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1.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810042

ABSTRACT

Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes a significant life-long disease. Long-term side effects of antiviral drugs can lead to the emergence of drug resistance. Thus, propolis, a natural product derived from beehives, has been proposed to prevent or treat HSV-2 infections. Unfortunately, therapeutic applications of propolis are still limited due its poor solubility. To overcome this, a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system was employed. An ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and chitosan using a modified oil-in-water single emulsion by using the solvent evaporation method. The produced nanoparticles (EEP-NPs) had a spherical shape with a size of ~450 nm and presented satisfactory physicochemical properties, including positively charged surface (38.05 ± 7.65 mV), high entrapment efficiency (79.89 ± 13.92%), and sustained release profile. Moreover, EEP-NPs were less cytotoxic on Vero cells and exhibited anti-HSV-2 activity. EEP-NPs had a direct effect on the inactivation of viral particles, and also disrupted the virion entry and release from the host cells. A significant decrease in the expression levels of the HSV-2 replication-related genes (ICP4, ICP27, and gB) was also observed. Our study suggests that EEP-NPs provide a strong anti-HSV-2 activity and serve as a promising platform for the treatment of HSV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Herpes Simplex , Nanoparticles , Propolis , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 2, Human , Propolis/chemistry , Vero Cells
2.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(3): 485-511, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767998

ABSTRACT

Maternal pathogens can be transmitted to the fetus resulting in congenital infection with sequelae ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe debilitating disease and still birth. The TORCH pneumonic (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) is used widely, but it provides a limited description of the expanding list of pathogens associated with congenital infection. This article focuses on the evaluation and management of infants with common congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus, and infections that warrant early diagnosis and treatment to prevent serious complications, such as toxoplasmosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis. Zika virus and Chagas disease remain uncommon.


Subject(s)
Fetal Diseases , Herpes Simplex , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Rubella , Syphilis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Toxoplasmosis , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Female , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Rubella/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133189

ABSTRACT

Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rare, with an estimated incidence of 3.58 per 100 000 live births in the UK and should be suspected in any newborn with fever and bacterial culture-negative sepsis. We describe a case of a previously well full-term male neonate who presented with persistent fever and elevated ferritin level that was carried out during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic as part of SARS-CoV-2 panel investigations. Despite the initial negative HSV serology, HSV-1 PCR from a scalp lesion returned positive. He made a full recovery after acyclovir therapy. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high clinical index of suspicion of HSV infection in any febrile neonate even with absence of maternal history and negative serology, particularly if associated with hyperferritinaemia. We also address the challenge of interpreting inflammatory biomarkers' results for SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ferritins/blood , Fever/etiology , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Herpes Simplex/complications , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983187

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Discovery , HIV/drug effects , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV/physiology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952889

ABSTRACT

Curcumin is a natural compound that has many medical applications. However, its low solubility and poor stability could impede its clinical applications. The present study aimed to formulate dry proniosomes to overcome these pitfalls and improve the therapeutic efficacy of Curcumin. Curcumin-loaded proniosomes were fabricated by the slurry method according to 32 factorial design using Design-Expert software to demonstrate the impact of different independent variables on entrapment efficiency (EE%) and % drug released after 12 h (Q12h). The optimized formula (F5) was selected according to the desirability criteria. F5 exhibited good flowability and appeared, after reconstitution, as spherical nanovesicles with EE% of 89.94 ± 2.31% and Q12h of 70.89 ± 1.62%. F5 demonstrated higher stability and a significant enhancement of Q12h than the corresponding niosomes. The docking study investigated the ability of Curcumin to bind effectively with the active site of DNA polymerase of Herpes simplex virus (HSV). The antiviral activity and the safety of F5 were significantly higher than Curcumin. F5 improved the safety of Acyclovir (ACV) and reduced its effective dose that produced a 100% reduction of viral plaques. Proniosomes could be promising stable carriers of Curcumin to be used as a safe and efficient antiviral agent.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Liposomes/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Curcumin/chemistry , Herpes Simplex/chemically induced , In Vitro Techniques , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Vero Cells
7.
Biofactors ; 47(1): 6-18, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950385

ABSTRACT

Specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) are endogenous lipid metabolites of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are involved in promoting the resolution of inflammation. Many disease conditions characterized by excessive inflammation have impaired or altered SPM biosynthesis, which may lead to chronic, unresolved inflammation. Exogenous administration of SPMs in infectious conditions has been shown to be effective at improving infection clearance and survival in preclinical models. SPMs have also shown tremendous promise in the context of inflammatory lung conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mostly in preclinical settings. To date, SPMs have not been studied in the context of the novel Coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), however their preclinical efficacy in combatting infections and improving acute respiratory distress suggest they may be a valuable resource in the fight against Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Overall, while the research on SPMs is still evolving, they may offer a novel therapeutic option for inflammatory conditions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Docosahexaenoic Acids/therapeutic use , Lipoxins/therapeutic use , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/metabolism , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung Injury/virology , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Periodontitis/metabolism , Periodontitis/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/pathology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/metabolism , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/pathology
8.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 98(8): 859-863, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly all over the world. Respiratory droplets and contaction with infected patients are the two major transmission routes. However, the value of tear virus nucleic acid is still not clear. We dynamic detected the SARS-CoV-2 in eye sample of one COVID-19 patient with obstruction of common lacrimal ducts. METHODS: Besides the routine examination, nasopharyngeal and eye swab were continuously measured by polymerase chain reaction assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Gene detection was performed for drug use guidance, and flow cytometry was performed to analyse the lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for 22 days, but eye swabs were still continuously positive for 2 weeks after nasopharyngeal swabs turned negative. The low level of lymphocyte and the high level IL-6 lasted for almost 4 weeks, then became near normal. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) confirmed the existing of SARS-CoV-2, HSV1 and HHV6B virus nucleic acid. The gene detection for drug use guidance showed the genetic locus ABCB1 (3435T>C) rs1045642 belonged to type CC and it mean the efficiency of lopinavir-ritonavir would be significantly decreased. The flow cytometry of lymphocyte subsets showed PD-1+  CD95+ cells was accounting for 94.8% in CD3+  CD8+ T subset and for 94.8% in CD3+  TCRγδ+ T subset. CONCLUSIONS: As obstruction of common lacrimal duct, positively detection in one eye for 2 weeks more after nasopharyngeal swab became negative. More eye swabs should be collected from COVID-19 patients, especially from those immunocompromised, those with eye symptoms and those had a history of ocular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctiva/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Flow Cytometry , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/drug therapy , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/virology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Roseolovirus Infections/diagnosis , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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