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3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 184-186, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889483

ABSTRACT

We present, to our knowledge, the second case report of a 46-year old female who developed varicella-zoster virus (VZV) meningitis after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The patient is immunocompetent and has no known predisposing risk factors for developing VZV meningitis. The patient received acyclovir therapy and subsequently had a complete recovery. We describe possible mechanisms of VZV meningitis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster , Meningitis , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Humans , Meningitis/complications , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 214-216, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889481

ABSTRACT

Most of the adverse effects reported in patients who have received COVID-19 vaccines have been mild. However, possible serious adverse effects are being monitored cautiously. There have also been a number of case reports of reactivation of varicella zoster infection within 28 days after immunization with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. A few cases have also been reported after viral vector and inactivated COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of meningitis following varicella zoster virus infection is rare. In the current study, we report two cases of male patients who received two different types of COVID-19 vaccine (inactivated and viral vector) and developed varicella zoster meningitis within 10 days after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Herpes Zoster , Meningitis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox Vaccine/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Male , Meningitis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(8): 1342-1348, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes herpes zoster (HZ, synonym: shingles) in humans, can be a rare adverse reaction to vaccines. Recently, reports of cases after COVID-19 vaccination have arisen. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether the frequency of HZ is found to increase after COVID-19 vaccination in a large cohort, based on real-world data. As a hypothesis, the incidence of HZ was assumed to be significantly higher in subjects who received a COVID-19 vaccine (Cohort I) vs. unvaccinated individuals (Cohort II). METHODS: The initial cohorts of 1 095 086 vaccinated and 16 966 018 unvaccinated patients were retrieved from the TriNetX database and were matched on age and gender in order to mitigate confounder bias. RESULTS: After matching, each cohort accounted for 1 095 086 patients. For the vaccinated group (Cohort I), 2204 subjects developed HZ within 60 days of COVID-19 vaccination, while among Cohort II, 1223 patients were diagnosed with HZ within 60 days after having visited the clinic for any other reason (i.e. not vaccination). The risk of developing shingles was calculated as 0.20% and 0.11% for cohort I and cohort II, respectively. The difference was statistically highly significant (P < 0.0001; log-rank test). The risk ratio and odds ratio were 1.802 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.680; 1.932) and 1.804 (95% CI = 1.682; 1.934). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the hypothesis, a higher incidence of HZ was statistically detectable post-COVID-19 vaccine. Accordingly, the eruption of HZ may be a rare adverse drug reaction to COVID-19 vaccines. Even though the molecular basis of VZV reactivation remains murky, temporary compromising of VZV-specific T-cell-mediated immunity may play a mechanistic role in post-vaccination pathogenesis of HZ. Note that VZV reactivation is a well-established phenomenon both with infections and with other vaccines (i.e. this adverse event is not COVID-19-specific).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Virus Activation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Humans , Vaccination/adverse effects
6.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(1): 83-85, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776455

ABSTRACT

Ever since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, science has unraveled much knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 which has led to extraordinary and unprecedented progress in developing COVID-19 vaccines. Several adverse cutaneous reactions, ranging from more common local injection site reaction, neutrophilic and pustular drug reactions to flare-up of preexisting dermatoses, have been reported with currently available vaccines. We report a case series of 7 patients who developed herpes zoster (HZ) following the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 coronavirus vaccine (recombinant). HZ following vaccination is a rare entity. The occurrence of HZ in the patients presented in this series within the time window 1-21 days after vaccination defined for increased risk and postulated dysregulation of T-cell-mediated immunity, suggests that the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 coronavirus vaccine (recombinant) could probably be a trigger for reactivation of varicella zoster virus to cause HZ in them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , India , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(8): e61, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714982

ABSTRACT

There are several previous reports that infection or reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) can occur after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, we report a rare case of VZV meningitis in breakthrough COVID-19. An 18-years-old male visited the emergency room, presenting with a headache and fever of up to 38.4°C for 5 days. He received the second dose of BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine 7 weeks prior to symptom onset. The symptoms persisted with headache, fever, and nausea. His cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed an elevated opening pressure of 27 cm H2O, 6/µL red blood cells, 234/µL white blood cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes 3%, lymphocytes 83%, and other 14%), 43.9 mg/dL protein, and 59 mg/dL glucose, and CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was positive for VZV. Also, he was diagnosed with COVID-19 by reverse transcriptase-PCR examining upper and lower respiratory tract. We administered intravenous acyclovir for 12 days, and he was discharged without any neurologic complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/etiology , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Meningitis, Viral/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coinfection/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Meningitis, Viral/drug therapy
9.
J Neurol ; 269(4): 1751-1757, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491131

