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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 949787, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109762

ABSTRACT

Background: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic disease considered to be triggered by viral infections in a majority of cases. Symptoms overlap largely with those of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19/long-COVID implying common pathogenetic mechanisms. SARS-CoV-2 infection is risk factor for sustained latent virus reactivation that may account for the symptoms of post-viral fatigue syndromes. The aim of this study was first to investigate whether patients with ME/CFS and healthy donors (HDs) differed in their antibody response to mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Secondly, to analyze whether COVID-19 imposes latent virus reactivation in the cohorts. Methods: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed in plasma and saliva from non-vaccinated ME/CFS (n=95) and HDs (n=110) using soluble multiplex immunoassay. Reactivation of human herpesviruses 1-6 (HSV1, HSV2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV6), and human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) was detected by anti-viral antibody fingerprints in saliva. Results: At 3-6 months after mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, virus-specific antibodies in saliva were substantially induced signifying a strong reactivation of latent viruses (EBV, HHV6 and HERV-K) in both cohorts. In patients with ME/CFS, antibody responses were significantly stronger, in particular EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) IgG were elevated in patients with ME/CFS, but not in HDs. EBV-VCA IgG was also elevated at baseline prior to SARS-infection in patients compared to HDs. Conclusion: Our results denote an altered and chronically aroused anti-viral profile against latent viruses in ME/CFS. SARS-CoV-2 infection even in its mild/asymptomatic form is a potent trigger for reactivation of latent herpesviruses (EBV, HHV6) and endogenous retroviruses (HERV-K), as detected by antibody fingerprints locally in the oral mucosa (saliva samples). This has not been shown before because the antibody elevation is not detected systemically in the circulation/plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endogenous Retroviruses , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Humans , Saliva , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G
2.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055385

ABSTRACT

Beyond their pulmonary disease, many COVID-19 patients experience a complex constellation of characteristics, including hyperinflammatory responses, autoimmune disorders, and coagulopathies. However, the pathogenesis of these aspects of COVID-19 is obscure. More than 90% of people are latently infected with the lymphotropic herpesviruses Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and/or Human Herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Some of the inflammatory features of COVID-19 resemble clinical syndromes seen during EBV and HHV-6 infection, and these latent viruses can be reactivated by inflammatory mediators. We hypothesized that EBV and HHV-6 reactivation might be a common feature of early COVID-19, particularly in patients with more inflammation. We tested for EBV and HHV-6 reactivation in 67 patients acutely hospitalized with COVID-19 using previously validated quantitative PCR assays on the plasma. In our cohort, we found that 15/67 (22.4%) patients had detectable EBV and 3/67 (4.5%) had detectable HHV-6. This frequency of activation is somewhat more than the frequency reported for some healthy cohorts, such as blood donors and other healthy control cohorts. There was no association between EBV or HHV-6 and markers indicative of more inflammatory disease. We conclude that EBV and HHV-6 activation at about day 7 of hospitalization occurred in a modest fraction of our cohort of COVID-19 patients and was not associated with high levels of inflammation. In the modest fraction of patients, EBV and HHV-6 reactivation could contribute to some features of acute disease and pre-disposition to post-acute sequelae in a subset of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Herpesvirus 8, Human , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Humans , Inflammation , Inflammation Mediators
3.
Virol J ; 19(1): 101, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Certain clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mimic those associated with human herpesvirus (HHV) infection. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of herpesvirus in patients with COVID-19 and determined if coinfection is associated with poorer outcomes and neurological symptoms. METHODS: We analyzed samples of 53 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The samples were evaluated for the presence of alphaherpesviruses, betaherpesviruses, and gammaherpesviruses, and the viral loads were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. RESULTS: Among the patients, in 79.2% had detection at least one type of herpesvirus. HHV-6 (47.2%), cytomegalovirus (43.3%), and HHV-7 (39.6%) showed the highest detection rates. Patients with a high severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) load were more likely to show herpes simplex virus 1 detection (p = 0.037). Among patients coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and HHVs, 26.4% showed central nervous system-associated neurological symptoms and herpetic manifestations. A statistically significant association was observed between neurological changes and HHV-6 detection (p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed a high prevalence of herpesvirus in patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, even though SARS-CoV-2 and HHV coinfection was not associated with poorer outcomes, the findings demonstrated the association between neurological symptoms and HHV-6 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpesviridae Infections , Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Herpesvirus 7, Human , COVID-19/complications , Cytomegalovirus , Herpesviridae Infections/complications , Herpesviridae Infections/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 1212-1216, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718357

