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1.
Lancet ; 399(10341): 2113-2128, 2022 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a great unmet need for advanced therapies that provide rapid, robust, and sustained disease control for patients with ulcerative colitis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of upadacitinib, an oral selective Janus kinase 1 inhibitor, as induction and maintenance therapy in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: This phase 3, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical programme consisted of two replicate induction studies (U-ACHIEVE induction [UC1] and U-ACCOMPLISH [UC2]) and a single maintenance study (U-ACHIEVE maintenance [UC3]). The studies were conducted across Europe, North and South America, Australasia, Africa, and the Asia-Pacific region at 199 clinical centres in 39 countries (UC1), 204 clinical centres in 40 countries (UC2), and 195 clinical centres in 35 countries (UC3). Patients aged 16-75 years with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (Adapted Mayo score 5-9; endoscopic subscore 2 or 3) for at least 90 days were randomly assigned (2:1) to oral upadacitinib 45 mg once daily or placebo for 8 weeks (induction studies). Patients who achieved clinical response following 8-week upadacitinib induction were re-randomly assigned (1:1:1) to upadacitinib 15 mg, upadacitinib 30 mg, or placebo for 52 weeks (maintenance study). All patients were randomly assigned using web-based interactive response technology. The primary endpoints were clinical remission per Adapted Mayo score at week 8 (induction) and week 52 (maintenance). The efficacy analyses in the two induction studies were based on the intent-to-treat population, which included all randomised patients who received at least one dose of treatment. In the maintenance study, the primary efficacy analyses reported in this manuscript were based on the first 450 (planned) clinical responders to 8-week induction therapy with upadacitinib 45 mg once daily. The safety analysis population in the induction studies consisted of all randomised patients who received at least one dose of treatment; in the maintenance study, this population included all patients who received at least one dose of treatment as part of the primary analysis population. These studies are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02819635 (U-ACHIEVE) and NCT03653026 (U-ACCOMPLISH). FINDINGS: Between Oct 23, 2018, and Sept 7, 2020, 474 patients were randomly assigned to upadacitinib 45 mg once daily (n=319) or placebo (n=155) in UC1. Between Dec 6, 2018, and Jan 14, 2021, 522 patients were randomly assigned to upadacitinib 45 mg once daily (n=345) or placebo (n=177) in UC2. In UC3, a total of 451 patients (21 from the phase 2b study, 278 from UC1, and 152 from UC2) who achieved a clinical response after 8 weeks of upadacitinib induction treatment were randomly assigned again to upadacitinib 15 mg (n=148), upadacitinib 30 mg (n=154), and placebo (n=149) in the primary analysis population. Statistically significantly more patients achieved clinical remission with upadacitinib 45 mg (83 [26%] of 319 patients in UC1 and 114 [34%] of 341 patients in UC2) than in the placebo group (seven [5%] of 154 patients in UC1 and seven [4%] of 174 patients; p<0·0001; adjusted treatment difference 21·6% [95% CI 15·8-27·4] for UC1 and 29·0% [23·2-34·7] for UC2). In the maintenance study, clinical remission was achieved by statistically significantly more patients receiving upadacitinib (15 mg 63 [42%] of 148; 30 mg 80 [52%] of 154) than those receiving placebo (18 [12%] of 149; p<0·0001; adjusted treatment difference 30·7% [21·7-39·8] for upadacitinib 15 mg vs placebo and 39·0% [29·7-48·2] for upadacitinib 30 mg vs placebo). The most commonly reported adverse events in UC1 were nasopharyngitis (15 [5%] of 319 in the upadacitinib 45 mg group vs six [4%] of 155 in the placebo group), creatine phosphokinase elevation (15 [4%] vs three [2%]), and acne (15 [5%] vs one [1%]). In UC2, the most frequently reported adverse event was acne (24 [7%] of 344 in the upadacitinib 45 mg group vs three [2%] of 177 in the placebo group). In both induction studies, serious adverse events and adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment were less frequent in the upadacitinib 45 mg group than in the placebo group (serious adverse events eight [3%] vs nine (6%) in UC1 and 11 [3%] vs eight [5%] in UC2; adverse events leading to discontinuation six [2%] vs 14 [9%] in UC1 and six [2%] vs nine [5%] in UC2). In UC3, the most frequently reported adverse events (≥5%) were worsening of ulcerative colitis (19 [13%] of 148 in the upadacitinib 15 mg group vs 11 [7%] of 154 in the upadacitinib 30 mg group vs 45 [30%] of 149 in the placebo group), nasopharyngitis (18 [12%] vs 22 [14%] vs 15 [10%]), creatine phosphokinase elevation (nine [6%] vs 13 [8%] vs three [2%]), arthralgia (nine [6%] vs five [3%] vs 15 [10%]), and upper respiratory tract infection (seven [5%] vs nine [6%] vs six [4%]). The proportion of serious adverse events (ten [7%] vs nine [6%] vs 19 [13%]) and adverse events leading to discontinuation (six [4%] vs ten [6%] vs 17 [11%]) was lower in both upadacitinib groups than in the placebo group. Events of cancer, adjudicated major adverse cardiac events, or venous thromboembolism were reported infrequently. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Upadacitinib demonstrated a positive efficacy and safety profile and could be an effective treatment option for patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. FUNDING: AbbVie.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Colitis, Ulcerative , Nasopharyngitis , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Creatine Kinase , Double-Blind Method , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221084543, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794048