ABSTRACT

The description of every possible adverse effect or event related to vaccines is mandatory during the ongoing worldwide COVID-19 vaccination program. Although cases of cutaneous varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation after COVID-19 vaccination have been increasingly reported in literature and database sets, a description of VZV-induced neurological disease (VZV-ND) is still lacking. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated patients admitted to our clinic and diagnosed with VZV-ND during the COVID-19 vaccination campaign (January-April 2021) and in the same months in the previous two years. We identified three patients with VZV-ND after COVID-19 vaccination and 19 unvaccinated VZV-ND cases as controls. In the case-control analysis, the two groups showed no difference in clinical features, results of diagnostic investigations, and outcome. Thus, VZV reactivation with neurological involvement might be a possible event triggered by COVID-19 vaccination, but the benefit following COVID-19 vaccination overcomes significantly the potential risk associated with a VZV reactivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects
10.
Clin Anat ; 35(1): 45-51, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432368

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In this review, cases of herpes zoster (HZ) infection following receipt of COVID-19 vaccines will be analyzed. We also present two cases of oral HZ following the COVID-19 vaccine and discuss this clinical anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search using PubMed was conducted in August 2021 and 20 articles were found to be eligible for review. Patient data and vaccine information were analyzed. In addition, two cases of oral HZ infection following the receipt of COVID-19 vaccines are presented. RESULTS: A total of 399 cases were identified. The affected dermatomes mimicked the regular distribution of HZ. For the dermatomes of the face, the various reports used different ways to describe the areas involved; CNV, CNV1, CNV2, CNV3, lower jaw, forehead, and under the eyebrow (CNV, 2 cases; CNV1, 4 cases; CNV2, 3 cases; and CNV3, 3 cases). Some patients who had a history of varicella zoster virus vaccination had HZ following the COVID-19 vaccination. Two patients with oral HZ following vaccination were found to have involvement of the greater palatine nerve. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-related HZ cases have been reported worldwide. Although many studies with a larger number of cases are ongoing, detailed information can be obtained from case reviews as reported herein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Herpes Zoster , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpes Zoster Vaccine/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e145, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392726

ABSTRACT

The appearance on the skin of herpes virus lesions, concomitantly with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leads us to suspect an underlying infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Diagnostic reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG seroconversion studies have therefore been carried out. We present three cases of herpes virus infections in immunocompetent patients: one of the infections was herpes simplex 1 in a 40-year-old woman, and the other two were herpes varicella-zoster infections in a 62-year-old man and a 25-year-old woman. The patients were in the care of the southern health district of Seville of the SAS (Andalusian Health Service) during the Spanish state of alarm over the COVID-19 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in only one of the three cases. In this study, we briefly review the etiopathogenic role of the COVID-19 pandemic situation, whereby immunodeficiencies are generated that favour the appearance of other viral infections, such as herpes virus infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Herpes Simplex/etiology , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Activation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/virology , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
12.
N Engl J Med ; 385(12): 1078-1090, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preapproval trials showed that messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had a good safety profile, yet these trials were subject to size and patient-mix limitations. An evaluation of the safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with respect to a broad range of potential adverse events is needed. METHODS: We used data from the largest health care organization in Israel to evaluate the safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. For each potential adverse event, in a population of persons with no previous diagnosis of that event, we individually matched vaccinated persons to unvaccinated persons according to sociodemographic and clinical variables. Risk ratios and risk differences at 42 days after vaccination were derived with the use of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. To place these results in context, we performed a similar analysis involving SARS-CoV-2-infected persons matched to uninfected persons. The same adverse events were studied in the vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection analyses. RESULTS: In the vaccination analysis, the vaccinated and control groups each included a mean of 884,828 persons. Vaccination was most strongly associated with an elevated risk of myocarditis (risk ratio, 3.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 12.44; risk difference, 2.7 events per 100,000 persons; 95% CI, 1.0 to 4.6), lymphadenopathy (risk ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.05 to 2.78; risk difference, 78.4 events per 100,000 persons; 95% CI, 64.1 to 89.3), appendicitis (risk ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.01; risk difference, 5.0 events per 100,000 persons; 95% CI, 0.3 to 9.9), and herpes zoster infection (risk ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.73; risk difference, 15.8 events per 100,000 persons; 95% CI, 8.2 to 24.2). SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a substantially increased risk of myocarditis (risk ratio, 18.28; 95% CI, 3.95 to 25.12; risk difference, 11.0 events per 100,000 persons; 95% CI, 5.6 to 15.8) and of additional serious adverse events, including pericarditis, arrhythmia, deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, intracranial hemorrhage, and thrombocytopenia. CONCLUSIONS: In this study in a nationwide mass vaccination setting, the BNT162b2 vaccine was not associated with an elevated risk of most of the adverse events examined. The vaccine was associated with an excess risk of myocarditis (1 to 5 events per 100,000 persons). The risk of this potentially serious adverse event and of many other serious adverse events was substantially increased after SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Funded by the Ivan and Francesca Berkowitz Family Living Laboratory Collaboration at Harvard Medical School and Clalit Research Institute.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Appendicitis/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Humans , Israel , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Risk , Risk Factors , Young Adult
15.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(5): e13846, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-600026
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