ABSTRACT

Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) may cause serious diseases in immunocompromised individuals. SARS-CoV-2/HHV-6 coinfection has been emphasized in previous works, mostly case reports, small series, or epidemiological studies, but few are known about its real clinical outcomes. Here we present a real-world pilot study aiming to understand the frequency and the clinical impact of HHV-6 coinfection in moderate to critically ill patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 and HHV-6 were evaluated in nasopharyngeal samples at the hospital admission of suspected COVID-19 patients. From 173 consecutive cases, 60 were SARS-CoV-2 positive and 13/60 (21.7%) were HHV-6 positive after identified as the HHV-6B species by a Sanger sequencing. The SARS-CoV-2+/HHV-6+ group was younger but not significant for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and cancer, but significant among therapeutic immunosuppressed patients (as systemic lupus erythematosus and kidney transplant patients). In the medical records, only sparse data on cutaneous or neurological manifestations were found. Biochemical and hematological data showed only a trend towards hyperferritinemic status and lymphopenia. In conclusion, despite the impressive high frequency of HHV-6 coinfection in SARS-CoV-2 positive cases, it did not impact general mortality. We suggest larger future prospective studies to better elucidate the influence of HHV-6 reactivation in cases of COVID-19, designed to specific assessment of clinical outcomes and viral reactivation mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Roseolovirus Infections , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Humans , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Roseolovirus Infections/complications , Roseolovirus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the spontaneous clinical course of patients with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-proven lymphocytic myocarditis and cardiac human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) DNA presence, and the effectiveness of steroid-based intervention in HHV6-positive patients. RESULTS: 756 heart failure (HF) patients underwent an EMB procedure to determine the underlying cause of unexplained HF. Low levels of HHV6 DNA, detectable by nested PCR only, were found in 10.4% of the cases (n = 79) of which 62% (n = 49) showed myocardial inflammation. The spontaneous course of patients with EMB-proven HHV6 DNA-associated lymphocytic myocarditis (n = 26) showed significant improvements in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and clinical symptoms, respectively, in 15/26 (60%) patients, 3-12 months after disease onset. EMB mRNA expression of components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and protein analysis of cardiac remodeling markers, analyzed by real-time PCR and MALDI mass spectrometry, respectively, did not differ between HHV6-positive and -negative patients. In another cohort of patients with ongoing symptoms related to lymphocytic myocarditis associated with cardiac levels of HHV6-DNA copy numbers <500 copies/µg cardiac DNA, quantified by real-time PCR, the efficacy and safety of steroid-based immunosuppression for six months was investigated. Steroid-based immunosuppression improved the LVEF (≥5%) in 8/10 patients and reduced cardiac inflammation in 7/10 patients, without an increase in cardiac HHV6 DNA levels in follow-up EMBs. CONCLUSION: Low HHV6 DNA levels are frequently detected in the myocardium, independent of inflammation. In patients with lymphocytic myocarditis with low levels of HHV6 DNA, the spontaneous clinical improvement is nearby 60%. In selected symptomatic patients with cardiac HHV6 DNA copy numbers less than 500 copies/µg cardiac DNA and without signs of an active systemic HHV6 infection, steroid-based therapy was found to be effective and safe. This finding needs to be further confirmed in large, randomized trials.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , Cohort Studies , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Gene Dosage , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology , Stroke Volume
6.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e296-e298, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Roseola infantum is always considered to be among the differential diagnosis of young patients with fever and leukopenia whom to be strictly isolated with the preliminary diagnosis of COVID-19 until otherwise proven during the pandemic. RESULTS: Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) blood test was performed in 4 of 7 patients with a clinical diagnosis of roseola infantum and all found to be HHV-6 PCR positive. The most striking laboratory finding in all patients was leukopenia. HHV-6 PCR tests were found to be positive. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 testing were found to be negative in all patients. CONCLUSION: During the peak of the pandemic, children continued to present with fever because of viral infections other than COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Exanthema Subitum/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Leukopenia/diagnosis , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(5): 1003-1007, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599090

