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1.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 94(8): 605-613, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238777

ABSTRACT

To explore the autoimmune response and outcome in the central nervous system (CNS) at the onset of viral infection and correlation between autoantibodies and viruses. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in 121 patients (2016-2021) with a CNS viral infection confirmed via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) next-generation sequencing (cohort A). Their clinical information was analysed and CSF samples were screened for autoantibodies against monkey cerebellum by tissue-based assay. In situ hybridisation was used to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in brain tissue of 8 patients with glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP)-IgG and nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue of 2 patients with GFAP-IgG as control (cohort B). RESULTS: Among cohort A (male:female=79:42; median age: 42 (14-78) years old), 61 (50.4%) participants had detectable autoantibodies in CSF. Compared with other viruses, EBV increased the odds of having GFAP-IgG (OR 18.22, 95% CI 6.54 to 50.77, p<0.001). In cohort B, EBV was found in the brain tissue from two of eight (25.0%) patients with GFAP-IgG. Autoantibody-positive patients had a higher CSF protein level (median: 1126.00 (281.00-5352.00) vs 700.00 (76.70-2899.00), p<0.001), lower CSF chloride level (mean: 119.80±6.24 vs 122.84±5.26, p=0.005), lower ratios of CSF-glucose/serum-glucose (median: 0.50[0.13-0.94] vs 0.60[0.26-1.23], p=0.003), more meningitis (26/61 (42.6%) vs 12/60 (20.0%), p=0.007) and higher follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores (1 (0-6) vs 0 (0-3), p=0.037) compared with antibody-negative patients. A Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that autoantibody-positive patients experienced significantly worse outcomes (p=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmune responses are found at the onset of viral encephalitis. EBV in the CNS increases the risk for autoimmunity to GFAP.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Male , Humans , Female , Autoimmunity , Retrospective Studies , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Autoantibodies , Immunoglobulin G
2.
Nature ; 617(7961): 574-580, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326179

ABSTRACT

As of August 2022, clusters of acute severe hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children have been reported from 35 countries, including the USA1,2. Previous studies have found human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in the blood from patients in Europe and the USA3-7, although it is unclear whether this virus is causative. Here we used PCR testing, viral enrichment-based sequencing and agnostic metagenomic sequencing to analyse samples from 16 HAdV-positive cases from 1 October 2021 to 22 May 2022, in parallel with 113 controls. In blood from 14 cases, adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) sequences were detected in 93% (13 of 14), compared to 4 (3.5%) of 113 controls (P < 0.001) and to 0 of 30 patients with hepatitis of defined aetiology (P < 0.001). In controls, HAdV type 41 was detected in blood from 9 (39.1%) of the 23 patients with acute gastroenteritis (without hepatitis), including 8 of 9 patients with positive stool HAdV testing, but co-infection with AAV2 was observed in only 3 (13.0%) of these 23 patients versus 93% of cases (P < 0.001). Co-infections by Epstein-Barr virus, human herpesvirus 6 and/or enterovirus A71 were also detected in 12 (85.7%) of 14 cases, with higher herpesvirus detection in cases versus controls (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that the severity of the disease is related to co-infections involving AAV2 and one or more helper viruses.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Coinfection , Dependovirus , Hepatitis , Child , Humans , Acute Disease , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Dependovirus/genetics , Dependovirus/isolation & purification , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/epidemiology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , Hepatitis/epidemiology , Hepatitis/virology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus A, Human/isolation & purification , Helper Viruses/isolation & purification
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1087996, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318168

