes simplex infection. We need to be precise in terms of clinical appearance and possible relation with the disease, as the clinicians have access to the patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Herpes Simplex/complications , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pruritus/complications , Pruritus/pathology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 98(8): 859-863, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly all over the world. Respiratory droplets and contaction with infected patients are the two major transmission routes. However, the value of tear virus nucleic acid is still not clear. We dynamic detected the SARS-CoV-2 in eye sample of one COVID-19 patient with obstruction of common lacrimal ducts. METHODS: Besides the routine examination, nasopharyngeal and eye swab were continuously measured by polymerase chain reaction assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Gene detection was performed for drug use guidance, and flow cytometry was performed to analyse the lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for 22 days, but eye swabs were still continuously positive for 2 weeks after nasopharyngeal swabs turned negative. The low level of lymphocyte and the high level IL-6 lasted for almost 4 weeks, then became near normal. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) confirmed the existing of SARS-CoV-2, HSV1 and HHV6B virus nucleic acid. The gene detection for drug use guidance showed the genetic locus ABCB1 (3435T>C) rs1045642 belonged to type CC and it mean the efficiency of lopinavir-ritonavir would be significantly decreased. The flow cytometry of lymphocyte subsets showed PD-1+  CD95+ cells was accounting for 94.8% in CD3+  CD8+ T subset and for 94.8% in CD3+  TCRγδ+ T subset. CONCLUSIONS: As obstruction of common lacrimal duct, positively detection in one eye for 2 weeks more after nasopharyngeal swab became negative. More eye swabs should be collected from COVID-19 patients, especially from those immunocompromised, those with eye symptoms and those had a history of ocular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctiva/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Flow Cytometry , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/drug therapy , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/virology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Roseolovirus Infections/diagnosis , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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