ABSTRACT

Pityriasis rosea (PR) is a self-limited disease with exanthematous papulosquamous rashes mostly associated with reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 or HHV-7. PR-like eruptions, which occur along with peripheral eosinophilia, interface dermatitis, and eosinophils on histopathology, may result from medications or vaccinations. Previously, PR-like eruptions had been noted following vaccination for influenza or other vaccines. During this pandemic, acute COVID-19 infection has been related to PR or PR-like eruptions in several cases. Various COVID-19 vaccines associated with PR-like eruptions were rarely reported. Herein, we report a case of cutaneous PR-like eruptions following COVID-19 mRNA-1273 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Pityriasis Rosea , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pityriasis Rosea/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
J Autoimmun ; 124: 102727, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446793

ABSTRACT

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease secondary to three cardinal pathological features: immune-system alterations, diffuse microangiopathy, and fibrosis involving the skin and internal organs. The etiology of SSc remains quite obscure; it may encompass multiple host genetic and environmental -infectious/chemical-factors. The present review focused on the potential role of environmental agents in the etiopathogenesis of SSc based on epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory investigations previously published in the world literature. Among infectious agents, some viruses that may persist and reactivate in infected individuals, namely human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and parvovirus B19 (B19V), and retroviruses have been proposed as potential causative agents of SSc. These viruses share a number of biological activities and consequent pathological alterations, such as endothelial dysfunction and/or fibroblast activation. Moreover, the acute worsening of pre-existing interstitial lung involvement observed in SSc patients with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection might suggest a potential role of this virus in the overall disease outcome. A variety of chemical/occupational agents might be regarded as putative etiological factors of SSc. In this setting, the SSc complicating silica dust exposure represents one of the most promising models of study. Considering the complexity of SSc pathogenesis, none of suggested causative factors may explain the appearance of the whole SSc; it is likely that the disease is the result of a multifactorial and multistep pathogenetic process. A variable combination of potential etiological factors may modulate the appearance of different clinical phenotypes detectable in individual scleroderma patients. The in-deep investigations on the SSc etiopathogenesis may provide useful insights in the broad field of human diseases characterized by diffuse microangiopathy or altered fibrogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Parvoviridae Infections/complications , Retroviridae Infections/complications , Roseolovirus Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Scleroderma, Systemic/etiology , Cytomegalovirus , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Humans , Parvovirus B19, Human , Retroviridae , Scleroderma, Systemic/virology
11.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378143

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a serious, sometimes life-threatening late complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with multiorgan involvement and evidence of immune activation. The pathogenesis of MIS-C is not known, nor is the pathogenesis of the severe organ damage that is the hallmark of MIS-C. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), the virus responsible for roseola, is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes close to universal infection by the age of 3 years. HHV-6 remains latent for life and can be activated during inflammatory states, by other viruses, and by host cell apoptosis. HHV-6 has been associated with end-organ diseases, including hepatitis, carditis, and encephalitis. In addition, ∼1% of people have inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (iciHHV-6), which is HHV-6 that has been integrated into chromosomal telomeric regions and is transmitted through the germ line. iciHHV-6 can be reactivated and has been associated with altered immune responses. We report here a case of MIS-C in which an initial high HHV-6 DNA polymerase chain reaction viral load assay prompted testing for iciHHV-6, which yielded a positive result. Additional research may be warranted to determine if iciHHV-6 is commonly observed in patients with MIS-C and, if so, whether it may play a part in MIS-C pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Telomere/virology , Viral Load , Virus Latency
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(8): 5182-5187, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298501