ABSTRACT

Background: To evaluate the benefits of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in cancer patients it is relevant to understand the adaptive immune response elicited after vaccination. Patients affected by hematologic malignancies are frequently immune-compromised and show a decreased seroconversion rate compared to other cancer patients or controls. Therefore, vaccine-induced cellular immune responses in these patients might have an important protective role and need a detailed evaluation. Methods: Certain T cell subtypes (CD4, CD8, Tfh, γδT), including cell functionality as indicated by cytokine secretion (IFN, TNF) and expression of activation markers (CD69, CD154) were assessed via multi-parameter flow cytometry in hematologic malignancy patients (N=12) and healthy controls (N=12) after a second SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose. The PBMC of post-vaccination samples were stimulated with a spike-peptide pool (S-Peptides) of SARS-CoV-2, with CD3/CD28, with a pool of peptides from the cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and influenza A virus (CEF-Peptides) or left unstimulated. Furthermore, the concentration of spike-specific antibodies has been analyzed in patients. Results: Our results indicate that hematologic malignancy patients developed a robust cellular immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination comparable to that of healthy controls, and for certain T cell subtypes even higher. The most reactive T cells to SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides belonged to the CD4 and Tfh cell compartment, being median (IQR), 3.39 (1.41-5.92) and 2.12 (0.55-4.14) as a percentage of IFN- and TNF-producing Tfh cells in patients. In this regard, the immunomodulatory treatment of patients before the vaccination period seems important as it was strongly associated with a higher percentage of activated CD4 and Tfh cells. SARS-CoV-2- and CEF-specific T cell responses significantly correlated with each other. Compared to lymphoma patients, myeloma patients had an increased percentage of SARS-CoV-2-specific Tfh cells. T-SNE analysis revealed higher frequencies of γδT cells in patients compared to controls, especially in myeloma patients. In general, after vaccination, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were also detectable in patients without seroconversion. Conclusion: Hematologic malignancy patients are capable of developing a SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 and Tfh cellular immune response after vaccination, and certain immunomodulatory therapies in the period before vaccination might increase the antigen-specific immune response. A proper response to recall antigens (e.g., CEF-Peptides) reflects immune cellular functionality and might be predictive for generating a newly induced antigen-specific immune response as is expected after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hematologic Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , COVID-19/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Vaccination
4.
BMJ Open ; 13(2): e068877, 2023 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome that is characterised by lymphadenopathy, fever and sore throat. Although generally not considered a serious illness, IM can lead to significant loss of time from school or work due to profound fatigue, or the development of chronic illness. This study aimed to derive and externally validate clinical prediction rules (CPRs) for IM caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 328 participants were recruited prospectively for the derivation cohort, from seven university-affiliated student health centres in Ireland. Participants were young adults (17-39 years old, mean age 20.6 years) with sore throat and one other additional symptom suggestive of IM. The validation cohort was a retrospective cohort of 1498 participants from a student health centre at the University of Georgia, USA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Regression analyses were used to develop four CPR models, internally validated in the derivation cohort. External validation was carried out in the geographically separate validation cohort. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, there were 328 participants, of whom 42 (12.8%) had a positive EBV serology test result. Of 1498 participants in the validation cohort, 243 (16.2%) had positive heterophile antibody tests for IM. Four alternative CPR models were developed and compared. There was moderate discrimination and good calibration for all models. The sparsest CPR included presence of enlarged/tender posterior cervical lymph nodes and presence of exudate on the pharynx. This model had moderate discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.62-0.79) and good calibration. On external validation, this model demonstrated reasonable discrimination (AUC: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.67-0.72) and good calibration. CONCLUSIONS: The alternative CPRs proposed can provide quantitative probability estimates of IM. Used in conjunction with serological testing for atypical lymphocytosis and immunoglobulin testing for viral capsid antigen, CPRs can enhance diagnostic decision-making for IM in community settings.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Infectious Mononucleosis , Pharyngitis , Young Adult , Humans , Adult , Adolescent , Infectious Mononucleosis/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Clinical Decision Rules , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Antigens, Viral , Pain
5.
Cell Commun Signal ; 21(1): 103, 2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317587

ABSTRACT

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are known for their significant capability to reconstitute and preserve a functional hematopoietic system in long-term periods after transplantation into conditioned hosts. HSCs are thus crucial cellular targets for the continual repair of inherited hematologic, metabolic, and immunologic disorders. In addition, HSCs can undergo various fates, such as apoptosis, quiescence, migration, differentiation, and self-renewal. Viruses continuously pose a remarkable health risk and request an appropriate, balanced reaction from our immune system, which as well as affects the bone marrow (BM). Therefore, disruption of the hematopoietic system due to viral infection is essential. In addition, patients for whom the risk-to-benefit ratio of HSC transplantation (HSCT) is acceptable have seen an increase in the use of HSCT in recent years. Hematopoietic suppression, BM failure, and HSC exhaustion are all linked to chronic viral infections. Virus infections continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HSCT recipients, despite recent advancements in the field. Furthermore, whereas COVID-19 manifests initially as an infection of the respiratory tract, it is now understood to be a systemic illness that significantly impacts the hematological system. Patients with advanced COVID-19 often have thrombocytopenia and blood hypercoagulability. In the era of COVID-19, Hematological manifestations of COVID-19 (i.e., thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia), the immune response, and HSCT may all be affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus in various ways. Therefore, it is important to determine whether exposure to viral infections may affect HSCs used for HSCT, as this, in turn, may affect engraftment efficiency. In this article, we reviewed the features of HSCs, and the effects of viral infections on HSCs and HSCT, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, etc. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , HIV Infections , Thrombocytopenia , Virus Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Hematopoietic Stem Cells
6.
Semin Hematol ; 60(1): 10-19, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317424