ABSTRACT

Background: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the key determinant of virological suppression in people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study reports factors associated with non-adherence among PLHIV one year after introducing dolutegravir (DTG) based regimens in Tanzania. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2020. Results: A total of 406 PLHIV were recruited, where the majority (73.4%) were females, with 94.6% of patients being on DTG based regimens. Factors such as refill interval and sharing of antiretrovirals had significant effects on adherence. Multivariate analysis found that patients attending care and treatment center (CTC) at Temeke Regional Referral Hospital (RRH) were 4.3 times more likely to have non-adherence compared to those attending Amana RRH (aOR [adjusted odds ratio] 4.3, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 2.38 - 7.91, p-value < 0.0001). Conclusions: Sustainable adherence counseling is warranted to overcome non-adherence to ART.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Male , Oxazines , Piperazines , Pyridones , Tanzania/epidemiology
3.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(3): e25885, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729149

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In December 2019, dolutegravir-based treatment was recommended as first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. Dolutegravir has clinically significant interactions with several commonly used drugs, such as rifampicin, metformin and cation-containing medicines. National guidelines detail these interactions and how to manage them. While previous international studies have shown low healthcare worker knowledge of drug-drug interactions, there is a paucity of information on antiretroviral interaction knowledge in the South African setting, where much ART is nurse-led. The study aimed to determine this knowledge and to describe which variables were associated with gaps in knowledge. METHODS: An anonymous online survey of healthcare workers in the field of HIV was conducted in August/September 2020. The survey was designed, tested and piloted, and included sections on demographics, guideline access and training, interaction knowledge, counselling and the effect of COVID-19. Dissemination was via e-mail and social media (convenience sampling). Descriptive and inferential analysis was done using proportions and the 95% confidence interval to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables. Research ethics approval was obtained from the University of Cape Town's Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC Ref: 357/2020). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In total, 1950 survey responses were included in the analysis - 47.1% nurses, 35.8% doctors and 8.9% pharmacists. When asked whether they were aware that dolutegravir has interactions, 70% said yes, 13.9% said no and 16.1% did not answer. Knowledge of specific interactions and the dosing changes needed was low with a wide range between different drugs: 79.7% knew to double the dolutegravir dose with rifampicin, but with calcium, 5.1% picked both correct dosing options and 33.7% picked one of the two correct options. Access to guidelines and training were positively associated with drug interaction knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: There are gaps in the awareness and knowledge of dolutegravir interactions and how to adjust dosing among South African healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Interactions , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Oxazines , Piperazines , Pyridones , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544300

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
6.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e3, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463908

ABSTRACT

A group of Vanguard Community Health Centre doctors embarked on a Health System's Improvement (HSI) project with the aim of reducing harm to renal function in patients who were either commenced on or switched to a dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen since 2019, when the usual monitoring and evaluation of ART-regimen switches were disrupted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This intended harm-reduction exercise, involving a reflective process that was facilitated by the family physician, led to the development of a Vanguard Renal Protection Surveillance tool, which is now used at Vanguard to detect and prevent renal decline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Kidney/physiology , Oxazines , Physicians, Family , Piperazines , Pyridones , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3587, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387350