ABSTRACT

Infections due to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are frequent during early childhood. Usually, they have a favorable clinical course. Conversely, HHV-6 congenital infections occur in about 1% of neonates and may present with more severe clinical pictures. HHV-6 can be found in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from patients with pneumonia and in immunocompromised patients can cause mild to severe pneumonia. In neonates, the role of HHV-6 in the genesis of severe pneumonia is poorly defined still now. We describe a healthy infant with a late-onset (15 days of life) severe interstitial pneumonia and heavy HHV-6 genome load, persistently detected in its BAL fluid. The baby underwent high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, hydroxychloroquine, steroids, and ganciclovir for 6 weeks and at 9 months she died. Next-generation sequencing of genes known to cause neonatal respiratory insufficiency revealed the presence of a "probably pathogenetic" heterozygous variant in the autosomal recessive DRC1 gene, a heterozygous variant of unknown significance (VUS) in the autosomal recessive RSPH9 gene, and a heterozygous VUS in the autosomal recessive MUC5B gene. HHV-6 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of late-onset severe respiratory distress in neonates and the co-occurrence of genetic predisposing factors or modifiers should be tested by specific molecular techniques. The intensity of HHV-6 genome load in BAL fluid could be an indicator of the response to antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/genetics , Roseolovirus Infections/genetics , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Fatal Outcome , Female , Genetic Variation , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , Mucin-5B/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Viral Load
14.
J Neuroimmunol ; 353: 577521, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serious neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 are increasingly being recognized. CASE: We report a novel case of HHV6 myelitis with parainfectious MOG-IgG in the setting of COVID-19-induced lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. The patient experienced complete neurological recovery with gancyclovir, high dose corticosteroids, and plasma exchange. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HHV6 reactivation in the central nervous system in the setting of COVID19 infection and the first case of MOG-IgG myelitis in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 and HHV6 coinfection. CONCLUSION: Patients with neurological manifestations in the setting of COVID19-related immunodeficiency should be tested for opportunistic infections including HHV6. Viral infection is a known trigger for MOG-IgG and therefore this antibody should be checked in patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated demyelination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Lymphopenia/virology , Myelitis, Transverse/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantigens/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Myelitis, Transverse/immunology , Myelitis, Transverse/therapy , Plasma Exchange/methods , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Activation/immunology
15.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(3): 296-299, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic reactivation of herpesviruses may occur in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Data on severe Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and concomitant reactivation of herpesviruses are lacking. METHODS: We selected patients admitted to ICU for confirmed COVID-19 who underwent systematic testing for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human-herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) DNAemia while in the ICU. We retrospectively analysed frequency, timing, duration and co-occurrence of viral DNAemia. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were included. Viremia with EBV, CMV, and HHV-6 was detected in 28 (82%), 5 (15%), and 7 (22%) patients, respectively. EBV reactivation occurred early after ICU admission and was associated with longer ICU length-of-stay. CONCLUSIONS: While in the ICU, critically ill patients with COVID-19 are prone to develop reactivations due to various types of herpesviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Latent Infection/complications , Virus Activation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965318

ABSTRACT

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a ß-herpesvirus that is highly prevalent in the human population. HHV-6 comprises two recognized species (HHV-6A and HHV-6B). Despite different cell tropism and disease association, HHV-6A/B show high genome homology and harbor the conserved U94 gene, which is limited to HHV-6 and absent in all the other human herpesviruses. U94 has key functions in the virus life cycle and associated diseases, having demonstrated or putative roles in virus replication, integration, and reactivation. During natural infection, U94 elicits an immune response, and the prevalence and extent of the anti-U94 response are associated with specific diseases. Notably, U94 can entirely reproduce some virus effects at the cell level, including inhibition of cell migration, induction of cytokines and HLA-G expression, and angiogenesis inhibition, supporting a direct U94 role in the development of HHV-6-associated diseases. Moreover, specific U94 properties, such as the ability to modulate angiogenesis pathways, have been exploited to counteract cancer development. Here, we review the information available on this key HHV-6 gene, highlighting its potential uses.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Viral Proteins/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Cytokines/metabolism , Genome, Viral , HLA-G Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Immune System , Mice , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Rats , Roseolovirus Infections/epidemiology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Integration , Virus Replication
18.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 85(4): e13313, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669908