ABSTRACT

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used as a curative standard of care for moderate to severe primary immunodeficiency disorders as well as relapsed hematologic malignancies for over 50 years [1,2]. However, chronic and refractory viral infections remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the immune deficient period following HSCT, where use of available antiviral pharmacotherapies is limited by toxicity and emerging resistance [3]. Adoptive immunotherapy using virus-specific T cells (VSTs) has been explored for over 2 decades [4,5] in patients post-HSCT and has been shown prior phase I-II studies to be safe and effective for treatment or preventions of viral infections including cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, BK virus, and adenovirus with minimal toxicity and low risk of graft vs host disease [6-9]. This review summarizes methodologies to generate VSTs the clinical results utilizing VST therapeutics and the challenges and future directions for the field.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Virus Diseases , Humans , T-Lymphocytes/transplantation , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Virus Diseases/therapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(5)2023 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317052

ABSTRACT

A man in his 60s presented with intermittent constitutional symptoms along with waxing and waning chest radiographic abnormalities, eventually leading to a diagnosis of lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG). LYG is a rare, progressive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven lymphoproliferative disease associated with immune dysregulation most commonly involving the lungs. The diagnosis requires tissue biopsy; thus, the decision to pursue tissue sampling with histopathology examination in a timely manner is essential. Currently, there are no established guidelines regarding the treatment of LYG, which varies from cessation of immunosuppressants to immunochemotherapy and usually requires multidisciplinary team discussion.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis , Male , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/drug therapy , Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis/chemically induced , Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis/diagnosis , Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Immunologic Factors
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(5)2023 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315734

ABSTRACT

The heterophile antibody (also known as the Monospot) test is a useful screening tool for infectious mononucleosis (IM) resulting from primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. However, up to 10% of patients with IM are heterophile negative. Heterophile-negative patients who have lymphocytosis or atypical lymphocytes on peripheral blood smear should be further tested for EBV serologies, which include testing for specific IgM and IgG antibodies against viral capsid antigens, early antigens and EBV nuclear antigen proteins. A diagnostic dilemma arises when the patient has clinical and laboratory features of IM, but is both heterophile negative and seronegative for IM, as illustrated in this case presentation. To avoid missed diagnoses of IM, misdiagnosis of mononucleosis-like illnesses and unnecessary testing, knowledge of test characteristics and the evolving course of EBV serologies is important to assure and inform both the physician and the patient.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Infectious Mononucleosis , Lymphocytosis , Humans , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Lymphocytosis/diagnosis , Infectious Mononucleosis/diagnosis , Antigens, Viral , Fever , Antibodies, Viral
9.
Blood ; 141(17): 2062-2074, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313904

ABSTRACT

Preventing viral infections at an early stage is a key strategy for successfully improving transplant outcomes. Preemptive therapy and prophylaxis with antiviral agents have been successfully used to prevent clinically significant viral infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Major progress has been made over the past decades in preventing viral infections through a better understanding of the biology and risk factors, as well as the introduction of novel antiviral agents and advances in immunotherapy. High-quality evidence exists for the effective prevention of herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus infection and disease. Few data are available on the effective prevention of human herpesvirus 6, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, and BK virus infections. To highlight the spectrum of clinical practice, here we review high-risk situations that we handle with a high degree of uniformity and cases that feature differences in approaches, reflecting distinct hematopoietic cell transplant practices, such as ex vivo T-cell depletion.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Virus Diseases , Humans , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/etiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313827