ABSTRACT

There is a great need for the development of vaccines that induce potent and long-lasting protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Multimeric display of the antigen combined with potent adjuvant can enhance the potency and longevity of the antibody response. The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is a primary target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we developed a trimeric form of the RBD and show that it induces a potent neutralizing antibody response against live virus with diverse effector functions and provides protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice and rhesus macaques. The trimeric form induces higher neutralizing antibody titer compared to monomer with as low as 1µg antigen dose. In mice, adjuvanting the protein with a TLR7/8 agonist formulation alum-3M-052 induces 100-fold higher neutralizing antibody titer and superior protection from infection compared to alum. SARS-CoV-2 infection causes significant loss of innate cells and pathology in the lung, and vaccination protects from changes in innate cells and lung pathology. These results demonstrate RBD trimer protein as a suitable candidate for vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Stearic Acids/administration & dosage , Alum Compounds/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/immunology , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Stearic Acids/immunology
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(3): 977-987.e14, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary (week 16) results from the ongoing phase 3, double-blind AD Up study (NCT03568318) demonstrate a positive benefit-risk profile for upadacitinib + topical corticosteroid (TCS) in patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of upadacitinib + TCS through 52 weeks. METHODS: Patients aged 12 to 75 years with chronic moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (≥10% of body surface area affected, Eczema Area and Severity Index [EASI] ≥16, Validated Investigator's Global Assessment for atopic dermatitis [vIGA-AD] ≥3, and Worst Pruritus Numerical Rating Scale [WP-NRS] score ≥4) were randomized 1:1:1 to once-daily upadacitinib 15 mg + TCS, upadacitinib 30 mg + TCS, or placebo (PBO) + TCS (rerandomized at week 16 to upadacitinib + TCS). Safety and efficacy, including proportion of patients experiencing ≥75% improvement in EASI (EASI-75), vIGA-AD of clear/almost clear with improvement ≥2 grades (vIGA-AD 0/1), and WP-NRS improvement ≥4, were assessed through week 52. Missing data were primarily handled by nonresponse imputation incorporating multiple imputation for missing values due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: Of 901 patients, 300 were randomized to upadacitinib 15 mg + TCS, 297 to upadacitinib 30 mg + TCS, and 304 to PBO + TCS. For all end points, efficacy for upadacitinib 15 mg + TCS and upadacitinib 30 mg + TCS at week 16 was maintained through week 52. At week 52, the proportions of patients treated with upadacitinib 15 mg + TCS and upadacitinib 30 mg + TCS who experienced EASI-75 were 50.8% and 69.0%, respectively; 33.5% and 45.2%, respectively, experienced vIGA-AD 0/1; and 45.3% and 57.5%, respectively, experienced WP-NRS improvement ≥4. Upadacitinib + TCS was well tolerated through 52 weeks; no new important safety risks beyond the current label were observed. No deaths were reported; major adverse cardiovascular events and venous thromboembolic events were infrequent (≤0.2/100 patient-years). CONCLUSIONS: Results through 52 weeks demonstrate long-term maintenance of efficacy and a favorable safety profile of upadacitinib + TCS in patients with moderate-to-severe AD.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/administration & dosage , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Administration, Topical , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic/pathology , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306657

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
12.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(3): 561-567, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235720

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by lymphopenia as well as a proinflammatory cytokine storm, which are responsible for the poor prognosis and multiorgan defects. The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) modulates the functions of the immune cells and alters the gene expression profile of different cytokines in response to various pathogenic stimuli, while many proinflammatory factors have been known to induce NF-κB signalling cascade. Besides, NF-κB has been known to potentiate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to apoptosis in various tissues in many diseases and viral infections. Though the reports on the involvement of the NF-κB signalling pathway in COVID-19 are limited, the therapeutic benefits of NF-κB inhibitors including dexamethasone, a synthetic form of glucocorticoid, have increasingly been realized. Considering the fact, the abnormal activation of the NF-κB resulting from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection might be associated with the pathogenic profile of immune cells, cytokine storm and multiorgan defects. Thus, the pharmacological inactivation of the NF-κB signalling pathway can strongly represent a potential therapeutic target to treat the symptomatology of COVID-19. This article signifies pharmacological blockade of the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta (IKKß), a key downstream effector of NF-κB signalling, for a therapeutic consideration to attenuate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/trends , I-kappa B Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfones/administration & dosage
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1796-1804, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206820