ABSTRACT

Molecular diagnostics is a rapidly growing branch of the clinical laboratory and has accelerated the advance of personalized medicine in the fields of pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics, and nutrigenomics. The versatility of molecular biology allows it to be effective in several medical fields that include reproduction, immunogenetics, and virology. Implementation of molecular and sequencing technology in reproductive medicine can add another layer of understanding to better define the causes behind infertility and recurrent reproductive loss. In the following, we examine current molecular methods for probing factors behind reproductive pregnancy loss including reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing (NGS). We review several current and potential genetic (DNA) and transcriptional (RNA)-based parameters in women with infertility that can be significant in diagnosis and treatment. These molecular factors can be inferred either from genomic DNA or RNA locally within the endometrium. Furthermore, we consider infection-based abnormalities such as human herpesvirus-6 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Finally, we present future directions as well as data demonstrating the potential role of human endogenous retroviruses in pregnancy loss. We hope these discussions will assist the clinician in delineating some of the intricate molecular factors that can contribute to infertility and recurrent reproductive failures.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Infertility, Female , Roseolovirus Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Abortion, Spontaneous/genetics , Abortion, Spontaneous/metabolism , Abortion, Spontaneous/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Endometrium/virology , Female , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/metabolism , Humans , Infertility, Female/genetics , Infertility, Female/metabolism , Roseolovirus Infections/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
19.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(4): e13730, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436981

ABSTRACT

A new type of coronavirus family (SARS-CoV-2), which can be found in humans and animals, with many varieties and clinical symptoms, was first seen in Wuhan, China in late 2019, under the name novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the literature, cutaneous symptoms related to the disease are generally emphasized. However, it is not yet known whether this new SARS-CoV-2 virus, which has entered our lives, plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of dermatological diseases. The patients who were admitted to the dermatology outpatient clinic between 1 April and 15 May 2019, and on 1 April and 15 May 2020 were retrospectively analyzed by searching the hospital automation system and patient files. The reason for the same months to be included in the study was to exclude seasonal effects on the diseases. After pandemic, the number of patients with Pityriasis rosea and Kawasaki disease increased significantly in patients who applied to the dermatology outpatient clinic. Our study is the first study showing Pityriasis rosea increase during the pandemic period. We think that this increase is related to HHV-6 reactivation. Herein, we wanted to draw attention to two diseases in which Human Herpes 6 (HHV-6) was accused in etiopathogenesis: Kawasaki disease and Pityriasis rosea.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 6, Human/pathogenicity , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Pityriasis Rosea/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 98(8): 859-863, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly all over the world. Respiratory droplets and contaction with infected patients are the two major transmission routes. However, the value of tear virus nucleic acid is still not clear. We dynamic detected the SARS-CoV-2 in eye sample of one COVID-19 patient with obstruction of common lacrimal ducts. METHODS: Besides the routine examination, nasopharyngeal and eye swab were continuously measured by polymerase chain reaction assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Gene detection was performed for drug use guidance, and flow cytometry was performed to analyse the lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for 22 days, but eye swabs were still continuously positive for 2 weeks after nasopharyngeal swabs turned negative. The low level of lymphocyte and the high level IL-6 lasted for almost 4 weeks, then became near normal. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) confirmed the existing of SARS-CoV-2, HSV1 and HHV6B virus nucleic acid. The gene detection for drug use guidance showed the genetic locus ABCB1 (3435T>C) rs1045642 belonged to type CC and it mean the efficiency of lopinavir-ritonavir would be significantly decreased. The flow cytometry of lymphocyte subsets showed PD-1+  CD95+ cells was accounting for 94.8% in CD3+  CD8+ T subset and for 94.8% in CD3+  TCRγδ+ T subset. CONCLUSIONS: As obstruction of common lacrimal duct, positively detection in one eye for 2 weeks more after nasopharyngeal swab became negative. More eye swabs should be collected from COVID-19 patients, especially from those immunocompromised, those with eye symptoms and those had a history of ocular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctiva/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Flow Cytometry , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/drug therapy , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/virology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Roseolovirus Infections/diagnosis , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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