ABSTRACT

Some viruses are known to be associated with the onset of specific cancers. These microorganisms, oncogenic viruses or oncoviruses, can convert normal cells into cancer cells by modulating the central metabolic pathways or hampering genomic integrity mechanisms, consequently inhibiting the apoptotic machinery and/or enhancing cell proliferation. Seven oncogenic viruses are known to promote tumorigenesis in humans: human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Recent research indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 progression may predispose recovered patients to cancer onset and accelerate cancer development. This hypothesis is based on the growing evidence regarding the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to modulate oncogenic pathways, promoting chronic low-grade inflammation and causing tissue damage. Herein, we summarize the main relationships known to date between virus infection and cancer, providing a summary of the proposed biochemical mechanisms behind the cellular transformation. Mechanistically, DNA viruses (such as HPV, HBV, EBV, and MCPyV) encode their virus oncogenes. In contrast, RNA viruses (like HCV, HTLV-1) may encode oncogenes or trigger host oncogenes through cis-/-trans activation leading to different types of cancer. As for SARS-CoV-2, its role as an oncogenic virus seems to occur through the inhibition of oncosuppressors or controlling the metabolic and autophagy pathways in the infected cells. However, these effects could be significant in particular scenarios like those linked to severe COVID-19 or long COVID. On the other hand, looking at the SARS-CoV-2─cancer relationship from an opposite perspective, oncolytic effects and anti-tumor immune response were triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection in some cases. In summary, our work aims to recall comprehensive attention from the scientific community to elucidate the effects of SARS-CoV-2 and, more in general, ß-coronavirus infection on cancer susceptibility for cancer prevention or supporting therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hepatitis C , Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Herpesvirus 4, Human , COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Oncogenic Viruses/genetics , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Hepatitis C/complications
11.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 64(4): 277-282, 2023.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319751

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-LPD) is a rare disease characterized by persistent or recurrent inflammation accompanied by EBV infection of T or NK cells that is not self-limiting, and it is fatal, if untreated. After receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, a 79-year-old male presented to the hospital with a 2-week history of fever. Laboratory results indicated pancytopenia, elevated liver transaminase levels, hyperferritinemia, and hypofibrinogenemia. Computed tomography revealed hepatosplenomegaly, but lymphadenopathy was not observed. A bone marrow biopsy, a random skin biopsy, and a liver biopsy revealed no malignancy, but an infectious evaluation revealed EBV viremia (5.19 Log IU/ml). Flow cytometry and RT-PCR revealed that the EBV genome was localized in NK cells, suggesting the diagnosis of EBV-NK-LPD. We administered prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and etoposide, but the EBV-DNA load failed to decrease, and he died 2 months later. Recently, case reports of COVID-19 vaccination-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis have been published. Although the mechanisms and risk factors for EBV-LPD after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination remain unknown, it is important to note the possibility of reactivation of EBV after COVID-19 vaccination to initiate early and targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Aged , Humans , Male , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/etiology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/diagnosis
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 130: 108-125, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312868

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Herpesviruses are ubiquitous and after primary infection they establish lifelong latency. The impairment of maintaining latency with short-term or long-term consequences could be triggered by other infection. Therefore, reactivation of herpesviruses in COVID-19 patients represents an emerging issue. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study provided the first systematic review with meta-analysis of studies that evaluated active human herpesvirus (HHV) infection (defined as the presence of IgM antibodies or HHV-DNA) in COVID-19 patients and included 36 publications collected by searching through PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of science until November 2022. RESULTS: The prevalence of active EBV, HHV6, HSV, CMV, HSV1, and VZV infection in COVID-19 population was 41% (95% CI =27%-57%), 3% (95% CI=17%-54%), 28% (95% CI=1%-85%), 25% (95% CI=1%-63%), 22% (95% CI=10%-35%), and 18% (95% CI=4%-34%), respectively. There was a 6 times higher chance for active EBV infection in patients with severe COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 controls (OR=6.45, 95% CI=1.09-38.13, p=0.040), although there was no difference in the prevalence of all evaluated active herpesvirus infections between COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 controls. CONCLUSIONS: Future research of herpesvirus and SARS-CoV-2 coinfections must be prioritized to define: who, when and how to be tested, as well as how to effectively treat HHVs reactivations in acute and long COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpesviridae Infections , Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Herpesviridae Infections/epidemiology , Herpesviridae/genetics , Simplexvirus , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics
13.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(4): 265-273, 2022 09 10.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319449