ABSTRACT

Little evidence on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people living with HIV (PLWH) is currently available. We reported clinical and viroimmunological data of all HIV-positive patients admitted to our center with COVID-19 from March 1 to May 12, 2020. Overall, five patients were included: all were virologically-suppressed on antiretroviral therapy and CD4+ count was greater than 350 cell/mm3 in all but two patients. Although all patients had evidence of pneumonia on admission, only one developed respiratory failure. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was never detected from nasopharyngeal swabs in two patients, whereas in the others, viral clearance occurred within a maximum of 43 days. Immunoglobulin G production was elicited in all patients and neutralizing antibodies in all but one patient. Specific-T-cell response developed in all patients but was stronger in those with the more severe presentations. Similarly, the highest level of proinflammatory cytokines was found in the only patient experiencing respiratory failure. Despite a mild presentation, patients with more pronounced immunosuppression showed high degrees of both cytokines production and immune activation. Our study did not find an increased risk and severity of COVID-19 in PLWH. Adaptative cellular immune response to SARS-CoV-2 appeared to correlate to disease severity. The mild clinical picture showed in advanced HIV patients, despite a significant T-cell activation and inflammatory profile, suggests a potential role of HIV-driven immunological dysregulation in avoiding immune-pathogenetic processes. However, other possible explanations, as a protective role of certain antiretroviral drugs, should be considered. Further larger studies are needed to better clarify the impact of HIV infection on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Coinfection/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Transgender Persons
15.
Cell Calcium ; 94: 102360, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064903

ABSTRACT

Ion channels are necessary for correct lysosomal function including degradation of cargoes originating from endocytosis. Almost all enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs), enter host cells via endocytosis, and do not escape endosomal compartments into the cytoplasm (via fusion with the endolysosomal membrane) unless the virus-encoded envelope proteins are cleaved by lysosomal proteases. With the ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2, endolysosomal two-pore channels represent an exciting and emerging target for antiviral therapies. This review focuses on the latest knowledge of the effects of lysosomal ion channels on the cellular entry and uncoating of enveloped viruses, which may aid in development of novel therapies against emerging infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Ion Channels/physiology , Lysosomes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Envelope/physiology , Virus Internalization , Virus Uncoating , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design , Endocytosis , Endosomes/metabolism , Endosomes/virology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/pharmacology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrazones/pharmacology , Hydrazones/therapeutic use , Ion Channels/classification , Lysosomes/enzymology , Lysosomes/metabolism , Models, Biological , Morpholines/pharmacology , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Uncoating/drug effects
16.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(12): 1856-1861, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outbreak of COVID-19 has been recognized as a global health concern since it causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. No specific antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of COVID-19 till date. Drug repurposing strategy helps to find out the drugs for COVID-19 treatment from existing FDA approved antiviral drugs. In this study, FDA approved small molecule antiviral drugs were repurposed against the major viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The 3D structures of FDA approved small molecule antiviral drugs were retrieved from PubChem. Virtual screening was performed to find out the lead antiviral drug molecules against main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) using COVID-19 Docking Server. Furthermore, lead molecules were individually docked against protein targets using AutoDock 4.0.1 software and their drug-likeness and ADMET properties were evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 65 FDA approved small molecule antiviral drugs screened, Raltegravir showed highest interaction energy value of -9 kcal/mol against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 and Indinavir, Tipranavir, and Pibrentasvir exhibited a binding energy value of ≥-8 kcal/mol. Similarly Indinavir showed the highest binding energy of -11.5 kcal/mol against the target protein RdRp and Dolutegravir, Elbasvir, Tipranavir, Taltegravir, Grazoprevir, Daclatasvir, Glecaprevir, Ledipasvir, Pibrentasvir and Velpatasvir showed a binding energy value in range from -8 to -11.2 kcal/mol. The antiviral drugs Raltegravir, Indinavir, Tipranavir, Dolutegravir, and Etravirine also exhibited good bioavailability and drug-likeness properties. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the screened small molecule antiviral drugs Raltegravir, Indinavir, Tipranavir, Dolutegravir, and Etravirine could serve as potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 with further validation studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Drug Repositioning , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/pharmacology , Humans , Indinavir/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitriles/pharmacology , Oxazines/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Pyrones/pharmacology , Raltegravir Potassium/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
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