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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264855, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736511

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 the world has been facing the outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Identification of infected patients and discrimination from other respiratory infections have so far been accomplished by using highly specific real-time PCRs. Here we present a rapid multiplex approach (RespiCoV), combining highly multiplexed PCRs and MinION sequencing suitable for the simultaneous screening for 41 viral and five bacterial agents related to respiratory tract infections, including the human coronaviruses NL63, HKU1, OC43, 229E, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. RespiCoV was applied to 150 patient samples with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared with specific real-time PCR. Additionally, several respiratory tract pathogens were identified in samples tested positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2. Finally, RespiCoV was experimentally compared to the commercial RespiFinder 2SMART multiplex screening assay (PathoFinder, The Netherlands).


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , RNA Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nanopores , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 676828, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320577

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ulcerative lesions have been episodically reported in various segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus, stomach and bowel. In this report, we describe an autopsy case of a COVID-19 patient who showed two undiagnosed ulcers at the level of the anterior and posterior walls of the hypopharynx. Molecular testing of viruses involved in pharyngeal ulcers demonstrated the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome - coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, together with herpes simplex virus 1 DNA. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated full-thickness lympho-monocytic infiltration (mainly composed of CD68-positive cells), with hemorrhagic foci and necrosis of both the mucosal layer and deep skeletal muscle fibers. Fibrin and platelet microthrombi were also found. Cytological signs of HSV-1 induced damage were not found. Cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike subunit 1 were immunohistochemically identified in the inflammatory infiltrations. Immunohistochemistry for HSV1 showed general negativity for inflammatory infiltration, although in the presence of some positive cells. Thus, histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings supported a direct role by SARS-CoV-2 in producing local ulcerative damage, although a possible contributory role by HSV-1 reactivation cannot be excluded. From a clinical perspective, this autopsy report of two undiagnosed lesions put the question if ulcers along the GI tract could be more common (but frequently neglected) in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypopharynx/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ulcer/pathology , Aged , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , Autopsy , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Hypopharynx/virology , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Necrosis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology , Ulcer/virology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291694

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome with the need of invasive ventilation. Pulmonary herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) reactivation in invasively ventilated patients is a known phenomenon. To date very little is known about the frequency and the predisposing factors of HSV-1 reactivation in COVID-19. Therefore, we evaluated our cohort of invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia for HSV-1 in respiratory specimens and combined these results with functional immunomonitoring of the peripheral blood. Tracheal secretions and bronchial lavages were screened by PCR for HSV-1 positivity. Comprehensive immunophenotyping and quantitative gene expression analysis of Interferon-stimulated genes (IFI44L, MX1, RSAD2, ISIG15 and IFIT1) and IL-1 beta were performed in whole blood. Time course of infection beginning at symptom onset was grouped into three phases ("early" phase 1: day 1-10, "middle" phase 2: day 11-30 and "late" phase 3: day 31-40). Pulmonary HSV-1 reactivation was exclusively observed in the later phases 2 and 3 in 15 of 18 analyzed patients. By FACS analysis a significant increase in activated CD8 T cells (CD38+HLADR+) in phase 2 was found when compared with phase 1 (p<0.05). Expression of Interferon-stimulated genes (IFI44L, RSAD2 ISIG15, MX1, IFIT1) was significantly lower after HSV-1 detection than before. Taken together, reactivation of HSV-1 in the later phase of SARS-CoV-2- infection occurs in parallel with a drop of antiviral innate responsiveness as shown by decreased expression of Interferon-stimulated genes and a concurrent increase of highly activated CD38+HLADR+ CD8 T cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Herpes Simplex/etiology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/physiology , Respiration, Artificial , Virus Activation , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Herpes Simplex/immunology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/immunology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133189

ABSTRACT

Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rare, with an estimated incidence of 3.58 per 100 000 live births in the UK and should be suspected in any newborn with fever and bacterial culture-negative sepsis. We describe a case of a previously well full-term male neonate who presented with persistent fever and elevated ferritin level that was carried out during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic as part of SARS-CoV-2 panel investigations. Despite the initial negative HSV serology, HSV-1 PCR from a scalp lesion returned positive. He made a full recovery after acyclovir therapy. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high clinical index of suspicion of HSV infection in any febrile neonate even with absence of maternal history and negative serology, particularly if associated with hyperferritinaemia. We also address the challenge of interpreting inflammatory biomarkers' results for SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ferritins/blood , Fever/etiology , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Herpes Simplex/complications , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 98(8): 859-863, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly all over the world. Respiratory droplets and contaction with infected patients are the two major transmission routes. However, the value of tear virus nucleic acid is still not clear. We dynamic detected the SARS-CoV-2 in eye sample of one COVID-19 patient with obstruction of common lacrimal ducts. METHODS: Besides the routine examination, nasopharyngeal and eye swab were continuously measured by polymerase chain reaction assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Gene detection was performed for drug use guidance, and flow cytometry was performed to analyse the lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for 22 days, but eye swabs were still continuously positive for 2 weeks after nasopharyngeal swabs turned negative. The low level of lymphocyte and the high level IL-6 lasted for almost 4 weeks, then became near normal. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) confirmed the existing of SARS-CoV-2, HSV1 and HHV6B virus nucleic acid. The gene detection for drug use guidance showed the genetic locus ABCB1 (3435T>C) rs1045642 belonged to type CC and it mean the efficiency of lopinavir-ritonavir would be significantly decreased. The flow cytometry of lymphocyte subsets showed PD-1+  CD95+ cells was accounting for 94.8% in CD3+  CD8+ T subset and for 94.8% in CD3+  TCRγδ+ T subset. CONCLUSIONS: As obstruction of common lacrimal duct, positively detection in one eye for 2 weeks more after nasopharyngeal swab became negative. More eye swabs should be collected from COVID-19 patients, especially from those immunocompromised, those with eye symptoms and those had a history of ocular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctiva/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Flow Cytometry , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/drug therapy , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/virology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Roseolovirus Infections/diagnosis , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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