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1.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071840

ABSTRACT

Host-virus protein interactions are critical for intracellular viral propagation. Understanding the interactions between cellular and viral proteins may help us develop new antiviral strategies. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious coronavirus that causes severe damage to the global swine industry. Here, we employed co-immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize 426 unique PEDV nucleocapsid (N) protein-binding proteins in infected Vero cells. A protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was created, and gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analyses revealed that the PEDV N-bound proteins belong to different cellular pathways, such as nucleic acid binding, ribonucleoprotein complex binding, RNA methyltransferase, and polymerase activities. Interactions of the PEDV N protein with 11 putative proteins: tripartite motif containing 21, DEAD-box RNA helicase 24, G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1, heat shock protein family A member 8, heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1, YTH domain containing 1, nucleolin, Y-box binding protein 1, vimentin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, and karyopherin subunit alpha 1, were further confirmed by in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay. In summary, studying an interaction network can facilitate the identification of antiviral therapeutic strategies and novel targets for PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Swine , Animals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Vimentin/metabolism , Vero Cells , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Karyopherins/metabolism , Nucleic Acids/metabolism
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 989298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065518

ABSTRACT

The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a diverse family of RNA binding proteins that are implicated in RNA metabolism, such as alternative splicing, mRNA stabilization and translational regulation. According to their different cellular localization, hnRNPs display multiple functions. Most hnRNPs were predominantly located in the nucleus, but some of them could redistribute to the cytoplasm during virus infection. HnRNPs consist of different domains and motifs that enable these proteins to recognize predetermined nucleotide sequences. In the virus-host interactions, hnRNPs specifically bind to viral RNA or proteins. And some of the viral protein-hnRNP interactions require the viral RNA or other host factors as the intermediate. Through various mechanisms, hnRNPs could regulate viral translation, viral genome replication, the switch of translation to replication and virion release. This review highlights the common features and the distinguish roles of hnRNPs in the life cycle of positive single-stranded RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses , Animals , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Life Cycle Stages , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins , Viral Proteins/metabolism
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2121453119, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960614

ABSTRACT

Human ZAP inhibits many viruses, including HIV and coronaviruses, by binding to viral RNAs to promote their degradation and/or translation suppression. However, the regulatory role of ZAP in host mRNAs is largely unknown. Two major alternatively spliced ZAP isoforms, the constitutively expressed ZAPL and the infection-inducible ZAPS, play overlapping yet different antiviral and other roles that need further characterization. We found that the splicing factors hnRNPA1/A2, PTBP1/2, and U1-snRNP inhibit ZAPS production and demonstrated the feasibility to modulate the ZAPL/S balance by splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides in human cells. Transcriptomic analysis of ZAP-isoform-specific knockout cells revealed uncharacterized host mRNAs targeted by ZAPL/S with broad cellular functions such as unfolded protein response (UPR), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and innate immunity. We established that endogenous ZAPL and ZAPS localize to membrane compartments and cytosol, respectively, and that the differential localization correlates with their target-RNA specificity. We showed that the ZAP isoforms regulated different UPR branches under resting and stress conditions and affected cell viability during ER stress. We also provided evidence for a different function of the ZAP isoforms in EMT-related cell migration, with effects that are cell-type dependent. Overall, this study demonstrates that the competition between splicing and IPA is a potential target for the modulation of the ZAPL/S balance, and reports new cellular transcripts and processes regulated by the ZAP isoforms.


Subject(s)
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Viral , RNA-Binding Proteins , Unfolded Protein Response , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein/genetics , Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear/metabolism
4.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 53(9): 1134-1141, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280062

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global health threat since December 2019, and there is still no highly effective drug to control the pandemic. To facilitate drug target identification for drug development, studies on molecular mechanisms, such as SARS-CoV-2 protein interactions, are urgently needed. In this study, we focused on Nsp2, a non-structural protein with largely unknown function and mechanism. The interactome of Nsp2 was revealed through the combination of affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), and 84 proteins of high-confidence were identified. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that Nsp2-interacting proteins are involved in several biological processes such as endosome transport and translation. Network analysis generated two clusters, including ribosome assembly and vesicular transport. Bio-layer interferometry (BLI) assay confirmed the bindings between Nsp2- and 4-interacting proteins, i.e. STAU2 (Staufen2), HNRNPLL, ATP6V1B2, and RAP1GDS1 (SmgGDS), which were randomly selected from the list of 84 proteins. Our findings provide insights into the Nsp2-host interplay and indicate that Nsp2 may play important roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection and serve as a potential drug target for anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/chemistry , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/chemistry , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/chemistry , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 125, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654479

ABSTRACT

Stress proteins (SPs) including heat-shock proteins (HSPs), RNA chaperones, and ER associated stress proteins are molecular chaperones essential for cellular homeostasis. The major functions of HSPs include chaperoning misfolded or unfolded polypeptides, protecting cells from toxic stress, and presenting immune and inflammatory cytokines. Regarded as a double-edged sword, HSPs also cooperate with numerous viruses and cancer cells to promote their survival. RNA chaperones are a group of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), which are essential factors for manipulating both the functions and metabolisms of pre-mRNAs/hnRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase II. hnRNPs involve in a large number of cellular processes, including chromatin remodelling, transcription regulation, RNP assembly and stabilization, RNA export, virus replication, histone-like nucleoid structuring, and even intracellular immunity. Dysregulation of stress proteins is associated with many human diseases including human cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's diseases, Alzheimer disease), stroke and infectious diseases. In this review, we summarized the biologic function of stress proteins, and current progress on their mechanisms related to virus reproduction and diseases caused by virus infections. As SPs also attract a great interest as potential antiviral targets (e.g., COVID-19), we also discuss the present progress and challenges in this area of HSP-based drug development, as well as with compounds already under clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Heat-Shock Proteins/agonists , Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/agonists , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA Polymerase II/genetics , RNA Polymerase II/metabolism , RNA Precursors/genetics , RNA Precursors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
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