ABSTRACT

The number of studies devoted to Epstein-Barr viral infection (EBV infection) has been growing in recent years. However, they all relate to the clinical aspects of this problem. Epidemiology issues remain practically unexplored. A review of domestic and foreign publications has shown that at the present stage there is a high intensity of the epidemic process of EBV infection both in Russia and abroad. The main indicators of unfavorable epidemiological situation are the ubiquitous spread of the pathogen and the increase in the incidence of infectious mononucleosis in recent years. The deterioration of the epidemic situation of EBV infection is influenced by changes in the immunological reactivity of various population groups due to the spread of HIV, HBV, HCV, the causative agent of tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2. The above makes it possible to classify the problem as a global one and determines the need for the rapid implementation of the system of epidemiological surveillance of EBV infection and optimization of the complex of preventive and anti-epidemic measures. Reducing the burden of EBV is possible only with the consolidated participation of specialists of various profiles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Infectious Mononucleosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(6): 195, 2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294094

ABSTRACT

Chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases such as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are known as inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD). Patients with inflammatory bowel illnesses are more susceptible to viral infections. In people with IBD, viral infections have emerged as a significant issue. Viral infections are often difficult to identify and have a high morbidity and fatality rate. We reviewed studies on viral infections and IBD, concentrating on Cytomegalovirus (CMV), SARS-CoV-2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), enteric viruses, and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Also, the effect of IBD on these viral infections is discussed. These data suggest that patients with IBD are more likely to get viral infections. As a result, practitioners should be aware of the increased risk of viral infections in inflammatory bowel disease patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Virus Diseases , Humans , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/complications
15.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302776

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have strengthened the evidence for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) as an important contributing factor in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). Chronic inflammation is a key feature of MS. EBV+ B cells can express cytokines and exosomes that promote inflammation, and EBV is known to be reactivated through the upregulation of cellular inflammasomes. Inflammation is a possible cause of the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which allows the infiltration of lymphocytes into the central nervous system. Once resident, EBV+ or EBV-specific B cells could both plausibly exacerbate MS plaques through continued inflammatory processes, EBV reactivation, T cell exhaustion, and/or molecular mimicry. Another virus, SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, is known to elicit a strong inflammatory response in infected and immune cells. COVID-19 is also associated with EBV reactivation, particularly in severely ill patients. Following viral clearance, continued inflammation may be a contributor to post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 infection (PASC). Evidence of aberrant cytokine activation in patients with PASC supports this hypothesis. If unaddressed, long-term inflammation could put patients at risk for reactivation of EBV. Determining mechanisms by which viruses can cause inflammation and finding treatments for reducing that inflammation may help reduce the disease burden for patients suffering from PASC, MS, and EBV diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation/complications , Disease Progression
16.
Orv Hetil ; 163(27): 1061-1065, 2022 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264136

ABSTRACT

The Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis) is an autolimited process, which can be caused by viral agents like Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes virus, HIV, B19 parvovirus, paromyxoviruses, SARS-CoV-2, Toxoplasma and Yersinia. The correct diagnosis is based on histological findings. A 45-year-old female patient presented in our ambulatory room with a unilateral neck mass, fever, dysphonia and dysphagia. The patient was double-tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 approximately 1 month before the symptoms started. Before examination, the nasopharyngeal rapid test for SARS-CoV-2 resulted negative. After hospitalization, intravenous antibiotic (Augmentin, 3 × 1.2 g; Klion, 2 × 100 mg) and steroid (Solu-Medrol, 2 × 125 mg) therapy were administered. The neck and chest CT described a right-sided retropharyngeal abscess with bilateral neck lympadenopathy. Urgent tracheotomy, neck dissection and lymph node biopsy were made. The intraoperative findings excluded the presence of the abscess. The histological findings confirmed the necrotizing histiocytic lymphadenitis. Despite of the fact that the Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is autolimited, we can see that, in this particular case, the lymphadenopathy after the SARS-CoV-2 infection caused a life-threatening situation. The formed extratissular liquid imitated the image of a retropharyngeal abscess. In the searched worldwide literature, similar intervention for this type of process was not described. Tracheotomy, neck dissection and removing the lymph nodes as ,,trigger zones" caused the full recovery of the patient. In the future, we consider important proving and clarifying the correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(27): 1061-1065.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis , Retropharyngeal Abscess , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology , Female , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/complications , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/drug therapy , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Middle Aged , Retropharyngeal Abscess/diagnosis , Retropharyngeal Abscess/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev Med Virol ; 33(3): e2437, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280697

