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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544300

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3587, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387350

ABSTRACT

There is a great need for the development of vaccines that induce potent and long-lasting protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Multimeric display of the antigen combined with potent adjuvant can enhance the potency and longevity of the antibody response. The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is a primary target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we developed a trimeric form of the RBD and show that it induces a potent neutralizing antibody response against live virus with diverse effector functions and provides protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice and rhesus macaques. The trimeric form induces higher neutralizing antibody titer compared to monomer with as low as 1µg antigen dose. In mice, adjuvanting the protein with a TLR7/8 agonist formulation alum-3M-052 induces 100-fold higher neutralizing antibody titer and superior protection from infection compared to alum. SARS-CoV-2 infection causes significant loss of innate cells and pathology in the lung, and vaccination protects from changes in innate cells and lung pathology. These results demonstrate RBD trimer protein as a suitable candidate for vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Stearic Acids/administration & dosage , Alum Compounds/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/immunology , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Stearic Acids/immunology
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(3): 977-987.e14, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary (week 16) results from the ongoing phase 3, double-blind AD Up study (NCT03568318) demonstrate a positive benefit-risk profile for upadacitinib + topical corticosteroid (TCS) in patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of upadacitinib + TCS through 52 weeks. METHODS: Patients aged 12 to 75 years with chronic moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (≥10% of body surface area affected, Eczema Area and Severity Index [EASI] ≥16, Validated Investigator's Global Assessment for atopic dermatitis [vIGA-AD] ≥3, and Worst Pruritus Numerical Rating Scale [WP-NRS] score ≥4) were randomized 1:1:1 to once-daily upadacitinib 15 mg + TCS, upadacitinib 30 mg + TCS, or placebo (PBO) + TCS (rerandomized at week 16 to upadacitinib + TCS). Safety and efficacy, including proportion of patients experiencing ≥75% improvement in EASI (EASI-75), vIGA-AD of clear/almost clear with improvement ≥2 grades (vIGA-AD 0/1), and WP-NRS improvement ≥4, were assessed through week 52. Missing data were primarily handled by nonresponse imputation incorporating multiple imputation for missing values due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: Of 901 patients, 300 were randomized to upadacitinib 15 mg + TCS, 297 to upadacitinib 30 mg + TCS, and 304 to PBO + TCS. For all end points, efficacy for upadacitinib 15 mg + TCS and upadacitinib 30 mg + TCS at week 16 was maintained through week 52. At week 52, the proportions of patients treated with upadacitinib 15 mg + TCS and upadacitinib 30 mg + TCS who experienced EASI-75 were 50.8% and 69.0%, respectively; 33.5% and 45.2%, respectively, experienced vIGA-AD 0/1; and 45.3% and 57.5%, respectively, experienced WP-NRS improvement ≥4. Upadacitinib + TCS was well tolerated through 52 weeks; no new important safety risks beyond the current label were observed. No deaths were reported; major adverse cardiovascular events and venous thromboembolic events were infrequent (≤0.2/100 patient-years). CONCLUSIONS: Results through 52 weeks demonstrate long-term maintenance of efficacy and a favorable safety profile of upadacitinib + TCS in patients with moderate-to-severe AD.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/administration & dosage , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Administration, Topical , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic/pathology , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306657

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
5.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(3): 561-567, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235720

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by lymphopenia as well as a proinflammatory cytokine storm, which are responsible for the poor prognosis and multiorgan defects. The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) modulates the functions of the immune cells and alters the gene expression profile of different cytokines in response to various pathogenic stimuli, while many proinflammatory factors have been known to induce NF-κB signalling cascade. Besides, NF-κB has been known to potentiate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to apoptosis in various tissues in many diseases and viral infections. Though the reports on the involvement of the NF-κB signalling pathway in COVID-19 are limited, the therapeutic benefits of NF-κB inhibitors including dexamethasone, a synthetic form of glucocorticoid, have increasingly been realized. Considering the fact, the abnormal activation of the NF-κB resulting from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection might be associated with the pathogenic profile of immune cells, cytokine storm and multiorgan defects. Thus, the pharmacological inactivation of the NF-κB signalling pathway can strongly represent a potential therapeutic target to treat the symptomatology of COVID-19. This article signifies pharmacological blockade of the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta (IKKß), a key downstream effector of NF-κB signalling, for a therapeutic consideration to attenuate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/trends , I-kappa B Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfones/administration & dosage
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