ABSTRACT

To provide a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the cumulative incidence (incidence proportion) of human herpesvirus (HHV) reactivation among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE up to 25 September 2022, with no language restrictions. All interventional and observational studies enrolling patients with confirmed COVID-19 and providing data regarding HHV reactivation were included. The random-effects model was used in the meta-analyses. We included information from 32 studies. HHV reactivation was considered a positive polymerase chain reaction result taken at the time of COVID-19 infection. Most of the included patients were severe COVID-19 cases. The pooled cumulative incidence estimate was 38% (95% Confidence Intervals [CI], 28%-50%, I2  = 86%) for herpes simplex virus (HSV), 19% (95% CI, 13%-28%, I2  = 87%) for cytomegalovirus (CMV), 45% (95% CI, 28%-63%, I2  = 96%) for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 18% (95% CI, 8%-35%) for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), 44% (95% CI, 32%-56%) for human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), and 19% (95% CI, 14%-26%) for human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). There was no evidence of funnel plot asymmetry based on visual inspection and Egger's regression test for the results of HSV (p = 0.84), CMV (p = 0.82), and EBV (p = 0.27) reactivation. In conclusion, the identification of HHV reactivation in severe COVID-19 patients is helpful in the management of patients as well as the prevention of complications. Further research is required to elucidate the interaction between HHVs and COVID-19. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42022321973.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesviridae Infections , Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Humans , Herpesviridae Infections/complications , Herpesviridae Infections/epidemiology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Simplexvirus , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics
19.
J Intern Med ; 294(2): 127-144, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275449

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence to suggest that severe disease in children infected with common viruses that are typically benign in other children can result from inborn errors of immunity or their phenocopies. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a cytolytic respiratory RNA virus, can lead to acute hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia in children with inborn errors of type I interferon (IFN) immunity or autoantibodies against IFNs. These patients do not appear to be prone to severe disease during infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a leukocyte-tropic DNA virus that can establish latency. By contrast, various forms of severe EBV disease, ranging from acute hemophagocytosis to chronic or long-term illnesses, such as agammaglobulinemia and lymphoma, can manifest in children with inborn errors disrupting specific molecular bridges involved in the control of EBV-infected B cells by cytotoxic T cells. The patients with these disorders do not seem to be prone to severe COVID-19 pneumonia. These experiments of nature reveal surprising levels of redundancy of two different arms of immunity, with type I IFN being essential for host defense against SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory epithelial cells, and certain surface molecules on cytotoxic T cells essential for host defense against EBV in B lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Child , Humans , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Human Genetics
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 65, 2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infects ~ 95% of the population worldwide and is known to cause adverse health outcomes such as Hodgkin's, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and multiple sclerosis. There is substantial interest and investment in developing infection-preventing vaccines for EBV. To effectively deploy such vaccines, it is vital that we understand the risk factors for infection. Why particular individuals do not become infected is currently unknown. The current literature, describes complex, often conflicting webs of intersecting factors-sociodemographic, clinical, genetic, environmental-, rendering causality difficult to decipher. We aimed to use Mendelian randomization (MR) to overcome the issues posed by confounding and reverse causality to determine the causal risk factors for the acquisition of EBV. METHODS: We mapped the complex evidence from the literature prior to this study factors associated with EBV serostatus (as a proxy for infection) into a causal diagram to determine putative risk factors for our study. Using data from the UK Biobank of 8422 individuals genomically deemed to be of white British ancestry between the ages of 40 and 69 at recruitment between the years 2006 and 2010, we performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) of EBV serostatus, followed by a Two Sample MR to determine which putative risk factors were causal. RESULTS: Our GWAS identified two novel loci associated with EBV serostatus. In MR analyses, we confirmed shorter time in education, an increase in number of sexual partners, and a lower age of smoking commencement, to be causal risk factors for EBV serostatus. CONCLUSIONS: Given the current interest and likelihood of a future EBV vaccine, these factors can inform vaccine development and deployment strategies by completing the puzzle of causality. Knowing these risk factors allows identification of those most likely to acquire EBV, giving insight into what age to vaccinate and who to prioritise when a vaccine is introduced.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/genetics , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/prevention & control , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Vaccination , Mendelian Randomization Analysis
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